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Charles William Ferdinand

Charles William Ferdinand

Charles William Ferdinand, 1735-1806, duke of Brunswick (1780-1806), Prussian field marshal. He had great success in the Seven Years War (1756-63) and was commander in chief (1792-94) of the Austro-Prussian armies in the French Revolutionary Wars. Although he sympathized with some of the goals of the Revolution, he led the German army in its ill-fated march into France in 1792 and issued a manifesto threatening severe reprisals against the revolutionaries. Defeated at Valmy (1792), in 1793 he routed the French at Kaiserslautern and Pirmasens. He again commanded the Prussian armies in 1806 and was defeated by the French marshal Davout at Auerstedt. He was blinded in the battle and died soon after. His son was Frederick William, duke of Brunswick.
Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Prince of Brunswick-Wolfenbuttel-Bevern (Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand, Herzog zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg, Fürst von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel-Bevern) (October 9, 1735 - October 16 1806) was a Prussian Generalfeldmarschall born in Wolfenbüttel, Germany. He was duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg from 1780 until his death and ruled over the Wolfenbüttel subdivision of the duchy. He is a recognized master of the modern warfare of the mid-18th century, a cultured and benevolent despot in the model of Frederick the Great, and was married to Augusta, a sister of George III of Great Britain.

History

Charles William Ferdinand (Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand) was the son of Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg and Philippine Charlotte, daughter of King Frederick William I of Prussia. Karl received an unusually wide and thorough education, and travelled in his youth in the Netherlands, France and various parts of Germany. His first military experience was in the North German campaign of 1757, under Prince William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland. At the Battle of Hastenbeck he won great renown by a gallant charge at the head of an infantry brigade; and upon the capitulation of Kloster Zeven he was easily persuaded by his uncle Ferdinand of Brunswick, who succeeded Cumberland, to continue in the war as a general officer. The exploits of the hereditary prince, as he was called, soon gained him further reputation, and he became an acknowledged master of irregular warfare. In pitched battles, and in particular at Minden and Warburg, he proved himself an excellent subordinate.

After the close of the Seven Years' War, the prince visited England with his bride, the daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales, and in 1766 he went to France, being received both by his allies and his late enemies with every token of respect. In Paris he made the acquaintance of Marmontel; in Switzerland, whither he continued his tour, that of Voltaire; and in Rome, where he remained for a long time, he explored the antiquities of the city under the guidance of Winckelmann. After a visit to Naples he returned to Paris, and thence, with his wife, to Brunswick. His services to the dukedom during the next few years were of the greatest value; with the assistance of the minister Feonçe von Rotenkreuz he rescued the state from the bankruptcy into which the war had brought it. His popularity was unbounded, and when he succeeded his father, Duke Karl I, in 1780, he soon became known as a model to sovereigns.

Reputation

The Duke was a typical "enlightened despot" of the 18th century, characterized by economy and prudence. His habitual caution often made him draw back from potential reforms. He brought Braunschweig into close alliance with the king of Prussia, for whom he had fought in the Seven Years' War; he was a Prussian field marshal, and was at pains to make the regiment of which he was colonel a model one, and he was frequently engaged in diplomatic and other state affairs. He resembled his uncle Frederick the Great in many ways, but he lacked the resolution of the king, and in civil as in military affairs was prone to excessive caution. As an enthusiastic adherent of the Germanic and anti-Austrian policy of Prussia he joined the Fürstenbund, in which, as he now had the reputation of being the best soldier of his time, he was the destined commander-in-chief of the federal army.

Military experience

First experience

His first military experience was in the North German campaign of 1757, under the Duke of Cumberland. He gained great fame at the Battle of Hastenbeck with his gallant charge at the head of an infantry brigade.

French Revolutionary Wars

In the early summer of 1792, Ferdinand was poised with military forces at Coblenz. After the Girondins had arranged for France to declare war on Austria, voted on April 20, 1792, the Catholic Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II and the Protestant King of Prussia Frederick William II had combined armies and put them under Brunswick's command.

