Charles

Charles

[chahrlz; for 2 also Fr. sharl]
Eames, Charles, 1907-78, American designer, b. St. Louis, Mo. He opened his own architectural practice in 1930 and in the late 30s studied with Eliel Saarinen at the Cranbrook Academy, Bloomfield Hills, Mich., later teaching there, and becoming head of the design department. In 1941 he married Cranbrook colleague Ray Kaiser Eames, 1912-88, b. Sacramento, Calif., and they settled in S California. Together they created some of 20th-century America's most influential designs for furniture, interiors, fabrics, toys, and other consumer goods, most manufactured with mass-production techniques. Most famous is the stackable "Eames chair," with its molded-plywood back and seat and stainless steel legs. In 1949 they designed their now iconic Pacific Palisades home. They also worked in photography and film, making dozens of short films, e.g., Powers of Ten (1977), and designed numerous museum exhibitions.

See M. and J. Neuhart and R. Eames, Eames Design (1989); P. Kirkham, Charles and Ray Eames: Designers of the Twentieth Century (1995); D. Albrecht, ed., The Work of Charles and Ray Eames (1997); J. Barkley, Eames House (2001); E. Demetrios, An Eames Primer (2002).

Bukowski, Charles, 1920-94, American underground poet and fiction writer, b. Andernach, Germany. His family immigrated to the United States in 1922, settling in Los Angeles. A hard-drinking unskilled worker and sometime denizen of skid row, Bukowski published his first short stories in the 1940s and earliest book of poetry in 1959. Ferociously bleak in their portrayal of life in general and Los Angeles in particular, his usually self-referential, often angry poetry and prose typically depicts alcoholics, drug addicts, criminals, prostitutes, and other outcasts. During the 1960s he became an outsider hero, lauded by Sartre, Genet, and other literary celebrities. Many of Bukowski's "dirty realist" works feature as protagonist his alter ego, the womanizing tough-guy Henry Chinaski; they include the novels Post Office (1971) and Ham on Rye (1982). He wrote more than 40 volumes of poetry (some published posthumously), six novels, and several short-story collections as well as the screenplay for the semiautobiographical film Barfly (1987).

See his The Pleasures of the Damned: Poems, 1951-1993 (2007); his selected letters (3 vol., 1993-99); D. Weitzmann, Drinking with Bukowski: Recollections of the Poet Laureate of Skid Row (2000); biographies by N. Cherkovski (rev. ed. 1997), H. Sounes (1999), M. G. Baughan (2004), and B. Miles (2006); studies by H. Fox (1968), J. Sherman (1982), R. Harrison (1994), G. Locklin (1995), J. J. Smith, ed. (1995), G. Brewer and F. Day, ed. (1997), J. Christy (1997), J. Thomas (1997), and B. Pleasants (2004); bibliography by A. Krumhansi (1999).

Cressent, Charles, 1685-1768, French cabinetmaker, one of the chief creators of the régence style. Although at first a sculptor and bronze craftsman, he studied under the furniture designer Boulle and became official cabinetmaker to the regent Philippe II, duc d'Orléans. Examples of his furniture display a strong and majestic beauty, with subtly curving supports and swelling surfaces. Against their veneers of mahogany and ebony stand lavish relief adornments in superbly modeled gilt bronze—the scrolls, shells, female busts, and dragons typical of régence decoration. Pieces by Cressent are in the Louvre and in the Wallace Collection, London.
Crocker, Charles, 1822-88, American railroad builder, b. Troy, N.Y. In 1836 he moved with his family to Marshall co., Ind., where he later set up a small foundry. He joined a party to seek gold in California in 1849. He and a brother opened (1852) a store to sell supplies to miners, and as it prospered they started others, later consolidating them in Sacramento. There Crocker met Mark Hopkins, Hopkins's partner, Collis P. Huntington, and Leland Stanford, and with them he organized (1861) the Central Pacific RR Company of California. Crocker undertook responsibility for actual construction, completing it in 1869. In 1871, Crocker sold out his interest to his partners, but in the Panic of 1873 he returned as director and vice president.
Le Brun, Charles, 1619-90, French painter, decorator, and architect. He studied with Vouet and in Rome. Strongly influenced by Poussin, he returned in 1646 to Paris, where he gradually developed a more decorative form of classicism. He decorated the Hôtel Lambert and worked at Vaux-le-Vicomte with the architect Le Vau. His first royal commission (1661), the painting The Family of Darius before Alexander, established his favor with Louis XIV. With the support of Colbert, he became painter to the king in 1662. Le Brun controlled artistic production and theory in France for more than two decades. Appointed head of the Gobelins works in 1663, he was responsible for the design of royal furnishings. He supervised the work of a large corps of painters, sculptors, engravers, weavers, and other decorators. He was also director of the Académie royale, through which office he set the standard for the Grand Manner and imposed a stringent discipline upon artistic expression. Among his numerous achievements are the decorations at Versailles. In collaboration with J. H. Mansart, he designed several rooms there, including the Galerie des Glaces. Though not a highly original artist, Le Brun was a skilled administrator and was able to create an atmosphere of richness and splendor consonant with the age of Louis XIV.
Lee, Charles, 1731-82, American Revolutionary army officer, b. Cheshire, England. He first came to America to serve in the French and Indian War and took part in General Braddock's disastrous campaign (1755), in the unsuccessful campaign against Ticonderoga (1758), and in the capture of Montreal (1760). His duties as a British officer later took him to Portugal under Gen. John Burgoyne (1762) and to Poland. In 1773 he went to Virginia to live and became a supporter of colonial independence. At the start of the American Revolution his military experience won him a commission as major general in the Continental army. After directing the fortification of New York City early in 1776, he went to Charleston, S.C., and received credit for the successful defense of that city, despite his having advised William Moultrie to abandon the fort that saved the city. Returning to New York, he repeatedly disregarded General Washington's command to cross the Hudson River in the retreat after the battle of White Plains, in the hope that he could win a personal success and replace Washington as commander in chief. When he did cross he was captured (Dec. 13, 1776) by the British at Basking Ridge, N.J. As a captive he gave Gen. William Howe a plan for defeating the Americans, but his treason was not discovered. Lee was exchanged and joined Washington at Valley Forge (1778). At the battle of Monmouth (1778) he ordered a retreat of his forces and thus prevented an American victory. The rout was stemmed only by Washington, Baron von Steuben, and Nathanael Greene. A court-martial resulted in a year's suspension from command for Lee, who continued to criticize Washington abusively. In 1780 he was finally dismissed from service. His papers have been published by the New-York Historical Society (1872-75).

