Wissler, Clark, 1870-1947, American anthropologist, b. Wayne, Ind., grad. Indiana Univ., 1897, Ph.D. Columbia, 1901. At first a teacher of psychology, he became interested in anthropology under Franz Boas at Columbia. In 1902 he began an affiliation with the American Museum of Natural History that lasted until his retirement in 1942. Wissler increased ethnographic studies by sending out numerous field expeditions and by launching an ambitious publication program of which he was editor. His interest in the geographical foundations and regional distribution of culture led him to the concept of "culture area" that has played an important role in the ordering and interpretation of ethnographic data. Wissler was associated with Yale from 1924 to 1940, first with the new Institute of Psychology and later with its successor, the Institute of Human Relations. He became the first professor in the department of anthropology established at Yale in 1931. In addition to numerous monographs, his works include North American Indians of the Plains (1912, 4th ed. 1948), The American Indian (1917, 3d ed. 1957), The Relation of Nature to Man in Aboriginal America (1926), and Indians of the United States (1949).
Clark, Abraham, 1726-94, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Elizabethtown (now Elizabeth), N.J. After holding several local offices, Clark became, at the beginning of the American Revolution, a member and later secretary of the New Jersey committee of safety. He was a member (1775) of the New Jersey provincial congress, which appointed him (1776) delegate to the Continental Congress. Clark served three terms in Congress (1776-78, 1779-83, 1787-89), and in the interim periods he served in the New Jersey legislature.
Clark, Alvan, 1804-87, American astronomer and maker of astronomical lenses, b. Ashfield, Mass. In 1846 the firm of Alvan Clark & Sons was established at Cambridgeport, Mass.; it became famous as the manufacturer of the largest and finest telescope lenses. The first achromatic lenses made in the United States were produced there. Clark's son, Alvan Graham Clark, 1832-97, b. Fall River, Mass., became a partner in the business. Among lenses made under his direction are the 26-in. lens at the U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington, D.C.; the 36-in. lens at Lick Observatory, California; and the 40-in. lens at Yerkes Observatory, Wisconsin, which is the largest refracting telescope in the world. The younger Clark discovered a number of double stars as well as the companion star of Sirius.
Clark, Champ, 1850-1921, American legislator, b. near Lawrenceburg, Ky. His full name was James Beauchamp Clark. After a career as lawyer, newspaper editor, and politician in Missouri, he was (1893-95, 1897-1921) a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, becoming (1907) Democratic leader. He organized (1910) the successful fight against Speaker Joseph Cannon and his arbitrary control of legislative procedure. Clark served as speaker from 1911 to 1919. At the Democratic convention in 1912 he was the leading candidate for the Democratic nomination for President until William Jennings Bryan shifted his support to Woodrow Wilson.

See his autobiographical My Quarter Century of American Politics (1920, repr. 1969).

Clark, Colin, 1905-89, British economist. A statistics professor at Cambridge (1931-37), he taught in Australia and Great Britain until 1952, serving as economic adviser to the governments of both nations. Widely noted for his groundbreaking work in economic statistics and national income estimates, Clark was also among the first economists to use gross national product rather than national income as the basis of his studies. His best known work is The Conditions of Economic Progress (1940, repr. 1982).
Clark, Francis Edward, 1851-1927, American Congregational clergyman, founder of Christian Endeavor. He was born of American parents in Aylmer, Que., and was graduated from Dartmouth College in 1873. While serving as pastor of the Williston Congregational Church in Portland, Maine, he organized (1881) the first Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor. He was a lifelong leader in this movement.
Clark, George Rogers, 1752-1818, American Revolutionary general, conqueror of the Old Northwest, b. near Charlottesville, Va.; brother of William Clark. A surveyor, he was interested in Western lands, served (1774) in Lord Dunmore's War (see Dunmore, John Murray, 4th earl of), and later went to what is now Kentucky for the Ohio Company. In 1776 he secured the Virginia legislature's assertion of sovereignty over the Kentucky region, thereby obtaining military and financial support. He returned in time to repel British and Native American attacks on Harrodsburg, Ky., and other posts.

