is a public search engine
and digital library
for scientific and academic papers. It was created by researchers Steve Lawrence
, Kurt Bollacker
and Lee Giles
while they were at the NEC Research Institute
Labs), Princeton, New Jersey
, USA. CiteSeer's goal was to actively crawl and harvest academic and scientific documents on the web and use autonomous citation indexing
to permit querying by citation or by document, ranking them by citation impact
. It is hosted on the World Wide Web
at the College of Information Sciences and Technology, The Pennsylvania State University
, and has over 700,000 documents, primarily in the fields of computer
and information science
CiteSeer freely provides Open Archives Initiative metadata of all indexed documents and links indexed documents when possible to other sources of metadata such as DBLP and the ACM portal.
CiteSeer's goal is to improve the dissemination and access of academic and scientific literature. As a non-profit service that can be freely used by anyone, it has been considered as part of the open access movement that is attempting to change academic and scientific publishing to allow greater access to scientific literature.
The name can be construed to have at least two explanations. As a pun, a 'sightseer' is a tourist who looks at the sights, so a 'cite seer' would be a researcher who looks at cited papers. Another is a 'seer' is a prophet and a 'cite seer' is a prophet of citations.
CiteSeer has not been comprehensively updated since roughly 2005 due to limitations in its architecture design. It's a representative sampling of research in computer and information science but is limited in its coverage since it only has access to papers that are freely available, usually at an authors homepage. A comparison of DBLP references versus those in CiteSeer
will always be found lacking since DBLP is manually implemented bibliography. As an example consider the references in DBLP for well known authors such as Alex Pentland (MIT) or Ramesh Jain (UCI) (DBLP listings for Alex Pentland - http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/indices/a-tree/p/Pentland:Alex.html or Ramesh Jain - http://www.informatik.uni-trier.de/~ley/db/indices/a-tree/j/Jain:Ramesh.html). DBLP shows a regular number of publications (~9) each year in DBLP through 2007. While
CiteSeer has only one of their publications after 2000, DBLP has none of their actual publications but link to those publications on publisher websites.
A new version and design of CiteSeer can be found at the Next Generation CiteSeer, CiteSeerx, website. It's important to note that CiteSeer-like engines and archives usually only harvest documents from publicly available websites and do not crawl publisher websites. As such authors whose documents are freely available are more likely to be represented in the index.
Other CiteSeer Engines
The CiteSeer model had been extended to cover academic documents in business with SmealSearch
and in e-business with eBizSearch
. However, these were not maintained by their sponsors. A older version of both of these can be found at BizSeer.IST
. For enhanced access and performance, mirrors of CiteSeer were made available at universities such as the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
, University of Zürich
and the National University of Singapore
. However, mirrors of CiteSeer
proved difficult to maintain.
Mirrors of CiteSeer have been or are available at the following links:
Univ. of Kansas
Univ. of Zurich
National Univ. of Singapore
Other Seer like search and repository systems have been built for chemistry, ChemXSeer and for archaeology, ArchSeer. Another has been built for robots.txt file search, BotSeer. All of these are built on the open source indexer Lucene.
Next Generation CiteSeer (CiteSeerx)
The Next Generation CiteSeer project, CiteSeerx
, funded by the National Science Foundation and Microsoft Research
, enhances CiteSeer both as a search engine and as a digital library. As an example, CiteSeer's notion of "contribution" to acknowledgments
in addition to citations, which would make it the first automatically generated acknowledgment index
is designed differently from CiteSeer with new algorithms for entity extraction and a modular, expandable, robust, scalable architecture based on open source tools such as Lucene
and many Apache projects. As such, CiteSeerx
will promote the creation of other Seer like systems.
The Next Generation CiteSeer, CiteSeerx, is now available in alpha
with over one million documents indexed and constantly growing.