See biographies by J. R. Alden (1951) and S. W. Patterson (1958).

Pinckney, Charles, 1757-1824, American statesman, governor of South Carolina (1789-92, 1796-98, 1806-8), b. Charleston, S.C.; cousin of Charles C. Pinckney and Thomas Pinckney. He fought in the American Revolution and was taken prisoner in the British capture of Charleston (1780). A delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, he submitted a plan for the Constitution. Although its exact provisions are not known, his plan had considerable influence on the final draft of the Constitution. In 1798 he became a U.S. Senator, and his services in forwarding Thomas Jefferson's presidential candidacy were rewarded by his appointment (1801) as minister to Spain. His principal assignment was to secure, with James Monroe's help, the cession of Florida to the United States. The attempt failed, and Pinckney returned home in 1805. From 1819 to 1821 he was a member of the House of Representatives, where he made a celebrated speech against the Missouri Compromise.

See G. C. Rogers, Charleston in the Age of the Pinckneys (1969).

Pratt, Charles, 1st Earl Camden, 1714-94, British jurist. Appointed (1761) chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, he earned wide popularity as a result of his ruling in Entick v. Carrington (1763), where he pronounced against the legality of the general warrant under which John Wilkes was prosecuted. He became lord chancellor in 1766, but his constant denunciation of the government's policy toward the American colonists and opposition to the taxes imposed on them resulted in his dismissal (1770). He served as president of the council under the marquess of Rockingham (1782-83) and under William Pitt (1784-94). In 1786 he was created Earl Camden. His lifelong fight against the existing definition of libel culminated in the passage of Fox's Libel Act of 1792 (see press, freedom of the). Camden's son, John Jeffreys Pratt, 2d Earl and 1st Marquess Camden, 1759-1840, was lord lieutenant of Ireland (1794-98). His repressive policies there were a major factor in the outbreak of the 1798 revolution. He later served as secretary of war (1804-5) and president of the council (1805-6 and 1807-12). He was created marquess in 1812.
Booth, Charles, 1840-1916, English social investigator, pioneer in developing the social survey method. Aided by the notable social scientist Beatrice Potter Webb, he made an exhaustive statistical study of poverty in London, showing its extent, causes, and location. This was published as Life and Labour of the People in London (17 vol., 1891-1903). Booth was also active in reform groups interested in the poor and aged. His other writings include Old Age Pensions and the Aged Poor (1899) and Industrial Unrest and Trade Union Policy (1914).

See his selected writings (1967); study by T. Simey and M. Simey (1960).

Borromeo, Charles: see Charles Borromeo, Saint.
Bourbon, Charles, duc de, 1490-1527, constable of France and governor of Milan. He distinguished himself at the battle of Marignano (1515) in the Italian Wars between King Francis I and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Enmity, encouraged by the queen mother, Louise of Savoy, arose between King Francis I and the duke, who went over to the emperor, after long negotiations, in 1523. His estates were confiscated. He fought against the French in Italy, notably at the battle of Pavia (1525), and was killed in an attack on Rome, which was sacked by his unpaid, mutinous troops.

See biography by C. Hare (1911).