In 1778, Clark made plans for aggressive action against the British in the Old Northwest and, going to Virginia, persuaded Gov. Patrick Henry and his council to send an expedition. At its head, he swept into the Illinois country and took the British-held settlements of Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Vincennes. The British under Gen. Henry Hamilton advanced from Detroit and retook Vincennes after Clark had left. Winter and Ohio floods halted Hamilton there, but Clark and his men, defying cruel conditions of cold and hardship, braved the flooded bottom lands to return to Vincennes. With the heroic aid of Francis Vigo, François Bosseron, and Father Gibault, he struck at the British fort and surprised and captured Hamilton and the garrison in Feb., 1779. After this, the greatest of his exploits, Clark hoped to capture Detroit, but adequate supplies never came from Virginia to the fort he had built (Fort Nelson, where Louisville now stands), and he remained inactive.

In 1782 the British and Native Americans disastrously defeated the Kentuckians in the battle of Blue Licks. The ensuing unrest led Clark, who had not taken part in the battle, to lead another expedition northward against the Native Americans and again establish control of the region. His services had been rewarded by the rank of brigadier general in the Virginia militia, and he was made an Indian commissioner. In 1786 he led another expedition against the Native Americans in Ohio. His own narrative of the capture of Vincennes is in Milo M. Quaife, ed., The Capture of Old Vincennes (1927).

See biographies by J. A. James (1928, repr. 1970) and J. Bakeless (1957); A. W. Derleth, Vincennes: Portal to the West (1968).

