Cheboksary (Чебокса́ры; Шупашкар, Shupashkar) is a city and the capital of the Chuvash Republic, Russia. It is a port on the Volga River. Population: 453,700 (2004 est.); 440,621 (2002 Census); 419,592 (1989 Census). There is a satellite city Novocheboksarsk about six kilometers east with a population of 125,857 (2002 Census).
In 1555, the Russians built a fortress and established a settlement here. In 1625, there were 458 soldiers quartered in Cheboksary, and in 1646 there were 661 males living in the settlement. At the end of the 17th century, Cheboksary was regarded as a major commercial city of the Volga region, and in 1781 it received the status of a city of the Kazan province. In the beginning of the 19th century the population was about 5500, the town had a sawmill and several small manufactures.
Cheboksary also was noted for its 25 churches and four monasteries, and Cheboksary bells were known in London and Paris.
In the 16th and first half of the 17th century the Vvedensky cathedral, four monasteries and eighth churches had been built, in the 18th century the stone buildings of treasury and archive, magistracy, court, and 10 churches. In 1880 here were counted 783 houses (33 of them from stone), 91 stores, three schools, two hospitals and a bank.
In the beginning of the 20th century, 5100 people were living in Cheboksary. In 1965 the population was 163.000.
The Cheboksary Airport (IATA CSY, ICAO UWKS, international airport since 1995) receives both cargo and passenger aircraft of practically all types and sizes. There are regularly scheduled flights to Moscow and other destinations. Chuvashia Airlines is based at this airport. Cheboksary is located about a two-hour drive from Nizhny Novgorod, a city with international air connections through Lufthansa.
Because the Volga River runs through Chuvashia, Cheboksary is a frequent stop on the many boat tours that travel along the major cities up and down the Volga. To the south, Volgograd, Rostov-on-Don, Astrakhan, the Caspian Sea, and Black Sea are directly reachable. To the west, the Volga River connects Cheboksary with Nizhny Novgorod, Yaroslavl, Moscow, and the northern regions of Russia. By using river-sea vessels, it is possible to take cargo from Chuvash riverports all the way to Saint Petersburg, Novorossiysk (on the Black Sea), Astrakhan, and ports situated on the Danube river. However, the river is frozen from December to April.
Public transportation within Cheboksary is among the best in Russia. An extensive system of trolleybuses, autobuses, and minibuses covers the city, providing quick, convenient access to all parts of the city. For those who prefer taxis, there are several taxi agencies available, but the favorite means of transportation among locals are so-called "Gypsy" cabs. In Russia, anybody who owns a car is potentially a taxi. This can be a convenient way to get around but it is also potentially dangerous. Official taxis cost less than two dollars for travel between most points within the city.
Cheboksary is twinned with