Boyle, Charles, 4th earl of Orrery: see Orrery, Charles Boyle, 4th earl of.
Laughton, Charles, 1899-1962, Anglo-American actor, b. Scarborough, England. A large, versatile character actor, Laughton was successful both in films and on the stage. In The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933), his lusty portrait of the king, for which he won the Academy Award, was startlingly direct. Other notable roles include Ruggles of Red Gap (1935), Mutiny on the Bounty (1935), Witness for the Prosecution (1957), and Advise and Consent (1962). He directed one film, The Night of the Hunter (1955), a forceful allegory of good and evil. In 1951 he directed and starred in a dramatic reading of Shaw's Don Juan in Hell.

See biography by his wife, Elsa Lanchester (1938); S. Callow, Charles Laughton: A Difficult Actor (1987, repr. 1997).

Lawrence, Charles, 1709-60, governor of Nova Scotia, b. England. A soldier, he accompanied his regiment to Nova Scotia in 1747 and later became lieutenant governor (1754-56) and governor (1756-60) of the province. It was mainly by his orders as governor that the Acadians were deported (see Acadia). It was in his regime, but not with his approval, that the first elected assembly of Nova Scotia met (1758); it is the oldest representative body in Canada. He attained (1757) the rank of brigadier general and commanded (1759) a brigade at the siege of Louisburg.
Olson, Charles, 1910-70, American critic and poet, b. Worcester, Mass., grad. Harvard (B.A., 1932; M.A., 1933). His literary reputation was established with Call Me Ishmael (1947), a study of the influence of Shakespeare and other writers on Melville's Moby-Dick. Later he became noted as a poet. Olson wrote what he called "projective" (open) verse, which he believed transmitted energy from the past to the reader. His works include The Maximus Poems (1960 and 1968), Casual Mythology (1969), and Poetry and Truth (1971).
Pichegru, Charles, 1761-1804, French general in the French Revolutionary Wars. Successful on the Rhine front (1793), he invaded (1794) the Netherlands, entered (1795) Amsterdam and captured the Dutch fleet, which had frozen in the ice. In the same year, however, he secretly negotiated with the Austrians in an attempt to restore the monarchy, to which his own fortune was tied. Pichegru deliberately allowed the Austrians to retake Mannheim. Recalled by the Directory, he was relieved of his command. A deputy to the Council of Five Hundred (1797), Pichegru was elected its president by the royalist majority. He was later arrested in the coup of 18 Fructidor (1797), but he escaped to England. He returned to France in 1803 to carry out a royalist conspiracy with Georges Cadoudal. Pichegru was arrested but was found strangled in his cell before the trial.
Hodge, Charles, 1797-1878, American Calvinist theologian, b. Philadelphia. He was associated with Princeton Theological Seminary, where, after graduation, he taught first Oriental and biblical literature and later theology for 58 years. His chief work is his Systematic Theology (3 vol., 1872-73). He also wrote The Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America (2 vol., 1839-40), Discussions of Church Polity (1878), and several widely used volumes of commentaries. He contributed the equivalent of many volumes to the Princeton Review, which he founded and edited for over 40 years. His biography was written (1880, repr. 1969) by his son Archibald Alexander Hodge, 1823-86, who succeeded to his place at the seminary.
Chaillé-Long, Charles, 1842-1917, American soldier, African explorer, and writer, b. Princess Anne, Md. After serving in the Civil War, he was commissioned (1869) in the Egyptian army under Gen. C. G. Gordon. Chaillé-Long explored the Victoria Nile and was awarded a medal by the American Geographical Society. In 1875 he crossed the Congo-Nile divide to the Bahr al Ghazal region. He returned to the United States, graduated from Columbia Law School, and became (1887-89) consul general and secretary to the legation in Korea. His travel narratives in English include The Three Prophets (1884), My Life in Four Continents (1912), and Central Africa: Naked Truths of Naked People (1876). Among his writings in French are Les Sources du Nil (1891), L'Égypte et ses provinces perdues (1892), and La Corée ou Tschösen (1894).
Despiau, Charles, 1874-1946, French sculptor. He studied at the École des Arts décoratifs and the École des Beaux-Arts, Paris, and worked in Rodin's studio (1907-14). His well-constructed, quiescent forms of young women have often been compared with the works of Maillol. Despiau is known for his sensitive portrait busts; his Mme Derain (1922) is in the Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.
Dibdin, Charles, 1745-1814, English songwriter and theatrical entrepreneur. His best-known songs are from his ballad operas, such as The Bells of Aberdovey from Liberty Hall (1785) and To Bachelors' Hall and Tom Bowling from The Oddities (1789).
Dickens, Charles, 1812-70, English author, b. Portsmouth, one of the world's most popular, prolific, and skilled novelists.

Early Life and Works

The son of a naval clerk, Dickens spent his early childhood in London and in Chatham. When he was 12 his father was imprisoned for debt, and Charles was compelled to work in a blacking warehouse. He never forgot this double humiliation. At 17 he was a court stenographer, and later he was an expert parliamentary reporter for the Morning Chronicle. His sketches, mostly of London life (signed Boz), began appearing in periodicals in 1833, and the collection Sketches by Boz (1836) was a success.

