Chrétien Guillaume de Lamoignon de

Chrétien Guillaume de Lamoignon de

Malesherbes, Chrétien Guillaume de Lamoignon de, 1721-94, French minister of state. After serving as counselor to the Parlement of Paris, he succeeded (1750) his father as president of the Court of Aids at Paris. His father, then chancellor of France, made him director of the press, the chief censor. His liberal policy permitted the publication of the Encyclopédie. Fearing royal absolutism, he opposed the dissolution of the parlement in 1771 and was exiled to his country estate. On the accession of Louis XVI (1774), Malesherbes was appointed secretary of state for the royal household. His responsibilities included ecclesiastical affairs, the administration of Paris and some provinces, and appointments at court. He attempted to improve prison conditions and limit the use of lettres de cachet. Malesherbes resigned (1776) after the failure of the reform program of his friend A. R. J. Turgot. For the next 13 years he campaigned for the civil rights of French Protestants and Jews. Recalled in 1787, he was made minister without portfolio but resigned the next year and retired from political life. In 1792, at his own request, he was appointed a defender of Louis XVI in the king's trial. Malesherbes was soon afterward arrested and guillotined as a royalist along with his daughter and grandchildren.

See biography by J. M. S. Allison (1938); study by E. P. Shaw (1966).

Chrétien-Louis-Joseph de Guignes (1759–1845) was a French merchant-trader, ambassador and scholar. He was the son of French academician and sinologue, Joseph de Guignes. He learned Chinese from his father, and then traveled to China where he stayed for the next 17 years and returned to France in 1801.

At court of the Qianlong Emperor

In 1794-95, de Guignes served as interpreter for Isaac Titsingh, the Dutch ambassador to the court of the Qianlong Emperor of China.

Titsingh travelled to Peiking for celebrations of the sixtieth anniversary of the Emperor's reign. The Titsingh delegation also included the Dutch-American Andreas Everardus van Braam Houckgeest, whose description of this embassy to the Chinese court were soon published in the U.S. and Europe. In the year following the emperor's rebuff to the British mission headed by Lord George Macartney, Titsingh and his colleagues were much feted by the Chinese because of what was construed as seemly compliance with conventional court etiquette. The members of the Titsingh mission, including de Guignes, were the last European diplomats to savour the mid-winter splendor of the vast Summer Palace (the Yuangmingyuan) before its destruction by the Lord Elgin's troops during the punative Second Opium War in 1860.

In 1808, de Guignes published his account of the Titsingh mission, which provided an alternate perspective and a useful counterpoint to other reports which were then circulating. Neither the Europeans nor the Chinese could have known that the Titsingh embassy would turn out to have been the last occasion in which any European appeared before the Chinese Court within the context of traditional Chinese imperial foreign relations.


In 1808, Napolean ordered de Guignes to prepare of a Chinese-French-Latin dictionary. The work was completed five years later. Shortly after the publication, it was discovered that the dictionary was nothing more than a copy of an older work composed by the Franciscan friar, Basilio Brollo de Glemona (1648-1704). While de Guignes had altered the original by arranging the characters according to the order of the 214 radicals (as contrasted with Basilio's tone-based order), the dictionary received strong criticism in 1814 from the first person to be appointed to be a professor of Chinese at a European institution of higher learning, Jean-Pierre Abel-Rémusat (1788-1832). Despite any controversy, de Guignes was elected a member of the Institut de France in the Académie des Sciences (Géographie et Navigation) and of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres.


  • de Guignes, C.-L.-J. (1813). Dictionnaire Chinois, Français et Latin, le Vocabulaire Chinois Latin. Paris: Imprimerie Impériale.
  • ____________. (1808). Voyage a Pékin, Manille et l'Ile de France. Paris: Imprimerie Impériale.



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