Child

Child

[chahyld]
Child, Francis James, 1825-96, American scholar, b. Boston, grad. Harvard, 1846. At Harvard he was professor of rhetoric (1851-76) and English literature (1876-96). He greatly influenced modern methods of Chaucer study. He is best known, however, for his English and Scottish Popular Ballads (5 vol., 1883-98). This is a major source on folklore in which Child defined, with examples, some 305 types of ballads, including complete textual variations.
Child, Sir John, d. 1690, English administrator in India. In 1680 he was appointed the British East India Company's agent at Surat, then the company's main factory (i.e., trading station) in W India. In 1685, Sir John moved the company's seat of government from Surat to Bombay (now Mumbai), and in 1686 he was given authority over all the company's possessions in India. His tyrannical methods alienated many; his defeat by the Mughal emperor led to a demand that he be removed from India, but he died before the issue was settled. Sir John's activities were supported in England by Sir Josiah Child, 1630-99, who was possibly his brother. A merchant and early mercantilist, he made a fortune supplying the navy and from 1681 to 1690 virtually ruled the East India Company, of which he was deputy governor (1684-86, 1688-90) and governor (1681-83, 1686-88). His New Discourse of Trade (final form, 1693) was an early plea for some of the principles of free trade.
Child, Julia, 1912-2004, American cooking teacher, author, and television personality, b. Pasadena, Calif., as Julia Carolyn McWilliams. She learned French cooking while her husband was in the diplomatic service in France during the late 1940s. In 1961, Child, Simone Beck, and Louisette Bertholle wrote the now-classic Mastering the Art of French Cooking, the first practical and comparatively accessible such cookbook for an American audience. Shortly thereafter, she began hosting a series of educational television programs; the best known, The French Chef (1963-76), transformed her into an Emmy-winning public-broadcasting star. Child's comfortable, off-hand manner took the intimidating quality out of preparing French cuisine and helped to change American styles of cooking and eating as well as American attidudes toward food. Her many other cookbooks include From Julia Child's Kitchen (1975) and The Way to Cook (1989). Child's kitchen was dismantled and permanently installed in the Smithsonian Institution.

See her My Life in France (2006, with A. Prud'homme); biographies by N. R. Fitch (1997) and L. Shapiro (2007); N. V. Barr, Backstage with Julia (2007).

Child, Lydia Maria, 1802-80, American author and abolitionist, b. Lydia Maria Francis, Medford, Mass. She edited (1826-34) the Juvenile Miscellany, a children's periodical. She and her husband (David Lee Child, whom she married in 1828) were devoted to the antislavery cause; she wrote widely read pamphlets on the subject in addition to editing (1841-49) the National Anti-Slavery Standard, a New York City weekly newspaper. Selections from her Standard essays were published in 1999 as Letters from New-York. Other writings include several historical novels and a book on the history of religions. Her Frugal Housewife (1829) went through many editions.

See her letters (with introduction by J. G. Whittier, 1883, repr. 1970); biographies by H. G. Baer (1964), M. Meltzer (1965), W. S. Osborne (1980), D. P. Clifford (1992), and C. Karcher (1994).

Child naturally endowed with a high degree of general mental ability or extraordinary ability in a specific domain. Although the designation of giftedness is largely a matter of administrative convenience, the best indications of giftedness are often those provided by teachers and parents, supplemented by data from IQ tests and cumulative school records. In most countries an IQ level above a certain point (variously, 120–135) may qualify the child for advanced educational programs. Seealso genius.

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Study of the psychological processes of children. The field is sometimes subsumed under developmental psychology. Data are gathered through observation, interviews, tests, and experimental methods. Principal topics include language acquisition and development, motor skills, personality development, and social, emotional, and intellectual growth. The field began to emerge in the late 19th century through the work of German psychophysiologist William Preyer, American psychologist G. Stanley Hall, and others. In the 20th century the psychoanalysts Anna Freud and Melanie Klein devoted themselves to child psychology, but its most influential figure was Jean Piaget, who described the various stages of childhood learning and characterized children's perceptions of themselves and the world at each stage. Seealso school psychology.

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Branch of medicine concerned with mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders of childhood. It arose as a separate field in the 1920s, largely because of the pioneering work of Anna Freud. Therapy usually involves the family, whose behaviour powerfully affects children's emotional health. Parental death or divorce may affect a child's emotional growth. Child abuse and neglect have also been recognized as significant in childhood disorders. Learning disabilities need to be distinguished from emotional problems—which they can also cause if not diagnosed in time.