Soon Dickens was commissioned to write burlesque sporting sketches; the result was The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club (1836-37), which promptly made Dickens and his characters, especially Sam Weller and Mr. Pickwick, famous. In 1836 he married Catherine Hogarth, who was to bear him 10 children; the marriage, however, was never happy. Dickens had a tender regard for Catherine's sister Mary Hogarth, who died young, and a lifelong friendship with another sister, Georgina Hogarth.

Maturity

The early-won fame never deserted Dickens. His readers were eager and ever more numerous, and Dickens worked vigorously for them, producing novels that appeared first in monthly installments and then were made into books. Oliver Twist (in book form, 1838) was followed by Nicholas Nickleby (1839) and by two works originally intended to start a series called Master Humphrey's Clock: The Old Curiosity Shop (1841) and Barnaby Rudge (1841).

Dickens wrote rapidly, sometimes working on more than one novel at a time, and usually finished an installment just when it was due. Haste did not prevent his loosely strung and intricately plotted books from being the most popular novels of his day. When he visited America in 1842, he was received with ovations but awakened some displeasure by his remarks on copyright protection and his approval of the abolition of slavery. He replied with sharp criticism of America in American Notes (1842) and the novel Martin Chuzzlewit (1843). The first of his Christmas books was the well-loved A Christmas Carol (1843). In later years other short novels and stories written for the season followed, notably The Chimes and The Cricket on the Hearth.

Dickens lived in Italy in 1844 and in Switzerland in 1846. Dombey and Son (1848) was the first in a string of triumphant novels including David Copperfield (1850), his own favorite novel, which was partly autobiographical; Bleak House (1853); Hard Times (1854); Little Dorrit (1857); A Tale of Two Cities (1859); Great Expectations (1861); and Our Mutual Friend (1865). In 1856 he bought his long-desired country home at Gadshill. Two years later, because of Dickens's attentions to a young actress, Ellen Ternan, his wife ended their marriage by formal separation. Her sister Georgina remained with Dickens to care for his household and the younger children.

Dickens was working furiously, editing and contributing to the magazines Household Words (1850-59) and All the Year Round (1858-70) and managing amateur theatricals. To these labors he added platform readings from his own works; three tours in the British Isles (1858, 1861-65, 1866-67) were followed by one in America (1867-68). When he undertook another English tour of readings (1869-70), his health broke, and he died soon afterward, leaving his last novel, The Mystery of Edwin Drood, unfinished. His grave is in Westminster Abbey.

Dickens's Genius

Charles Dickens is one of the giants of English literature. He wrote from his own experience a great deal—the Marshalsea prison dominates Little Dorrit, and his father was at least partially the model for Mr. Micawber in David Copperfield. Although he was expert at journalistic reporting, he wrote nothing that was not transformed from actuality by his imagination. Sharp depiction of the eccentricities and characteristic traits of people was stretched into caricature, and for generations of readers the names of his characters—Mr. Pickwick, Uriah Heep, Miss Havisham, Ebenezer Scrooge—have been household words.

His enormous warmth of feeling sometimes spilled into sentimental pathos, sometimes flowed as pure tragedy. Dickens was particularly successful at evoking the sights, sounds, and smells of London, and the customs of his day. He attacked the injustices of the law and social hypocrisy and evils, but after many of the ills he pictured had been cured he gained still more readers. Some critics complain of his disorderliness in structure and of his sentimentality, but none has attempted to deny his genius at revealing the very pulse of life.

Bibliography

See his letters ed. by M. House et al. (12 vol., 1965-2002). The old standard biography of Dickens is by his friend John Forster (3 vol., 1872-74; new ed. 1928, repr. 1966). See also biographies by P. Collins (1987), F. Kaplan (1988), P. Ackroyd (1990), and M. Slater (2009); studies by M. Engel (1959), I. Brown (1964 and 1970), A. Wilson (1970), A. E. Dyson (1971), J. Carey (1974), E. Johnson, (1986), and J. Smiley (2002); P. Collins, ed., Dickens: The Critical Heritage (1971); P. Hobsbaum, A Reader's Guide to Charles Dickens (1973); M. and M. Hardwick, The Charles Dickens Encyclopedia (1973); N. Page, A Dickens Companion (1987); P. Ackroyd, Dickens' London (1988).

