This approach to mathematics in general was preceded by the study of human cognitive bias in probabilistic reasoning and economic contexts, most notably by Amos Tversky and Daniel Kahneman. Such biases affect economic measurement, perceived financial risk, and ground the field of behavioral finance. This work suggests that mathematical practice has little direct relevance to how people think about mathematical situations. If human intuition is inconsistent with formal mathematics, this gives rise to the question of where formal mathematics comes from.
The book Where Mathematics Comes From (George Lakoff, Rafael E. Núñez, 2000) is an accessible and controversial introduction to the subject. It culminates with a case study of Euler's identity; the authors argue that this identity reflects a cognitive structure peculiar to humans or to their close relatives, the hominids.