Cobla (Occitan literary term)

Tornada (Occitan literary term)

A tornada (Occitan for "turned" or "twisted"), in lyric poetry, refers to a final, shorter stanza (cobla) which is addressed to a patron, lady, or friend. They often contain useful information about the piece's composition (place and date) and the troubadour's circle.


  • Aubrey, Elizabeth. The Music of the Troubadours. Indiana University Press, 1996. ISBN 0 253 21389 4.
  • Gaunt, Simon, and Kay, Sarah (edd.) The Troubadours: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0 521 574730.

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