Sumner, Charles, 1811-74, U.S. senator from Massachusetts (1851-74), b. Boston. He attended (1831-33) and was later a lecturer at Harvard law school, was admitted (1834) to the bar, and practiced in Boston. He spent the years 1837 to 1840 in Europe. Later he became involved in several reform movements, including antislavery, and in 1851 a combination of Free-Soilers and Democrats sent him to the Senate. An aggressive abolitionist, Sumner attacked the fugitive slave laws, denounced the Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854, and on May 19-20, 1856, delivered his notable antislavery speech called "The Crime against Kansas." A master of invective, he singled out as his special victim Senator Andrew Pickens Butler of South Carolina, who was not there to reply. Two days later he was assaulted in the Senate chamber by Preston S. Brooks, Butler's nephew. It took Sumner more than three years to recover from the attack, but Massachusetts reelected him, and he resumed his seat in Dec., 1859. He had been important in organizing the new Republican party and in 1861 was made chairman of the Senate foreign relations committee. In the Trent Affair he favored the release of the captured Confederate commissioners. Sumner highly approved Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation; indeed he had been impatient at the long delay. Sumner in the Senate and Thaddeus Stevens in the House led the radical Republicans in their Reconstruction program for the South. He held that the Southern states had "committed suicide" by their secession and thus had lost any rights under the Constitution. Reconstruction he considered the function of Congress alone and he was most active in trying to secure the conviction of President Andrew Johnson on the impeachment charges. During the administration of Ulysses S. Grant, Sumner's excessive demands regarding Civil War claims against Great Britain hampered the administration's negotiations with that country. His relationship with Grant deteriorated further when Sumner denounced Grant's questionable scheme to annex Santo Domingo; this led to his removal (Mar., 1871) from the chairmanship of the committee on foreign relations. Humiliated, Sumner helped organize (1872) the short-lived Liberal Republican party. Sumner wrote and spoke widely, and there are two editions of his works (15 vol., 1870-83; 20 vol., 1900).

See E. L. Pierce, Memoir and Letters of Charles Sumner (4 vol., 1877-93); D. H. Donald, Charles Sumner and the Coming of the Civil War (1960, repr. 1970) and Charles Sumner and the Rights of Man (1970).

Warren, Charles, 1868-1954, American lawyer and historian, b. Boston. He was admitted to the Massachusetts bar in 1892. An assistant U.S. Attorney General (1914-18), he served as a special master in important cases decided by the U.S. Supreme Court. He drafted the Espionage Act (1917), which was used to censor and imprison radicals. Warren is noted for his scholarly studies of constitutional history, especially The Supreme Court in United States History (3 vol., 1922; rev. ed., 2 vol., 1926, repr. 1960), which won the Pulitzer Prize. He also wrote Congress, the Constitution, and the Supreme Court (1925, repr. 1969) and The Making of the Constitution (1928, repr. 1967).
Frohman, Charles, 1860-1915, American theatrical manager and producer, b. Sandusky, Ohio. Starting his career as a box-office clerk in Brooklyn, N.Y., Frohman became a successful producer with Bronson Howard's Shenandoah (1889). In 1893 he organized the Empire Theatre Stock Company. Soon he acquired five other New York City theaters and later headed the Theatrical Syndicate. He was known for his ability to develop talent; his stars included John Drew, Ethel Barrymore, E. H. Sothern, Julia Marlowe, Maude Adams, and Henry Miller. In 1897 he leased the Duke of York's Theatre, London, introducing plays there as well as in the United States. Clyde Fitch, J. M. Barrie, and Edmond Rostand were among the playwrights he promoted. The system of exchange of successful plays between London and New York was largely a result of his efforts. He was known as an exceptionally fair man whose word was his only contract. Frohman died at sea on the Lusitania.
Sangster, Charles, 1822-93, Canadian poet, b. Ontario. At first an imitator of Byron, he became, with the publication of Hesperus and Other Poems and Lyrics (1860), the first notable Canadian poet to make use of native themes and settings.

See biography by W. D. Hamilton (1971).

Gwathmey, Charles: see under Gwathmey, Robert.
Albanel, Charles, 1616-96, French missionary explorer in Canada, a Jesuit priest. After arriving in Canada (1649), he was stationed many years at Tadoussac where he explored the surrounding wilderness. At the time when the English Hudson's Bay Company was beginning operations, he was a leader of a French party that went (1671-72) by the Saguenay River, Mistassini Lake, and the Rupert River to Hudson Bay. The region was claimed for France. On another journey there he was captured (1674) by the English and taken to England. After returning (1676) to Canada, he served at missions in western Canada and died at Sault Ste Marie.
Lalemant, Charles, 1587-1674, French Jesuit missionary in North America; brother of Jérôme Lalemant and uncle of Gabriel Lalemant. He arrived in Quebec in 1625 and acted as novice master and superior. His account, the earliest of the Jesuit Relations, is valuable. He was noted as a mystic. In 1639 he returned to France, where he acted as forwarding agent for the Canadian missions.
Lamb, Charles, 1775-1834, English essayist, b. London. He went to school at Christ's Hospital, where his lifelong friendship with Coleridge began. Lamb was a clerk at the India House from 1792 to 1825. In 1796 his sister Mary Ann Lamb (1764-1847) in a fit of temporary insanity attacked and wounded their father and stabbed and killed their mother. Lamb had himself declared her guardian to save her from permanent commitment to an asylum, and after 1799 they lived together. Mary was an intelligent and affectionate companion, but the shadow of her madness continued to plague their lives. They collaborated on several books for children, publishing in 1807 their famous Tales from Shakespeare. Lamb wrote four plays, none of which were successful. However, his dramatic essays, Specimens of English Dramatic Poets (1808), established his reputation as a critic and did much in reviving the popularity of Elizabethan drama. From 1800 on he wrote intermittently for periodicals, the major contribution being the famous Essays of Elia (London Magazine, 1820-25), which were collected in 1823 and 1833. The essays cover a variety of subjects and maintain throughout an intimate and familiar tone. Lamb's style is peculiarly his own. His close-knit, subtle organization, his self-revealing observations on life, and his humor, fantasy, and pathos combine to make him one of the great masters of the English essay. Lamb was a gifted conversationalist and was friendly with most of the major literary figures of his time.