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Crime of inflicting physical or emotional injury on a child. The term can denote the use of inordinate physical violence or verbal abuse; the failure to furnish proper shelter, nourishment, medical treatment, or emotional support; incest, rape, or other instances of sexual molestation; and the making of child pornography. Child abuse can cause serious harm to its victims. Estimates of the numbers of children who suffer physical abuse or neglect by parents or guardians range from about 1 percent of all children to about 15 percent, and figures are far higher if emotional abuse and neglect are included. In many cases, the abuser himself suffered abuse as a child. When abuse results in death, evidence of child abuse or battered-child syndrome (e.g., broken bones and lesions, either healed or active) is often used to establish that death was not accidental.

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Employment of boys and girls in occupations deemed unfit for children. Such labour is strictly controlled in many countries as a result of the effective enforcement of laws passed in the 20th century (e.g., the United Nations Declaration of the Rights of the Child in 1959). In developing nations the use of child labour is still common. Restrictive legislation has proved ineffective in impoverished societies with few schools, although some improvements have resulted from global activism, such as boycotts of multinational firms alleged to be exploiting child labour abroad.

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Growth of perceptual, emotional, intellectual, and behavioral capabilities and functioning during childhood (prior to puberty). It includes development of language, symbolic thought, logic, memory, emotional awareness, empathy, a moral sense, and a sense of identity, including sex-role identity.

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orig. Lydia Maria Francis

(born Feb. 11, 1802, Medford, Mass., U.S.—died Oct. 20, 1880, Wayland) U.S. abolitionist and author. She was raised in an abolitionist family and was greatly influenced by her brother, a Unitarian clergyman. She wrote historical novels and published a popular manual, The Frugal Housewife (1829). After meeting William Lloyd Garrison in 1831, she became active in abolitionist work. Her Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans (1833) was widely read and induced many to join the abolitionist cause. From 1841 to 1843 she edited the National Anti-Slavery Standard. Her home was a stage on the Underground Railroad.

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orig. Julia McWilliams

(born Aug. 15, 1912 , Pasadena, Calif., U.S.—died Aug. 13, 2004, Santa Barbara) U.S. cooking expert and television personality. She lived in Paris after her marriage in 1945, studying at the Cordon Bleu and with a master chef. After cowriting the best-seller Mastering the Art of French Cooking (1961) and moving to Boston, she created the popular PBS cooking series The French Chef (1963–73), and later other cooking shows. Through her programs and books, she helped educate the U.S. public about traditional French cuisine and sparked interest in the culinary arts.

Learn more about Child, Julia with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Lydia Maria Francis

(born Feb. 11, 1802, Medford, Mass., U.S.—died Oct. 20, 1880, Wayland) U.S. abolitionist and author. She was raised in an abolitionist family and was greatly influenced by her brother, a Unitarian clergyman. She wrote historical novels and published a popular manual, The Frugal Housewife (1829). After meeting William Lloyd Garrison in 1831, she became active in abolitionist work. Her Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans (1833) was widely read and induced many to join the abolitionist cause. From 1841 to 1843 she edited the National Anti-Slavery Standard. Her home was a stage on the Underground Railroad.

Learn more about Child, Lydia Maria with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Julia McWilliams

(born Aug. 15, 1912 , Pasadena, Calif., U.S.—died Aug. 13, 2004, Santa Barbara) U.S. cooking expert and television personality. She lived in Paris after her marriage in 1945, studying at the Cordon Bleu and with a master chef. After cowriting the best-seller Mastering the Art of French Cooking (1961) and moving to Boston, she created the popular PBS cooking series The French Chef (1963–73), and later other cooking shows. Through her programs and books, she helped educate the U.S. public about traditional French cuisine and sparked interest in the culinary arts.

Learn more about Child, Julia with a free trial on Britannica.com.

A child is a human being between birth and puberty; a boy or girl. The legal definition of "child" generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of majority. "Child" may also describe a relationship with a parent or authority figure, or signify group membership in a clan, tribe, or religion; it can also signify being strongly affected by a specific time, place, or circumstance, as in "a child of nature" or "a child of the Sixties.

Definitions

The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child defines a child as "every human being below the age of 18 years unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier.Biologically, a child is anyone in the developmental stage of childhood, between infancy and adulthood.

Attitudes toward children

Social attitudes toward children differ around the world, and these attitudes have changed over time. One study has found children in the United States are coddled and overprotected. A 1988 study on European attitudes toward the centrality of children found Italy was more child-centric and Holland less child-centric, with other countries (Austria, Great Britain, Ireland, and West Germany) falling in between.

Age of responsibility

The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law. In Roman times, children were regarded as not culpable for crimes, a position later adopted by the Church. In the nineteenth century, children younger than seven years old were believed incapable of crime. Children from the age of seven were considered responsible for their actions. Hence, they could face criminal charges, be sent to adult prisons, and be punished like adults by whipping, branding or hanging.

See also

References

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