Chester

Chester

[ches-ter]
Harding, Chester, 1792-1866, American portrait painter, b. Conway, Mass. He worked as an itinerant portrait painter long enough to enable him to study at the Pennsylvania Academy of Design. Later he practiced in St. Louis, Washington, D.C., and Boston and had three years of artistic and social success in London. On returning to the United States he became the fashionable painter of Boston. His principal portraits are those of Daniel Webster (one in the Bar Association, New York City, and one in the Cincinnati Art Mus.); John Randolph (Corcoran Gall.); as well as effective characterizations of Chief Justice Marshall, Henry Clay, and Washington Allston.
Chester, city (1991 pop. 80,154), Cheshire West and Chester, W central England, on a sandstone height above the Dee River. It is a railroad junction. Manufactures include electrical equipment, paint, and window panes. Tourism is also important. Chester has a long military history, and it was a significant port for centuries. Under the name Castra Devana or Deva, it was the headquarters of the Roman 20th legion. The area was ravaged by Æthelfrith of Northumbria in the 7th cent. and the Danes in the 9th cent. Æthelflæd of Mercia fortified Chester again in the 10th cent. William I took it in 1070 and the following year granted it to his nephew, Hugh Lupus, as a palatine earldom. Chester served the English crown as a defensive bastion and was used as a base for operations against Wales from 1275 to 1284. During the English civil war, parliamentarians took Chester by siege in 1646. Its role as a port peaked from c.1350 to 1450; silting and the rise of Liverpool contributed to the decline of port trade by the late 18th cent. Chester remains medieval in appearance and is the only city in England that possesses its entire original wall. Notable features are this red sandstone wall, with a walk along the top; Agricola's Tower; 15th- and 16th-century timbered houses; the cathedral, with architecture of styles from Norman to Late Perpendicular; the Roodee, on which races have been held since 1540; St. John's Church; Grosvenor Museum; and "The King's School," a public school founded by Henry VIII in 1541. Characteristic of Chester are the Rows, a double tier of shops formed by projecting the second stories of the buildings along the main streets. The Chester Plays (see miracle play) originated in the town.
Chester, city (1990 pop. 41,856), Delaware co., SE Pa., on the Delaware River south of Philadelphia; settled c.1644 by Swedes, inc. as a city 1866. A port, it was also long a shipbuilding center. There are ship transfer facilities and factories making metal, food, and paper products; marine anchors; machinery; communications equipment; and consumer goods. A gambling casino and racetrack also contribute to the city's economy, The Commodore Barry Bridge, with one of the world's longest cantilever main spans, crosses the Delaware to Bridgeport, N.J.

The oldest city in the state, Chester (established as Upland) was the site of William Penn's first landing (1682) in America. Penn renamed the settlement and convened (1682) the first assembly of the colony there. Foundations of the original settlement remain, in Governor Printz Park. Chester is home to Widener Univ. (1821).

(born Feb. 24, 1885, Fredericksburg, Texas, U.S.—died Feb. 20, 1966, near San Francisco, Calif.) U.S. naval officer. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1905 and served in World War I with the U.S. Atlantic submarine force. He rose to become chief of the navy's bureau of navigation in 1939. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he was made commander in chief of the U.S. Pacific fleet, which won the battles of Midway and the Coral Sea (1942). In succeeding years, the historic battles of the Solomon Islands (1942–43), the Gilbert Islands (1943), and Iwo Jima and Okinawa (1945) were fought under his direction. The Japanese surrender was signed aboard his flagship, the USS Missouri. From 1945 to 1947 he served as chief of naval operations.

Learn more about Nimitz, Chester W(illiam) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 20, 1850, Exeter, N.H., U.S.—died Oct. 7, 1931, Stockbridge, Mass.) U.S. sculptor. He produced his first important commission for the town of Concord, Mass.—the famous statue The Minute Man (1874). He was the leading turn-of-the-century American sculptor, with studios in Boston, Concord, Washington, D.C., and New York City. His best-known work, the seated marble figure of Abraham Lincoln in the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C., was dedicated in 1922. His other notable public monuments include the equestrian statues of Ulysses S. Grant in Philadelphia (1898) and George Washington in Paris (1900) and sculptures representing Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, in front of the New York City customhouse (1907).

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(born April 20, 1850, Exeter, N.H., U.S.—died Oct. 7, 1931, Stockbridge, Mass.) U.S. sculptor. He produced his first important commission for the town of Concord, Mass.—the famous statue The Minute Man (1874). He was the leading turn-of-the-century American sculptor, with studios in Boston, Concord, Washington, D.C., and New York City. His best-known work, the seated marble figure of Abraham Lincoln in the Lincoln Memorial, Washington, D.C., was dedicated in 1922. His other notable public monuments include the equestrian statues of Ulysses S. Grant in Philadelphia (1898) and George Washington in Paris (1900) and sculptures representing Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, in front of the New York City customhouse (1907).