See his Life, Letters and Writings, ed. by P. Fitzgerald (1895, repr. 1971); E. W. Marrs, Jr., ed., The Letters of Charles and Mary Anne Lamb (3 vol., 1975-78); biographies by A. Ainger (1901, repr. 1970), E. V. Lucas (1968), D. Cecil (1984), and B. Cornwall (2003); biography of Mary Anne Lamb by S. T. Hitchcock (2004); studies by E. Blunden (1954; 1933, repr. 1967), J. E. Riehl (1980), and G. Monsman (1984 and 2003).

Reade, Charles, 1814-84, English novelist and dramatist. He is noted for his historical romance The Cloister and the Hearth. After being elected a fellow of Magdalen College, Oxford, he was called to the bar. His interests, however, soon turned to the theater. He achieved his first success with Masks and Faces (1852), written in collaboration with Tom Taylor. The play, concerned with life in the theater, was used as the basis for his first novel, Peg Woffington (1853). An ardent reformer, he began a long series of propagandist novels with It's Never Too Late to Mend (1856), describing the cruelties of prison discipline. Others in the series included Hard Cash (1863), and Put Yourself in His Place (1870). He also wrote the novels Griffith Grant (1866), Foul Play (1869), and A Terrible Temptation (1871). His masterpiece, The Cloister and the Hearth (1861), is a picaresque novel concerning the adventures of Gerard, the father of Erasmus. In 1879 Reade collaborated with Charles Warner in writing Drink, a dramatization of Zola's L'Assommoir.

See biography by M. Elwin (1931); study by W. Burns (1961).

Foster, Charles, 1828-1904, U.S. Secretary of the Treasury (1891-93), b. Seneca co., Ohio. He was long identified with the business interests of Fostoria, Ohio—named for C. W. Foster, his father. A Republican, he served (1871-79) in the U.S. House of Representatives and as a member of the Committee on Ways and Means aided in exposing (1874) fraudulent contracts in connection with the U.S. Treasury Dept. He was twice (1879, 1881) elected governor of Ohio. On the death of William Windom, President Benjamin Harrison appointed Foster, a declared bimetallist, to the Treasury post.
Foucauld, Charles, vicomte de, 1858-1916, French priest and missionary in the Sahara. After a career as an army officer and an explorer in Algeria and Morocco, he entered a Trappist monastery in 1890. In 1901 he was ordained and volunteered to go to the Sahara under the patronage of the White Fathers (the Society of Missionaries of Africa). In 1905 he went to Algeria and lived among the Tuareg. He settled near the small village of Tamanrasset, where he produced his studies of Tuareg language and literature. He was killed when the desert tribes revolted against France. Foucauld is revered for the sincerity of his vocation.

See his Spiritual Autobiography, ed. and annotated by J. F. Six (tr. 1964); biography by M. L. Trouncer (1972).

Fourier, Charles, 1772-1837, French social philosopher. From a bourgeois family, he condemned existing institutions and evolved a kind of utopian socialism. In Théorie des quatre mouvements (1808) and later works he developed his idea that the natural passions of man would, if properly channeled, result in social harmony. To achieve this goal, many of the artificial restraints of civilization were to be destroyed. The social organization for such development was to be based on the "phalanx," an economic unit composed of 1,620 people. Members would live in the phalanstère (or phalanstery), a community building, and work would be divided among people according to their natural inclinations. Fourier was not ready to discard capitalism completely; basically his ideal was an agricultural society, systematically arranged. His writings anticipated the 20th-century social problems resulting from mechanization and industrialization. Fourierism obtained a number of converts in France, and several newspapers spread the doctrines, but followers failed to establish any lasting colony there. After Fourier's death his principal disciple, Victor Prosper Considérant, tried to found a colony in Texas. Albert Brisbane and Horace Greeley were the principal figures in the sudden and wide development of colonies in the United States. Brook Farm was for a time Fourierist. The most successful of the communities was the North American Phalanx at Red Bank, N.J.

See studies by N. V. Riasanovsky (1969), D. Zeldin (1969), and J. F. Beecher (1987).

