Chukotka Autonomous Area

Chukotka Autonomous Area

Chukotka Autonomous Area: see under Chukchi Peninsula.

Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Чуко́тский автоно́мный о́круг, tr.: Chukotsky avtonomny okrug; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ), or Chukotka (Чуко́тка), is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug) located in the Far Eastern Federal District.

It is the most northeasterly region of Russia and, since the sale of Alaska to the United States, has been the only part of Russia lying partially in the Western Hemisphere. It is bordered on the east by the Bering Sea, part of the Pacific Ocean, and to the north by the Chukchi Sea and the East Siberian Sea, which are part of the Arctic Ocean. Chukotka has an area of and a population of 53,824 according to the 2002 Census. The principal town and administrative center is Anadyr.

Lake El'gygytgyn, an important site for scientific research on climate change, is located in Chukotka, as is the village of Uelen, the closest substantial Russian settlement to the United States.

History

Chukotka was formerly an autonomous okrug subsumed within Magadan Oblast, but it declared its independence in 1991, a move that was confirmed by the Russian Constitutional Court in 1993.

Traditionally the home of the native Chukchi people, Siberian Yupiks, Koryaks, Chuvans, Evens/Lamuts, Yukagirs, and Russian Old Settlers, the region was subject to collectivisation and forced settlement during the Soviet era.

Economy

Chukotka has large reserves of oil, natural gas, coal, gold, and tungsten, which are slowly being exploited, but much of the rural population survives on subsistence reindeer herding, hunting, and fishing. The urban population is employed in mining, administration, construction, cultural work, education, medicine, and other occupations.

Administrative divisions

Demographics

Population (2002): 53,824

Ethnic groups: Indigenous peoples make up less than one third of the total population. According to the 2002 Census the ‘national composition’ was • Russian 51.86% • Chukchi 23.45% • Ukrainian 9.22% • Eskimo 2.85% • Even 2.61% • Chuvan 1.778% • Tatar 0.99% • Belarusians 0.96% • Yukaghir 0.34% • Chuvash 0.30% • Moldovan 0.24% • Buriat 0.22% • German 0.22% • Bashkir 0.22% • Azeri 0.20% • and a few other groups of less than one hundred persons each. In addition, 2.23% of the inhabitants chose not to specify their ethnic background on the census questionnaire. Historical figures are given below:

census 1939 census 1959 census 1970 census 1979 census 1989 census 2002
Chukchis 12,111 (56.2%) 9,975 (21.4%) 11,001 (10.9%) 11,292 (8.1%) 11,914 (7.3%) 12,622 (23.5%)
Chuvans 944 (0.6%) 951 (1.8%)
Eskimos 800 (3.7%) 1,064 (2.3%) 1,149 (1.1%) 1,278 (0.9%) 1,452 (0.9%) 1,534 (2.9%)
Evens 817 (3.8%) 820 (1.8%) 1,061 (1.0%) 969 (0.7%) 1,336 (0.8%) 1,407 (2.6%)
Russians 5,183 (24.1%) 28,318 (60.7%) 70,531 (69.7%) 96,424 (68.9%) 108,297 (66.1%) 27,918 (51.9%)
Ukrainians 571 (2.7%) 3,543 (7.6%) 10,393 (10.3%) 20,122 (14.4%) 27,600 (16.8%) 4,960 (9.2%)
Others 2,055 (9.5%) 2,969 (6.4%) 7,049 (7.0%) 9,859 (7.0%) 12,391 (7.6%) 4,432 (8.2%)
All 21,537 46,689 101,194 139,944 163,934 53,824

Vital statistics (2005)

  • Births: 795 (birth rate 15.7)
  • Deaths: 597 (death rate 11.8)

Vital Statistics for 2007: Source

Birth Rate: 16.10 per 1000

Death Rate: 12.37 per 1000

Net Immigration: -8.2 per 1000

NGR: +0.37% per Year

PGR: -0.44% per Year (Population decreased due to emigration despite births exceeding deaths by a significant margin.)

Governor

The governor of Chukotka until July 3 2008, business oligarch Roman Abramovich, also the owner of Chelsea F.C. has spent over US$1 billion in the region on developing infrastructure and providing direct aid to the inhabitants since becoming governor in 2000. There are also reports, however, that Chukotka gave Abramovich's company Sibneft tax breaks in excess of US$450 million.

See also

References

External links

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