Learn more about French, Daniel Chester with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 24, 1885, Fredericksburg, Texas, U.S.—died Feb. 20, 1966, near San Francisco, Calif.) U.S. naval officer. He graduated from the U.S. Naval Academy in 1905 and served in World War I with the U.S. Atlantic submarine force. He rose to become chief of the navy's bureau of navigation in 1939. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, he was made commander in chief of the U.S. Pacific fleet, which won the battles of Midway and the Coral Sea (1942). In succeeding years, the historic battles of the Solomon Islands (1942–43), the Gilbert Islands (1943), and Iwo Jima and Okinawa (1945) were fought under his direction. The Japanese surrender was signed aboard his flagship, the USS Missouri. From 1945 to 1947 he served as chief of naval operations.

Learn more about Nimitz, Chester W(illiam) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born April 5, 1901, Springfield, Mass., U.S.—died May 25, 1986, Sussex, Conn.) U.S. advertising executive and diplomat. A graduate of Yale University, he and William Benton established the Benton and Bowles advertising company (1929), which became one of the largest in the world. After selling his interest in 1941, Bowles served as director of the Federal Price Administration (1943–46). Elected governor of Connecticut in 1948, he was defeated in 1950 because of his liberal stand on civil rights. He was ambassador to India (1951–53), served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1953–61), and returned to India as ambassador (1963–69).

Learn more about Bowles, Chester (Bliss) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 5, 1829, North Fairfield, Vt., U.S.—died Nov. 18, 1886, New York, N.Y) 21st president of the U.S. (1881–85). He practiced law in New York City from 1854, later becoming a close associate of Sen. Roscoe Conkling, the Republican boss of New York. With Conkling's backing, he was appointed customs collector for the port of New York (1871–78), an office long known for its use of the spoils system. He conducted the business of the office with integrity but continued to pad its payroll with Conkling loyalists. At the Republican national convention in 1880, Arthur was the compromise choice for vice president on a ticket with James Garfield; he became president on Garfield's assassination. As president, Arthur displayed unexpected independence by vetoing measures that rewarded political patronage. He also signed the Pendleton Civil Service Act, which created a civil-service system based on merit. He and his navy secretary recommended appropriations that later helped transform the U.S. Navy into one of the world's great fleets. He failed to win his party's nomination for a second term.

Learn more about Arthur, Chester A(lan) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

ancient Deva or Castra Devana

City and administrative district (pop., 2001: 118,207), seat of Cheshire county, England. Located on the River Dee south of Liverpool, it is an active port and railroad centre. The Romans chose it as the headquarters of the 20th Legion; well-preserved Roman walls remain. It was the last place in England to surrender to William the Conqueror, who made it the centre of a palatinate earldom in 1071. It became an important port in the 13th–14th century, trading especially with Ireland. From about the 14th century, it was the scene of the presentation of the mystery plays of the Chester cycle. The gradual silting of the Dee led to the city's decline, but in the 19th century railroad traffic renewed Chester's prosperity.

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(born April 5, 1901, Springfield, Mass., U.S.—died May 25, 1986, Sussex, Conn.) U.S. advertising executive and diplomat. A graduate of Yale University, he and William Benton established the Benton and Bowles advertising company (1929), which became one of the largest in the world. After selling his interest in 1941, Bowles served as director of the Federal Price Administration (1943–46). Elected governor of Connecticut in 1948, he was defeated in 1950 because of his liberal stand on civil rights. He was ambassador to India (1951–53), served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1953–61), and returned to India as ambassador (1963–69).

Learn more about Bowles, Chester (Bliss) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 5, 1829, North Fairfield, Vt., U.S.—died Nov. 18, 1886, New York, N.Y) 21st president of the U.S. (1881–85). He practiced law in New York City from 1854, later becoming a close associate of Sen. Roscoe Conkling, the Republican boss of New York. With Conkling's backing, he was appointed customs collector for the port of New York (1871–78), an office long known for its use of the spoils system. He conducted the business of the office with integrity but continued to pad its payroll with Conkling loyalists. At the Republican national convention in 1880, Arthur was the compromise choice for vice president on a ticket with James Garfield; he became president on Garfield's assassination. As president, Arthur displayed unexpected independence by vetoing measures that rewarded political patronage. He also signed the Pendleton Civil Service Act, which created a civil-service system based on merit. He and his navy secretary recommended appropriations that later helped transform the U.S. Navy into one of the world's great fleets. He failed to win his party's nomination for a second term.

Learn more about Arthur, Chester A(lan) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Chester is a town in Crawford County, Arkansas, United States. It is part of the Fort Smith, Arkansas-Oklahoma Metropolitan Statistical Area. The population was 99 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Chester is located at (35.679917, -94.175992).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 1.3 km² (0.5 mi²), all land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 99 people, 35 households, and 26 families residing in the town. The population density was 76.4/km² (197.1/mi²). There were 46 housing units at an average density of 35.5/km² (91.6/mi²). The racial makeup of the town was 89.90% White and 10.10% Native American. 2.02% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 35 households out of which 34.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.6% were married couples living together, 20.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 25.7% were non-families. 14.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 2.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.83 and the average family size was 3.15.

In the town the population was spread out with 31.3% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 28.3% from 25 to 44, 20.2% from 45 to 64, and 12.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 83.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $27,500, and the median income for a family was $31,667. Males had a median income of $26,250 versus $14,583 for females. The per capita income for the town was $11,269. There were 23.1% of families and 38.9% of the population living below the poverty line, including 48.6% of under eighteens and 25.0% of those over 64.

References

External links

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