Pathé, Charles, 1873-1957, French photographer. He was the first to present (c.1909) the newsreel as a regular attraction at a theater in Paris. In 1910 he introduced the newsreel to the United States; thereafter the Pathé News Reel became an international product.
Péguy, Charles, 1873-1914, French poet and writer. Of a poor, working family, he won scholarships and made a brilliant record as a student. He left the École normale supérieure to devote himself to the cause of socialism. He was, however, individual in his views, and he broke with the socialist party. In 1900 he founded the Cahiers de la quinzaine, a periodical in which he published his own works and those of other young writers. Through his life he worked passionately for justice, truth, and the good of the common person and the world. He was the outstanding Roman Catholic supporter of Dreyfus in the Dreyfus Affair, and his polemics against injustice were fiery. Though formally he was often at odds with the church, he is among the foremost modern Catholic writers. He sought to infuse spirituality into every aspect of life. His great poem Le Mystère de la charité de Jeanne d'Arc (1910, tr. by Julian Green 1950) expresses his ideal of the spiritual in action. His repetitive chantlike verse has great power. Others of his long works are Le Porche du mystère de la deuxième vertu (1911) and Eve (1913). He was killed at the battle of the Marne in World War I. Translations of his works appear in Basic Verities (1943) and Men and Saints (1944), both translated by Ann and Julian Green; Julian Green also translated some of Péguy's religious poetry in God Speaks (1945).

See studies by M. Villiers (1965), N. Jussem-Wilson (1965), H. A. Schmitt (1967), and G. Hill (1984).

Fleetwood, Charles, 1618?-1692, English parliamentary general. He fought under Oliver Cromwell in many battles of the English civil war and later (1650) in Scotland. He became (1651) a member of the council of state and married (1652) Bridget, daughter of Cromwell and widow of Henry Ireton. He succeeded Ireton as commander in chief in Ireland (1652-55) and continued Ireton's work in directing the settlement of English soldiers on lands confiscated from Irish landholders. As ranking military officer under Richard Cromwell, he led (1659) the army coup that forced the protector to dissolve Parliament. At the Restoration (1660) he was barred from holding further public office.
Simic, Charles, 1938-, American poet, b. Belgrade, Yugoslavia. Simic moved to the United States in 1954, joining his father, who had arrived before World War II. Simic studied at New York Univ. (B.A., 1966) and taught at several colleges, most notably from 1974 at the Univ. of New Hampshire, where he is now a professor emeritus. Simic has written more than 60 books, including the poetry collections What the Grass Says (1960), Charon's Cosmology (1977), Unending Blues (1986), The World Doesn't End (1990, Pulitzer Prize), Walking the Black Cat (1996), Jackstraws (1999), The Voice at 3:00 AM (2003), My Noiseless Entourage (2005), and That Little Something (2008). His poetry is stark and startlingly original, with touches of ironic humor; his language is plainspoken and accessible, although his imagery is often dark and sometimes bizarre. He also is celebrated for his translations of Yugoslav and French poets and has written many essays and edited several anthologies. A former MacArthur fellow (1984-89), Simic was named U.S. poet laureate in 2007.

See his collected memoirs, A Fly in the Soup (2003); M. Hulse, Charles Simic in Conversation with Michael Hulse (2002); B. Weigl, ed., Charles Simic: Essays on the Poetry (1996).

Evans, Charles, 1850-1935, American librarian and bibliographer, b. Boston. He organized many major American libraries including the Indianapolis public library, the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, and the Omaha public library. He also classified the Newberry Library in Chicago. An authority on American literature, Evans published American Bibliography (1903-55), a chronological directory of all material published in the United States from 1639 to 1820.
Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Annapolis, Md. After completing his education in France and England, he returned home (1765) and his father gave him a large estate near Frederick, Md., known as Carrollton Manor; he was afterward styled Charles Carroll of Carrollton. As leader of the Roman Catholic element, he opposed support of the established Anglican Church, presenting his views in a series of articles written for the Maryland Gazette. He threw himself boldly into revolutionary activities, and in 1776 the Continental Congress appointed him, together with Benjamin Franklin and Samuel Chase, to seek Canadian support for the Continental cause. His journal is one of the chief sources for study of this unsuccessful mission. Carroll served (1776-78) in the Continental Congress; he refused to attend the Federal Constitutional Convention (1787), but he later supported the Constitution. He was (1789-92) U.S. Senator from Maryland.

See biographies by K. M. Rowland (1898, repr. 1968), J. Gurn (1932), and E. H. Smith (1942, repr. 1971).

