The Columbian was a named passenger train operated by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. It was the all-coach supplemental train of the all-Pullman Capitol Limited. The train's initial route was between Jersey City, New Jersey and Washington, D.C., but in 1941 the Columbian route was lengthened to Jersey Illinois.
In 1949, a brand new lightweight Columbian train set for travel between Baltimore, Maryland, via Washington to Chicago was built. The consists were ordered from Pullman-Standard for April, 1949 delivery and these two train sets have the distinction of being the only all-new consists built for the B&O in the postwar period. These two eight–car streamlined trains were the only trains in the eastern U.S. to be equipped with dome cars. Although the pair were intended as a daytime operation between Chicago and Baltimore by way of Washington the two new trains entered overnight service May 5, 1949.
On April 26, 1958, the B&O discontinued all passenger service between Jersey City and Baltimore, Maryland, and thereafter the eastern terminus of the Columbian was Baltimore. By the early 1960s, the Columbian was combined with the B&O's formerly all-Pullman Capitol Limited between Washington and Chicago. When Amtrak took over train service on May 1, 1971, the B&O's combined Capitol Limited – Columbian was discontinued, along with all other B&O long-distance passenger trains.