Circumcision advocacy refers to those who advocate circumcision and their activities in support of this cause. The WHO and UNAIDS advocate male circumcision as a means of reducing the rate of HIV infection. In other scholarly sources it is used in an article by Hodges, Svoboda and Van Howe in the Journal of Medical Ethics , and also in the title of Tyranny of the victims: An analysis of circumcision advocacy. In Male and female circumcision: Medical legal and ethical considerations in pediatric practice, ed. G. C. Denniston, F. M. Hodges, and M. F. Milos, 223-24. New York The term "circumcision advocate" has been used in a newsletter from the University of Sydney, Australia and in the Australian Doctor to refer to Professor Brian Morris. The term was also used in the New Mexican in 2001 Dr Sam Kunin, MD describes himself as a pro-circumcision advocate
Circumcision spread in several English-speaking nations from the late Nineteenth Century. One reason for this was promotion by doctors such as Sir Jonathan Hutchinson in England Peter Charles Remondino, of San Diego, wrote a History of Circumcision from the Earliest Times to the Present: Moral and Physical Reasons for Its Performance (1891), to promote circumcision. Lewis Sayre, a prominent American Orthopedic surgeon at the time, was another early American advocate. Abraham Wolbarst, a New York Jewish doctor, published an article in the Journal of the American Medical Association in 1914 advocating universal circumcision for health reasons. He first advocated circumcision to prevent penile cancer in 1928, and in 1932 he published a study to document his claim. Some recent studies have shown that circumcised men are at a reduced risk, particularly from invasive penile cancer, though circumcision does not provide complete protection and the incidence of penile cancer in non-circumcised males is very low. For further discussion, please see: medical analysis of circumcision.
In the late Nineteenth Century, doctors and others advocated circumcision to prevent masturbation, which was then considered sinful and harmful. Dr. John Harvey Kellogg recommended circumcision of boys, writing: "A remedy for masturbation which is almost always successful in small boys is circumcision.... The operation should be performed by a surgeon without administering anaesthetic, as the pain attending the operation will have a salutary effect upon the mind, especially if it be connected with the idea of punishment." (Kellogg, 1888) As late as 1936. L. E. Holt, an author of pediatric textbooks, advocated male and female circumcision to prevent masturbation
Dr. Benjamin Spock (d. 1998), who originally supported circumcision, changed his mind near the end of his life (B. Spock, Circumcision - It's Not Necessary Redbook, April 1989). Dr. Thomas Wiswell, who was originally opposed to circumcision, later changed his mind after his research revealed a protective effect against urinary tract infections Dr. Edgar Schoen, (b. 1925) former chair of the American Academy of Pediatrics' Task Force on Circumcision, maintains a web site promoting circumcision and claims physical benefits in sexual performance in addition to medical arguments. Aaron J. Fink, M.D. (d. 1990), another late 20th century circumcision advocate, self-published Circumcision: A Parent's Decision for Life to promote his ideas.
In Australia, Professor Brian Morris, author of "In Favour of Circumcision" said, "It was never my intention to be the biggest campaigner for circumcision in Australia. Really, I’m a campaigner for science." Morris writes that circumcision confers many medical benefits including reduced risk of UTIs, penile cancer, HIV, balanitis, posthitis, phimosis, and prostate cancer and argues that circumcision has sexual benefits