Clark, Helen, 1950-, New Zealand politician, prime minister (1999-2008), b. Hamilton, N.Z. A graduate of the Univ. of Auckland (B.A., 1971; M.A., 1974), she taught political science there (1973-81). In 1981 she was elected to parliament as a member of the Labor party. Clark held various cabinet posts (1987-90) and served deputy prime minister (1989-90). Named party leader in 1993, she led the party to victory in 1999 and became prime minister of a coalition government; Labor retained power in 2002 and 2005. In office, Clark increased government spending, boosted the economy, nationalized lands claimed by Maoris, championed a national antinuclear policy, and refused to join the U.S.-led war against Iraq. Following Labor's 2008 loss to the National party, she resigned as party leader. In 2009 Clark was appointed to a four-year term as administrator of the United Nations Development Program.
Clark, Joe (Charles Joseph Clark), 1939-, prime minister of Canada (1979-80), b. High River, Alta. He entered the Canadian House of Commons from Alberta in 1972 and became leader of the Progressive Conservative party in 1976. In the 1979 elections he led his party to victory and briefly replaced Pierre Trudeau as prime minister. His election represented the new political importance of W Canada, especially oil-rich Alberta. Brian Mulroney replaced him as party leader in 1983. Clark served as external affairs minister (1984-91) and constitutional affairs minister (1991-93) under Mulroney. Clark left politics in 1993; UN Secretary-General Boutros-Ghali appointed him special UN representative for Cyprus. In 1998, Clark again became leader of the Progressive Conservatives, who faced a strong challenge on the right from the Reform party (now the Canadian Alliance), and in 2000 he was elected to parliament from Nova Scotia. Clark resigned as party leader in 2003, and became an independent later that year when the party joined the Canadian Alliance to form the Conservative party of Canada. He retired in 2004.
Clark, John, 1766-1832, governor of Georgia (1819-23), b. Edgecomb co., N.C. As a boy he served with his father, Elijah Clarke, in the American Revolution and afterward won distinction as an Indian fighter. He became the hero and leader of the democratic frontiersmen of Georgia in their political struggle with the planters of the coast and the wealthy farmers of the uplands. As governor, he proposed (1821) an amendment to the state constitution to provide for the popular election of governors; it was finally adopted in 1824.
Clark, John Bates, 1847-1938, American economist, b. Providence, R.I. He studied economics in the U.S. and Germany, and taught at Columbia Univ. and several other colleges in the United States. In 1885 he helped found the American Economic Association, serving as its president (1893-95). Clark's best-known work, The Distribution of Wealth (1899), outlined his theory of marginal productivity, based on an ideal of competitive equilibrium without dynamic change. By the breadth of his work and contributions to economics, Clark became the first American economist to achieve international distinction.
Clark, Jonas Gilman, 1815-1900, founder of Clark Univ., b. Hubbardston, Mass. After a long career in business and finance, he became interested in higher education, making extended trips of observation abroad and interviewing American college presidents. In 1887 he founded Clark Univ. at Worcester, Mass., with an endowment of $1 million, to which, by his will, was added his residuary estate for the establishment of Clark College, the undergraduate school.
Clark, Kenneth Bancroft, 1914-2005, American psychologist and educator, b. Panama Canal Zone, grad. Howard (B.A., 1935) and Columbia (Ph.D., 1940). Clark taught psychology at Howard (1937-38) and at Hampton Institute (1940-41). He was the first African American to be a full tenured professor (1960) at the City College of New York, where he taught from 1942 to 1975, and to be a member of the New York State Board of Regents (1966-86). Clark was the author of a 1950 report on racial discrimination that was cited in the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court decision Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kans. An early leader in the civil-rights movement, he founded the Northside Center for Child Development (1946) and Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited (Haryou, 1962). His works include Prejudice and Your Child (1955), Dark Ghetto (1965), A Possible Reality (1972), and Pathos of Power (1974).
Clark, Kenneth MacKenzie (Lord Clark of Saltwood), 1903-83, English art historian. After working with Bernard Berenson in Florence, Clark was keeper of the department of fine art at the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford (1931-34). From 1934 to 1945 he was the director of the National Gallery, London, and thereafter Slade professor of fine arts at Oxford until 1950 and from 1961 to 1962. He became chairman of the Arts Council of Great Britain from 1955 to 1960. Among Clark's outstanding writings are two studies on Leonardo da Vinci, The Drawings at Windsor Castle (1935, with Carlo Pedretti) and Leonardo da Vinci (2d ed. 1952); a study of the paintings of Piero della Francesca (2d ed. 1969); Landscape into Art (1949); The Nude (1955); Rembrandt and the Italian Renaissance (1966); and The Romantic Rebellion (1974). His cultural survey Civilisation (1970) is based on his popular lecture series for television.

See biography by M. Secrest (1985); bibliography, ed. by R. M. Slythe (rev. ed. 1971).

Clark, Lewis Gaylord, 1808?-1873, American editor and writer, b. near Syracuse, N.Y. He was the editor (1834-60) of the Knickerbocker Magazine and made it a leading literary publication of its day. He wrote Knickerbocker Sketch-Book (1845) and Knick-Knacks from an Editor's Table (1852). His twin brother, Willis Gaylord Clark, 1808?-1841, was coeditor (1834-41) of the Knickerbocker. His Literary Remains (1844) includes the sketches and verse that he contributed to the magazine.

See The Letters of Willis Gaylord Clark and Lewis Gaylord Clark (ed. by L. W. Dunlop, 1940).

