Definitions

Chilian Khan

Rouran

Rouran (Wade-Giles: Jou-jan), Ruanruan/Ruru also known as Tan Tan was the name of a confederation of nomadic tribes on the northern borders of China Proper from the late 4th century until the late 6th century. It has sometimes been hypothesized that the Rouran are identical to the Eurasian Avars who later appeared in Europe. The term Rouran is a Mandarin Chinese transcription of the pronunciation of the name the confederacy used to refer to itself. Ruanruan and Ruru remained in modern usage despite once being derogatory. They derived from orders given by the Emperor Taiwu of Northern Wei, who waged war against the Rouran and intended to intimidate the confederacy. The power of the Rouran was broken by an alliance of Göktürks, the Chinese Northern Qi and Northern Zhou dynasties and tribes in Central Asia in 552.

Origin and expansion

The Rouran were confederation of Xianbei people who remained in Mongolian steppes after most Xianbei migrated south to Northern China and set up various kingdoms. They were first noted as having defeated the Gaoche and establishing an empire extending all the way to the Hulun, at the eastern Inner Mongolia. To the west of the Rouran was a horde known in the west as the Hephthalites who originally, until the 5th century, were a vassal horde of the Rouran. The Rouran controlled the area of Mongolia from the Manchurian border to Turpan and, perhaps, the east coast of Lake Balkhash, and from the Orkhon River to the China Proper. Their ancestor Mugulu is said to have been originally a slave of the Toba tribes, situated at the north banks of Yellow River Bend. Mugulu's descendant Shelun is said to be the first chieftain who was able to unify the Rouran tribes and to found the power of the Rouran by defeating the Gaoche and Xianbei. Shelun was also the first of the steppe peoples to adopt the title of khagan (可汗) in 402, originally a title of Xianbei nobility.

The Rouran and the Hephthalites had a falling out and problems within their confederation were encouraged by Chinese agents. In 508, the Gaoche, then operating under the name Tiele, defeated the Rouran in battle. In 516, the Rouran defeated the Tiele. Within the Rouran confederation was a Turkic tribe noted in Chinese annals as the Tujue. After a marriage proposal to the Rouran was rebuffed, the Tujue joined with the Western Wei, successor state to the Northern Wei, and revolted against the Rouran. In 555, they beheaded 3,000 Rouran. European history books commonly claim that the Rouran then fled west across the steppes and became the Avars, though this is probably a mistake. The remainder of the Rouran fled into China, were absorbed into the border guards, and disappeared forever as an entity. The last Rouran khagan fled to the court of Western Wei, but at the demand of Tujue, Western Wei executed him and the nobles that accompanied him.

Little is known of the Rouran ruling elite, which the Book of Wei cited as an offshoot of the Xianbei. The Rouran subdued modern regions of Xinjiang, Mongolia, Central Asia and parts of Siberia and Manchuria from the late 4th century. Their frequent interventions and invasions profoundly affected neighboring countries. Though they admitted the Ashina of Göktürks into their federation, the power of the Rouran was broken by an alliance of Göktürks, the Chinese Northern Qi and Northern Zhou dynasties and tribes in Central Asia in 552. The Northern Wei, for instance, established the Six Garrisons bordering the Rouran, which later became the foci of several major mutinies in the early 6th century.

Qaghans of the Rouran

Temple names Regal names Family names and given name Durations of reigns Era names and their according durations
Chinese convention: for those who have regal names, use regal names; otherwise, use family name and given name, or use given name + "Khan"
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭木骨閭 Yùjiǔlǘ Mùgǔlǘ 4th century Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭車鹿會 Yùjiǔlǘ Chēlùhuì 4th century Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭吐奴傀 Yùjiǔlǘ Tǔnúgūi 4th century Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭跋提 Yùjiǔlǘ Bátí 4th century Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭地粟袁 Yùjiǔlǘ Dìsùyuán 4th century Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭匹侯跋 Yùjiǔlǘ Pǐhóubá 4th century Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭縵紇提 Yùjiǔlǘ Màngētí 4th century Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭曷多汗 Yùjiǔlǘ Héduōhàn 4th century Did not exist
Did not exist Qiudoufa Khan (丘豆伐可汗) 郁久閭社崙 Yùjiǔlǘ Shèlún 402410 Did not exist
Did not exist Aikugai Khan (藹苦蓋可汗) 郁久閭斛律 Yùjiǔlǘ Húlǜ 410414 Did not exist
Did not exist Mouhanheshenggai Khan (牟汗紇升蓋可汗) 郁久閭大檀 Yùjiǔlǘ Dàtán 414429 Did not exist
Did not exist Chilian Khan (敕連可汗) 郁久閭吳提 Yùjiǔlǘ Wútí 429444 Did not exist
Did not exist Chu Khan (處可汗) 郁久閭吐賀真 Yùjiǔlǘ Tǔhèzhēn 444450 Did not exist
Did not exist Shouluobuzhen Khan (受羅部真可汗) 郁久閭予成 Yùjiǔlǘ Yúchéng 450485 Yongkang (永康 Yǒngkāng) 464484
Did not exist Fumingdun Khan (伏名敦可汗) 郁久閭豆崙 Yùjiǔlǘ Dòulún 485492 Taiping (太平 Tàipíng) 485491
Did not exist Houqifudaikezhe Khan (侯其伏代庫者可汗) 郁久閭那蓋 Yùjiǔlǘ Nàgài 492506 Taian (太安 Tàiān) 492505
Did not exist Tuohan Khan (佗汗可汗) 郁久閭伏圖 Yùjiǔlǘ Fútú 506508 Shiping (始平 Shǐpíng) 506507
Did not exist Douluofubadoufa Khan (豆羅伏跋豆伐可汗) 郁久閭醜奴 Yùjiǔlǘ Chǒunú 508520 Jianchang (建昌 Jiànchāng) 508520
Did not eixst Chiliantoubingdoufa Khan (敕連頭兵豆伐可汗) 郁久閭阿那瓌 Yùjiǔlǘ Ānàgūi 520552 Did not exist
Did not exist Mi'oukeshegou Khan (彌偶可社句可汗) 郁久閭婆羅門 Yùjiǔlǘ Póluómén 521524 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭鐵伐 Yùjiǔlǘ Tiěfá 552553 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭登注 Yùjiǔlǘ Dēngzhù 553 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭康提 Yùjiǔlǘ Kāngtí 553 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭菴羅辰 Yùjiǔlǘ Ānluóchén 553554 Did not exist
Did not exist Did not exist 郁久閭鄧叔子 Yùjiǔlǘ Dèng Shūzǐ 555 Did not exist

Sources

See also

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