Christian von

Christian von

Wolf, Christian von: see Wolff, Christian von.
Wolff or Wolf, Christian von, 1679-1754, German philosopher. One of the first to use the German language instead of Latin, he systematized and popularized the doctrines of Leibniz. Wolff studied at Jena and taught at Leipzig before going to a professorship at Halle (1706-23). His doctrines of apparent fatalism aroused the Pietists to secure his banishment, which he spent as professor at Marburg (1723-40). Recalled to Halle by Frederick the Great in 1740, he became chancellor of the university in 1743. One of Wolff's major works was Vernünftige Gedanken von Gott, der Welt, und der Seele der Menschen [rational thoughts on God, the world, and the souls of men] (1719). The Leibnizian doctrine of preestablished harmony was more prominent than the monad theory in Wolff's presentation, though both were considerably moderated. He is chiefly remembered for his broad concept of philosophy, his insistence on clarity and precision, and his devotion to the power of reason and mathematics.

See study by J. V. Burns (1966).

Ewald Christian von Kleist (March 7, 1715August 24, 1759) was a German poet and officer.


Kleist was born at Zeblin, near Köslin (Koszalin) in Pomerania, to the von Kleist family of cavalry leaders. After attending the Jesuit school in Deutschkrona and the Danzig Gymnasium, he proceeded in 1731 to the University of Königsberg, where he studied law and mathematics. On the completion of his studies, he entered the Danish army, in which he became an officer in 1736. Recalled to Prussia by King Frederick II in 1740, he was appointed lieutenant in a regiment stationed at Potsdam, where he became acquainted with J. W. L. Gleim, who interested him in poetry.

After distinguishing himself at the Battle of Mollwitz (April 10, 1741) and the siege of Neisse (1741), he was promoted to captain in 1749 and major in 1756. Quartered during the winter of 1757-1758 in Leipzig during the Seven Years' War, he found relief from his irksome military duties in the society of Gotthold Ephraim Lessing. Shortly afterwards in the battle of Kunersdorf, on August 12 1759, he was mortally wounded in the forefront of the attack, and died at Frankfurt (Oder) on the 24 August 1759.


Kleist's chief work is a poem in hexameters, Der Frühling (1749), for which Thomson's Seasons largely supplied ideas. It earned him the nickname "the Poet of the Spring." In his description of the beauties of nature Kleist shows real poetical genius, an almost modern sentiment and fine taste. He also wrote some charming odes, idylls and elegies, and a small epic poem Cissides und Paches (1759), the subject being two Thessalian friends who die an heroic death for their country in a battle against the Athenians. Likewise he composed epitaphs for his many friends who were killed in battle, such as Major Heinrich von Blumenthal.

Kleist published in 1756 the first collection of his Gedichte, which was followed by a second in 1758. After his death his friend Karl Wilhelm Ramler published an edition of Kleist's Sämtliche Werke in 2 vols (1760). A critical edition was published by A. Sauer, in 3 vols (1880-1882). See also A. Chuquet, De Ewaldi Kleistii vita et scriptis (Paris, 1887), and Heinrich Pröhle, Friedrich der Grosse und die deutsche Literatur (1872).


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