Clark, Mark Wayne, 1896-1984, U.S. general, b. Madison Barracks, N.Y. A West Point graduate, he served as a captain in World War I and rose to become (1942) army ground forces chief of staff. During World War II, he commanded (1943-44) the U.S. 5th Army in N Africa and in Italy, became (1944) Allied commander in Italy, and was promoted (1945) to full general. He served (1945) as head of the U.S. occupation forces in Austria. From May, 1952, to Oct., 1953, he was supreme commander of UN forces in Korea and also commander of U.S. forces in East Asia. Retiring from the army, he served (1954-66) as president of The Citadel, at Charleston, S.C. Calculated Risk (1950) and From the Danube to the Yalu (1954) are his memoirs of World War II and of the postwar period.
Clark, Ramsey, 1927-, attorney general of the United States (1967-69), b. Dallas, Tex.; son of Tom Campbell Clark. Admitted to the bar in 1951, Ramsey Clark practiced law in Dallas. After serving in the federal government as assistant attorney general in charge of the lands division (1961-65), deputy attorney general (1965-66), and acting attorney general (Oct., 1966-Feb., 1967), he was appointed by President Johnson to succeed Nicholas Katzenbach as attorney general. Clark proved to be a vigorous defender of civil liberties and civil rights; he opposed the use of government wiretaps and initiated the first Northern school desegregation case. After leaving the government, he taught law and later became active in the anti-Vietnam War movement, visiting North Vietnam in 1972. In 1974 he was the Democratic candidate for the U.S. Senate from New York but was defeated by Jacob Javits; he also failed in a second Senate run in 1976.

Subsequently he practiced as a defense lawyer in New York and continued his political activism. He founded the International Action Center (associated with the Trotskyite Workers' World party), which, like Clark, has opposed various forms of "oppression" by the United States, including military actions, the death penalty, and globalization. Clark has defended or supported Philip Berrigan (see Berrigan brothers), Slobodan Milošević, Bosnian Serb leader and accused war criminal Radovan KaradŽić, Rwandan clergyman and convicted genocide instigator Elizaphan Ntakirutimana, and Saddam Hussein (acting as a defense attorney at his trial in Iraq beginning in 2005). Clark wrote Crime in America (1970).

For an account of his career as Attorney General, see Justice by Richard Harris (1970).

Clark, Tom Campbell, 1899-1977, U.S. Attorney General (1945-49), associate justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1949-67), b. Dallas, Tex.; father of Ramsey Clark. He received his law degree from the Univ. of Texas. Clark joined the Justice Dept. (1937) as a special assistant to the attorney general. He coordinated the forced wartime relocation of West Coast Japanese-Americans and headed the antitrust division before becoming Attorney General in 1945. He was noted for vigorous enforcement of antitrust laws and the introduction of the attorney general's list of subversive political organizations. He was appointed (Aug., 1949) by President Harry S. Truman to the Supreme Court bench as successor to Frank Murphy. Although his opinions on the court were generally conservative in the matter of alleged subversives, he was a frequent supporter of civil liberties. In a 1963 decision he wrote the majority opinion prohibiting the reading of the Bible in public schools. Clark retired from the court in 1967 after his son, Ramsey, was named U.S. attorney general.
Clark, Walter, 1846-1924, American jurist, b. Halifax co., N.C., grad. Univ. of North Carolina (A.B., 1864; A.M., 1867). He entered the Confederate army at 15 and was commended for gallantry in action at Antietam and Fredericksburg. Clark was appointed (1885) judge of the superior court and elected (1889) to the supreme court of North Carolina, where he served until his death. He gained a national reputation for his independent decisions and supported many progressive causes in addresses and articles. Clark prepared an Annotated Code of Civil Procedure, annotated 164 volumes of Supreme Court Reports, edited 16 volumes of the State Records of North Carolina, and did other writing and translating.

See his Papers (ed. by A. L. Brooks and H. T. Lefler, 2 vol., 1948-51); biography by A. L. Brooks (1944).