The "Brunswick Proclamation" or "Brunswick Manifesto" that he now issued from Coblenz on July 25, 1792 threatened war and ruin to soldiers and civilians alike, should the Republicans injure Louis XVI and his family. His avowed aim was,

"to put an end to the anarchy in the interior of France, to check the attacks upon the throne and the altar, to reestablish the legal power, to restore to the king the security and the liberty of which he is now deprived and to place him in a position to exercise once more the legitimate authority which belongs to him."

Additionally, the manifesto threatened the French public with instant punishment should they resist the Imperial and Prussian armies, or the reinstatement of the monarchy. In large part, the manifesto had been written by Louis XVI's cousin, Louis Joseph de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, who was the leader of a large corps of émigrés in the allied army.

The proclamation was intended to threaten the French public into submission; it had exactly the opposite effect.

In Paris, Louis XVI was generally believed to be in treacherous correspondence with the Austrians and Prussians already, and the Republicans became more vocal in the early summer of 1792. It remained for the Duke of Brunswick's proclamation to assure the downfall of the monarchy by his proclamation, which was being rapidly distributed in Paris by July 28 apparently by the monarchists, who badly misjudged the effect it would have (See text in link). The "Brunswick Manifesto" seemed to furnish the agitators with a complete justification for the revolt that they were already planning. The first violent action was carried out on August 10, when the Palace of the Tuileries was stormed.

After the French Revolutionary Wars

The Duke of Brunswick had served in the Seven Years' War and was made a Prussian general in 1773. After he succeeded to his title in 1780, he was made field marshal in 1787, and commanded the Prussian army that rapidly and successfully invaded the United Provinces (The Dutch Republic) and restored the authority of the House of Orange. He was less successful against the highly motivated citizen's army that met him at Valmy. Having secured Longwy and Verdun without serious resistance, he unexpectedly found himself heavily outnumbered at Valmy, turned back with a mere skirmish, and evacuated France. When he counterattacked the Revolutionary French who had invaded Germany, in 1793, he recaptured Mainz after a long siege, but resigned in 1794 in protest at interference by Frederick William II of Prussia.

He returned to command the Prussian army in 1806 during the War of the Fourth Coalition but was routed by Napoleon's marshal Davout at Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (14 October 1806) and died of the wounds he received two days later. His body was returned home for burial, which occurred on 10 November 1806.

Ancestors

Charles William Ferdinand's ancestors in three generations
Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick Father:
Charles I, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Paternal Grandfather:
Ferdinand Albert II, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Duke Ferdinand Albert I of Brunswick
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Christine of Hesse-Eschwege
Paternal Grandmother:
Antoinette Amalie of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Louis Rudolph, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Christine Louise of Oettingen
Mother:
Princess Philippine Charlotte of Prussia
Maternal Grandfather:
Frederick William I of Prussia
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Frederick I of Prussia
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Sophia Charlotte of Hanover
Maternal Grandmother:
Sophia Dorothea of Hanover
Maternal Great-grandfather:
George I of Great Britain
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Sophia Dorothea of Celle

Children

Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand's eldest son and designated heir, Karl Georg August (1766-1806), married Frederika Luise Wilhelmine, Princess of Orange-Nassau, daughter of William V, Prince of Orange and Wilhelmina of Prussia, in 1790. He died childless shortly before his father on 20 September 1806.

His successor, Friedrich Wilhelm (1771 - June 16, 1815), who was one of the bitterest opponents of Napoleonic domination in Germany, took part in the war of 1809 at the head of a corps of partisans; fled to England after the Battle of Wagram, and returned to Braunschweig in 1813, where he raised fresh troops. He was killed at the Battle of Quatre Bras.

The remaining two sons, Georg Wilhelm Christian (1769-1811) and August (1770-1822), were declared incapacitated and excluded from the line of succession; neither of them married. The eldest daughter, Auguste Caroline Friederike (1764-1788), married King Frederick I of Württemberg. The second daughter, Caroline (1768-1821), married, with very unhappy results, her first cousin King George IV of the United Kingdom.

Notes

External links

References

  • Lord Fitzmaurice, Charles W. F., duke of Brunswick (London, 1901)
  • Memoir in Allgemeine deutsche Biographie, vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1882)
  • Arthur Chuquet, Les Guerres de la Révolution: La Première Invasion prussienne (Paris)

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