Clayton

Clayton

[kleyt-n]
Clayton, Henry De Lamar, 1857-1929, U.S. congressman, b. Barbour co., Ala. A Democrat, he was a member of the House of Representatives from 1897 to 1915 and later a federal district judge. He is chiefly remembered as the author of the Clayton Antitrust Act.
Clayton, John Middleton, 1796-1856, American statesman, b. Sussex co., Del. Admitted (1819) to the bar, he practiced at Dover, Del., held many state offices, and was twice (1828, 1845) elected to the U.S. Senate. In the presidential election of 1848 he gave his support to Zachary Taylor and was rewarded with the position of Secretary of State, an office he held until Taylor's death in 1850. As Secretary of State he negotiated the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty, which checked British expansion in Central America and temporarily settled a rivalry that had brought England and the United States into conflict. He reentered the Senate in 1852.
Clayton, city (1990 pop. 13,874), seat of St. Louis co., E central Mo., a suburb of St. Louis; inc. 1919. Developed in the 1960s, it has high-rise office buildings, hotels, and shopping centers; several major firms are headquartered there.

(born Oct. 3, 1900, Asheville, N.C., U.S.—died Sept. 15, 1938, Baltimore, Md.) U.S. writer. Wolfe studied at the University of North Carolina and in 1923 moved to New York City, where he taught at New York University while writing plays. Look Homeward, Angel (1929), his first and best-known novel, and Of Time and the River (1935) are thinly veiled autobiographies. In The Story of a Novel (1936) he describes his close working relationship with the editor Maxwell Perkins, who helped him shape the chaotic manuscripts for his first two books into publishable form. His short stories were collected in From Death to Morning (1935). After his death at age 37 from tuberculosis, the novels The Web and the Rock (1939) and You Can't Go Home Again (1940) were among the works extracted from the manuscripts he left.

Learn more about Wolfe, Thomas (Clayton) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 29, 1893, Walkerton, Ind., U.S.—died Jan. 5, 1981, La Jolla, Calif.) U.S. scientist. He received his doctorate from the University of California at Berkeley and thereafter taught at various universities. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1934 for discovering deuterium and heavy water. He was a key figure in the development of the atomic bomb; his group worked on the gaseous diffusion process for separation of uranium-235. He devised methods for estimating the temperature of ancient oceans, theorized on the compositions of primordial atmospheres, and studied the relative abundances of the elements, making fundamental contributions to a widely accepted theory of the origin of the Earth and other planets in The Planets, (1952).

Learn more about Urey, Harold C(layton) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 3, 1900, Asheville, N.C., U.S.—died Sept. 15, 1938, Baltimore, Md.) U.S. writer. Wolfe studied at the University of North Carolina and in 1923 moved to New York City, where he taught at New York University while writing plays. Look Homeward, Angel (1929), his first and best-known novel, and Of Time and the River (1935) are thinly veiled autobiographies. In The Story of a Novel (1936) he describes his close working relationship with the editor Maxwell Perkins, who helped him shape the chaotic manuscripts for his first two books into publishable form. His short stories were collected in From Death to Morning (1935). After his death at age 37 from tuberculosis, the novels The Web and the Rock (1939) and You Can't Go Home Again (1940) were among the works extracted from the manuscripts he left.

Learn more about Wolfe, Thomas (Clayton) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 29, 1908, New Haven, Conn., U.S.—died April 4, 1972, Miami, Fla.) U.S. politician. In 1937 he succeeded his father as pastor of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, New York City, and built its membership to 13,000. Elected to the New York City Council in 1941, he became the first African American to serve on that body. In the U.S. House of Representatives (1945–67, 1969–71), he sponsored much social-welfare legislation, including a minimum wage act, antipoverty acts, and bills providing federal aid to education. Known for his flamboyance and his lack of concern for House decorum, he was the target of a libel suit and was investigated for financial misconduct. In 1967 the House voted to exclude him, but the U.S. Supreme Court later ruled that the House's action was unconstitutional.

Learn more about Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr. with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 24, 1796, Dagsboro, Del., U.S.—died Nov. 9, 1856, Dover, Del.) U.S. politician. He served as Delaware's secretary of state (1826–28) and chief justice (1837). He also represented Delaware in the U.S. Senate (1829–36, 1845–49). As U.S. secretary of state (1849–50) under Pres. Zachary Taylor, he negotiated the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

Learn more about Clayton, John Middleton with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 29, 1893, Walkerton, Ind., U.S.—died Jan. 5, 1981, La Jolla, Calif.) U.S. scientist. He received his doctorate from the University of California at Berkeley and thereafter taught at various universities. He was awarded a Nobel Prize in 1934 for discovering deuterium and heavy water. He was a key figure in the development of the atomic bomb; his group worked on the gaseous diffusion process for separation of uranium-235. He devised methods for estimating the temperature of ancient oceans, theorized on the compositions of primordial atmospheres, and studied the relative abundances of the elements, making fundamental contributions to a widely accepted theory of the origin of the Earth and other planets in The Planets, (1952).

Learn more about Urey, Harold C(layton) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(1850) Compromise agreement designed to harmonize contending British and U.S. interests in Central America. The treaty provided that the two countries jointly control and protect what was to become the Panama Canal. The Clayton-Bulwer treaty was superseded in 1901 by the Hay-Pauncefote Treaty, under which the British government agreed to allow the U.S. to construct and control the canal.

Learn more about Clayton-Bulwer Treaty with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born July 24, 1796, Dagsboro, Del., U.S.—died Nov. 9, 1856, Dover, Del.) U.S. politician. He served as Delaware's secretary of state (1826–28) and chief justice (1837). He also represented Delaware in the U.S. Senate (1829–36, 1845–49). As U.S. secretary of state (1849–50) under Pres. Zachary Taylor, he negotiated the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty.

Learn more about Clayton, John Middleton with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Nov. 29, 1908, New Haven, Conn., U.S.—died April 4, 1972, Miami, Fla.) U.S. politician. In 1937 he succeeded his father as pastor of the Abyssinian Baptist Church in Harlem, New York City, and built its membership to 13,000. Elected to the New York City Council in 1941, he became the first African American to serve on that body. In the U.S. House of Representatives (1945–67, 1969–71), he sponsored much social-welfare legislation, including a minimum wage act, antipoverty acts, and bills providing federal aid to education. Known for his flamboyance and his lack of concern for House decorum, he was the target of a libel suit and was investigated for financial misconduct. In 1967 the House voted to exclude him, but the U.S. Supreme Court later ruled that the House's action was unconstitutional.

Learn more about Powell, Adam Clayton, Jr. with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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