Odets, Clifford, 1906-63, American dramatist, b. Philadelphia. After graduating from high school he became an actor and in 1931 joined the Group Theatre. Turning his attention from acting to playwriting, Odets soon came to be regarded as the most gifted of the American naturalistic social-protest dramatists of the 1930s. His first work for the Group, Waiting for Lefty (1935), a vernacular, Marxian drama of the awakening and insurgency of the impoverished working classes, aroused immediate international attention. Awake and Sing (1935), his first full-length play and widely considered his best work, compassionately portrays the struggles and rebellion of a financially destitute Jewish-American family. Other plays include Till the Day I Die (1935), Paradise Lost (1935), Golden Boy (1937), Night Music (1939), and Clash by Night (1942). Odets spent many years in Hollywood writing film scripts, e.g., Sweet Smell of Success (1957). In his later plays he turned from social drama to self-conscious dramas of the individual, such as The Big Knife (1949), The Country Girl (1950), and The Flowering Peach (1954).

See The Time is Ripe: The 1940 Journal of Clifford Odets (1988); biographies by E. Murray (1968), G. C. Weales (1971), G. Miller (1989), and M. Brenman-Gibson (2002); studies by M. J. Mendelsohn (1969), H. Cantor (1978, repr. 2000), G. Miller, ed. (1991), and C. J. Herr (2003).

Clifford, Clark McAdams, 1906-98, U.S. government official, b. Fort Scott, Kans. Admitted to the bar in 1928, he engaged in private practice before serving (1944-46) in the U.S. navy. As special adviser (1946-50) to President Harry S. Truman, Clifford was influential in foreign policy, defense, and labor matters; he helped to formulate the Truman Doctrine (1947) and the legislation that created (1949) the Department of Defense. He also planned Truman's successful 1948 campaign strategy. After another period of private law practice, Clifford served (1961-63) as a foreign policy adviser to President John F. Kennedy and then became (1963) chairman of the Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board. In this capacity he supervised all U.S. espionage operations and played a crucial role in determining U.S. policy in Vietnam. As Secretary of Defense (1968-69) in Lyndon B. Johnson's cabinet, Clifford came to oppose further American participation in the Vietnam War, concluding that it was unwinnable. He went on to become a wealthy corporate lawyer. Clifford was chairman (1982-91) of First American Bankshares, which was secretly and illegally owned by the foreign Bank of Credit and Commerce International (BCCI). In 1992 he was indicted on charges stemming from BCCI's secret ownership of First American, but the charges were dismissed (1993) for health reasons.

See his autobiography (1991); see also D. Frantz and D. McKean, Friends in High Places (1995).

Shull, Clifford, 1915-2001, American physicist, b. Pittsburgh, Pa. Educated at Carnegie Institute of Technology (now Carnegie Mellon University) and New York Univ. (Ph.D., 1941), Shull was on the staff of the Texas Company (1941-46) and the Clinton Laboratories (1946-55; Oak Ridge National Laboratory after 1948) before joining the faculty at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (1955-86). While at Oak Ridge he showed that a beam of neutrons directed at a sample of a given material is scattered by the atoms in the material, and that a diffraction pattern can be obtained that indicates the positions of the atoms. Determining the locations of the atoms in a material and their interactions with one another is vital to an understanding of the properties of that material. For his work on neutron diffraction Shull shared the 1994 Nobel Prize in Physics with B. N. Brockhouse.
Clifford is a town in Flat Rock Township, Bartholomew County, Indiana, United States. The population was 291 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Columbus, Indiana metropolitan statistical area.


Clifford is located at (39.281574, -85.869863).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.1 square miles (0.3 km²), all of it land.


As of the census of 2000, there were 291 people, 109 households, and 78 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,899.4 people per square mile (1,123.6/km²). There were 116 housing units at an average density of 1,155.8/sq mi (447.9/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 95.53% White, 1.72% from other races, and 2.75% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.37% of the population.

There were 109 households out of which 41.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.2% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.4% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.15.

In the town the population was spread out with 32.0% under the age of 18, 11.0% from 18 to 24, 33.3% from 25 to 44, 16.5% from 45 to 64, and 7.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 29 years. For every 100 females there were 110.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.0 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $25,000, and the median income for a family was $37,917. Males had a median income of $27,679 versus $23,750 for females. The per capita income for the town was $13,132. About 9.2% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 21.8% of those under the age of eighteen and 24.2% of those sixty five or over.


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