Clark, William, 1770-1838, American explorer, one of the leaders of the Lewis and Clark expedition, b. Caroline co., Va.; brother of George Rogers Clark. He was an army officer (1792-96), serving in a number of engagements with Native Americans. In 1803 he was chosen by his friend Meriwether Lewis to accompany the overland expedition to the Pacific. His observations of nature enlarged the findings of the expedition; his journals and maps recorded its history. In 1807, after the expedition had returned, Clark was appointed superintendent of Indian affairs, with headquarters at St. Louis, and from 1813 to 1821 he was governor of Missouri Territory. During the War of 1812, he led (1814) an expedition against the British and Native Americans in the upper Mississippi valley; upon reaching Prairie du Chien, Wis., he built Fort Shelby. Later, with Auguste Chouteau, he negotiated a number of important treaties with Native American tribes and aided in suppressing the Winnebago and Black Hawk uprisings. He was again superintendent of Indian affairs from 1821 until his death.

See bibliography under Lewis and Clark expedition.

Clark, William Smith, 1826-86, American educator, b. Ashfield, Mass., grad. Amherst, 1848, and studied chemistry and botany at Göttingen (Ph.D., 1852). He taught at Amherst until the Civil War, fought in many battles, and emerged from the struggle a brigadier general. He was elected to the Massachusetts General Court in 1864, 1865, and 1867 and while there secured the location at Amherst of the Massachusetts Agricultural College (the present-day Univ. of Massachusetts). He was president of this institution from 1867 to 1879, helped organize its work, and taught botany and horticulture. He went to Japan (1876-77) to establish the Imperial College of Agriculture at Sapporo.
Clark, Willis Gaylord: see Clark, Lewis Gaylord.
Gable, Clark, 1901-60, American film actor, b. Cadiz, Ohio. He began his career in films in 1930 and soon after became a star. He won an Academy Award in 1934 for his brilliant comic performance in It Happened One Night. His best-remembered role was that of Rhett Butler in Gone with the Wind (1940). For many years a leading box-office attraction, Gable was known to Hollywood as "the King" and was considered a symbol of the rugged and raffish American male. He made more than 65 films, the last of which was The Misfits (1960).
Mills, Clark, 1810-83, American sculptor, b. Onondaga co., N.Y. Self-taught in art, he designed and in 1852 cast in an experimental foundry the statue of General Jackson for Lafayette Square, Washington, D.C. Mills had never seen his subject nor an equestrian statue. The daring pose of the horse was a mechanical triumph. Later Mills made a colossal statue of Washington on horseback, and he cast in his foundry Thomas Crawford's Armed Freedom for the Capitol dome.
Kerr, Clark, 1911-2003, American educational reformer, b. Reading, Pa., grad. Swarthmore College (B.A., 1932) and the Univ. of California at Berkeley (Ph.D., 1939). He was a professor of industrial relations at Berkeley from 1945 until 1952 when he was named chancellor. In 1958 he became president of the Univ. of California, building its prestigious system until 1967, when Gov. Ronald Reagan had him dismissed because of campus unrest. He became director of the Carnegie Commission on Higher Education, which called for a "bill of educational rights," and author of its report Three Thousand Futures (1970). His writings include The Uses of the University (1972) and The Future of Industrial Societies (1983).
Clark's Point is a city in Dillingham Census Area, Alaska, United States. The population was 75 at the 2000 census.


Clark's Point is located at (58.832560, -158.552542).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.1 square miles (10.5 km²), of which, 3.1 square miles (8.1 km²) of it is land and 0.9 square miles (2.4 km²) of it (22.66%) is water.


As of the census of 2000, there were 75 people, 24 households, and 15 families residing in the city. The population density was 23.9 people per square mile (9.2/km²). There were 51 housing units at an average density of 16.2/sq mi (6.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 6.67% White, 90.67% Native American, 1.33% Pacific Islander, and 1.33% from two or more races.

There were 24 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.8% were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.5% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.13 and the average family size was 3.93.

In the city the population was spread out with 38.7% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 21.3% from 45 to 64, and 8.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females there were 114.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 119.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $28,125, and the median income for a family was $41,250. Males had a median income of $30,625 versus $41,250 for females. The per capita income for the city was $10,988. There were 20.0% of families and 45.7% of the population living below the poverty line, including 66.7% of under eighteens and 36.4% of those over 64.


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