Definitions

Christophe

Christophe

[kree-stawf]
Plantin, Christophe, 1514-89, printer. Plantin left his native France for Belgium because of religious persecution. In Antwerp his work, at first as a bookbinder, began in 1549. He began the production and publishing of books in 1555. His establishment continued to work until 1867 and is now preserved as the Plantin-Moretus Museum. Plantin was the leading printer of the second half of the 16th cent., and his books are admired for their accuracy and their typography. His equipment included types designed by Garamond and Granjon. The most famous work from his press is the Polyglot Bible (Bible regia) in eight volumes. In the center of his printer's mark is a pair of compasses.
Christophe, Henri, 1767-1820, Haitian revolutionary leader. A freed black slave, he aided Toussaint L'Ouverture in the liberation of Haiti and was army chief under Dessalines. When the latter declared himself emperor, Christophe took part (1806) in a successful plot against his life and was elected president of the republic. Christophe, a pure-blooded black, then waged a savage and inconclusive struggle with Alexandre Pétion, the champion of mulatto supremacy, who retained control of S Haiti. In 1811, entrenching himself in N Haiti, Christophe declared himself king as Henri I and entered upon an energetic but tyrannical reign. He created an autocracy patterned after the absolute monarchies of Europe. Compulsory labor enriched his fiefdom. Christophe surrounded himself with lavish, and sometimes ludicrous, magnificence; the pomp and splendor of his reign are still shown by the ruins of the citadel of La Ferrière, a formidable fortress on top of a mountain, surrounded by precipitous cliffs, and of the fabulous palace of Sans Souci, at Cap Haïtien, his capital. In 1820, when he was suffering from partial paralysis, revolts broke out. In despair, Christophe committed suicide.

See his correspondence with T. Clarkson, ed. by E. L. Griggs and C. H. Prator (1952, repr. 1968); biography by H. Cole (1967); C. Moran, Black Triumvirate: A Study of L'Ouverture, Dessalines, Christophe (1957).

Saint-Christophe (French for Saint Christopher) in is the name or part of the name of several places:

In France

In Italy

In the Caribbean

  • Saint Kitts island, also known as Saint-Christophe, namely during the French colonial era 1538-1783

In the Indian Ocean

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