In upper lobar breathing, clavicular breathing or clavicle breathing air is drawn predominantly into the chest by the raising of the shoulders and collarbone (clavicles), and simultaneous contracting of the abdomen during inhalation. Maximum amount of air can be drawn this way only for short periods of time, since it requires a lot of effort. When used for prolonged time, this is the most superficial mode of shallow breathing.
Shallow breathing, also known medically as hypercapnia, may result in hypoventilation, not hyperventilation, resulting in a build up of carbon dioxide. It's a condition related to neuro-muscular disorders - NMDs - that include ALS, Muscular Dystrophy, Polio, Post-Polio Syndrome, and other NMDs affecting the neuro-muscular system. It is a serious condition if not diagnosed properly, or if it's ignored. It is often treated as a "sleep disorder" after a sleep study performed, but "...sleep studies cannot diagnose shallow breathing (JR Bach, M.D.)." Serious symptoms arise most commonly during sleep; however, because when the body sleeps, the intercostal muscles do not perform the breathing for mechanism, it's done by the diaphragm, which is often impaired in people with NMDs.
Very often, after a sleep study, when someone's been unsuccessfully using a CPAP or BIPAP, they are prescribed nasal oxygen at night--that should never be used without clear evidence of oxygen level at or below 94%; the non-judicious use of oxygen (which is a prescribed drug) may cause brain damage.
Additionally, polio survivors with breathing conditons and others with NMDs may be given a tracheostomy (a surgical opening for breathing made in the neck) but that may not be needed. Any one with symptoms arising during sleep must seek out specialists in neuro-muscular breathing conditons or contact their local Polio, ALS, or MD clinics (ref. www.post-polio.org; http://www.postpolioinfo.com;http://www.ventusers.org/edu/valnews/VAL_22-1sp08p6-7.pdf;http://www.ppsmanager.com/aboutPPS.html; Pubmed Search: bach jr md).
The test to determine shallow breathing as such is simple, and can be carried out at the bedside by a knowledgeable state licensed respiratory therapist (ref: www.aarc.org).
One of the foremost pioneers on this condition was Dr. Oppenheimer, who passed away recently in California (http://www.aarc.org/headlines/dr_oppenheimer.cfm). His writings are definitive, and extend to the few caring, astute non-profits that are trying to save the lives of those with NMD-related breathing impairment. Project Blue Whale is now taking breathing conditons worldwide to increase awareness and early detection, with advocacy.
E References .A.Oppenheimer, MD, FCCP, Pulmonary Medicine, Southern California Permanente Medical Group, 4950 Sunset Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90027-5822 (firstname.lastname@example.org). Bach, J.R. (1999). Guide to the evaluation and management of neuromuscular disease. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus. Gay, PC., & Edmonds, L.C. (1995). Severe hypercapnia after low-flow oxygen therapy in patients with neuromuscular disease and diaphragmatic dysfunction. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 70(4), 327-330. Hsu, A., & Staats, B. (1998). "Postpolio" sequelae and sleep-related disordered breathing. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 73, 216-224. Krachman, S., & Criner, G.J. (1998). Hypoventilation syndromes. Clinics in Chest Medicine, 19(l),139-155.
see also Thoracic cavity