The Louie B. Nunn Cumberland Parkway runs through Columbia as it extends from Bowling Green, KY to Somerset, KY. This Parkway is a future Corridor of Interstate 66. The addition of an interchange with a 2006 reconstruction of Highway 61 South, Columbia now has two exits on the Parkway.
Exit 49, the original exit on the parkway, merges onto Highway 55 South (also known as Jamestown Street) bringing drivers through the middle of Columbia.
Exit 46, the new exit, merges onto Highway 61 South (also known as Burkesville Street/Road) and drivers can choose to go to Burkesville or drive north to the City Square, where the County Courthouse is a center piece.
Currently a Highway 55 Bypass is being constructed, for more information see below.
Columbia is also the home of Lindsey Wilson College, a private four year college.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.4 square miles (8.9 km²), all of it land. Official revisions have been made to the total area of the city as at least eight annexations have occurred since November 4th, 2004.
The eight annexations since November 4th, 2004 are as follows:
Tony and Orvis Grider, .58 acres Ronnie Janes, Jamestown ST, 1.51 acres
Highway 55 North, from Day & Day Feed Mill to and including the new Adair County Regional Jail minimum security facility, 5.04 acres
Adair County Board of Education, 6.94 acres
Adair County Board of Education, 20.00 acres
Adair County Board of Education, 25.00 acres
Highway 55 North & Grant Lane, 26.46 acres (the new Bank District on North 55 near Columbia Bypass route)
Highway 61 South, 185.19 acres (the new Holladay Place Shopping Center, future home of Wal-Mart Supercenter)
There were 1,554 households out of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 39.9% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 42.5% were non-families. 40.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 22.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.12 and the average family size was 2.84.
In the city the population was spread out with 18.0% under the age of 18, 19.1% from 18 to 24, 23.1% from 25 to 44, 19.1% from 45 to 64, and 20.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 83.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $22,861, and the median income for a family was $31,344. Males had a median income of $23,906 versus $21,000 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,836. About 19.9% of families and 26.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 39.4% of those under age 18 and 17.9% of those age 65 or over.
The higher education presence is Lindsey Wilson College.