Sackville, Charles, 6th earl of Dorset, 1638-1706, English poet and courtier. After the restoration, he became a member of the intimate circle of young rakes and wits at the court of Charles II, writing epigrams, caustic satires, and songs, of which the best known is the ballad "To All You Ladies Now at Land." In 1652 he was given the courtesy title Lord Buckhurst.
Baudelaire, Charles, 1821-67, French poet and critic. His poetry, classical in form, introduced symbolism (see symbolists) by establishing symbolic correspondences among sensory images (e.g., colors, sounds, scents). The only volume of his poems published in his lifetime, Les Fleurs du mal (1857, enlarged 1861, 1868; several Eng. tr., The Flowers of Evil), was publicly condemned as obscene, and six of the poems were suppressed. Later recognized as a masterpiece, the volume is especially remarkable for the brilliant phrasing, rhythm, and expressiveness of its lyrics. Baudelaire's erratic personality was marked by moodiness, rebelliousness, and an intense religious mysticism. His life was burdened with debts, misunderstanding, illness, and excesses, and his work unremittingly reflects inner despair. The main theme is the inseparable nature of beauty and corruption. A collection of poetic prose pieces was published posthumously as Petits poèmes en prose (1869). As poet and critic Baudelaire earned distinction in literary circles. Believing criticism to be a function of the poet, he wrote perceptive appraisals of his contemporaries. His criticism was collected posthumously in Curiosités esthétiques (1868) and L'Art romantique (1869). He felt a great affinity to Poe, whose works he translated and brought to the attention of the French public. One of the great figures of French literature, Baudelaire has also been a major influence in other Western poetry.

See his letters (tr. by S. Morini and F. Tuten, 1970), his intimate journal (tr. by C. Isherwood, 1947), and selected letters (tr. and ed. by L. B. and F. E. Hyslop, 1957); biography by E. Starkie (rev. ed. 1958), studies by J.-P. Sartre (1950, repr. 1972) and M. A. Ruff (1965).

Scribner, Charles, 1821-71, American publisher, b. New York City. He founded in 1846 the publishing house that in 1878 became Charles Scribner's Sons and in 1870 he began Scribner's Monthly, which in 1881 became the Century Magazine. His son, Charles Scribner, 1854-1930, became head of the firm in 1879 and founded Scribner's Magazine, a literary periodical, in 1887. He was the donor of the Princeton Univ. Press building.
Bent, Charles, 1799-1847, American frontiersman, b. St. Louis. He entered the fur trade of the Missouri River and became one of the mountain men. His interests turned to the Southwest, and he led expeditions on the Santa Fe Trail. Charles Bent was the senior partner of a trading firm that included Ceran St. Vrain as well as William Bent and others of the seven Bent brothers. The company was one of the most prominent on the frontier, and Bent's Fort was one of the most famous American trading posts. Because of his high standing, Charles Bent was chosen as governor of New Mexico after the American occupation in the Mexican War. He was murdered at Taos in an uprising of Native Americans and Mexicans.
Bonnet, Charles, 1720-93, Swiss naturalist and philosopher. He drew attention to parthenogenesis in aphids, but his theories were highly fanciful and unscientific. His books include Traité d'insectologie (1745) and Contemplation de la nature (1764-65).
Frankel, Charles, 1917-79, American philosopher, b. New York City, grad. Columbia 1937, Ph.D., 1946. A teacher at Columbia since 1939, he became Old Dominion professor of philosophy and public affairs in 1970. His extensive writings are on social philosophy, the philosophy of history, and value theory, as well as on education and religion. His emphasis, like that of John Dewey, was on practical philosophy rather than metaphysical speculation. Between 1965 and 1967, Frankel was assistant secretary of state for educational and cultural affairs. His works include The Faith of Reason (1948); The Case for Modern Man (1956, rev. ed. 1959); The Democratic Prospect (1962); and Pleasures of Philosophy (1972).
Tilly, Charles, 1929-, American sociologist. Educated at Harvard and Oxford, Tilly has taught at the Univ. of Michigan and the New School for Social Research. His book The Contentious French (1986) painstakingly documents people confronting the power of the nation-state and modern capitalism and examines how the growth of social structures influenced their "repertoires of collective actions." His numerous other books include From Mobilization to Revolution (1978), Big Structures, Large Processes, Huge Comparisons (1985), European Revolutions, 1492-1992 (1993), Cities and the Rise of States in Europe, A.D. 1000 to 1800 (1994), and Durable Inequality (1998).
Loyson, Charles, 1827-1912, French preacher, called Père Hyacinthe. He was successively a Sulpician, a Dominican, and a Carmelite. In 1869, when he was perhaps the best-known preacher in France, he opposed the calling of the Vatican Council. He opposed enunciation of the doctrine of the infallibility of the pope, and in 1871 he left the Church. In 1878 he founded a Gallican church at Paris; this joined later (1893) with the Jansenists of Utrecht.
Lynch, Charles, 1736-96, American Revolutionary soldier, b. near the site of Lynchburg, Va. A member (1767-76) of the Virginia house of burgesses, he took a prominent part in the preparations for war. When a Tory conspiracy was discovered (1780) in Bedford co., where he had been a justice of the peace from 1774, Lynch, a zealous patriot, presided over an extralegal court that meted out summary punishment to the Loyalists. From this action is said to come the origin of the term "lynch law." Lynch clearly exceeded his authority, but he was later exonerated by the state legislature. He led a volunteer regiment at the battle of Guilford Courthouse in 1781.
Meryon, Charles, 1821-68, French etcher. His short life was saddened by poverty and neglect and complicated by recurring forms of mental aberration. Prevented by color blindness from painting, he became an etcher and evolved an incomparable technique. Reflecting the romanticism of the period, he depicted architectural settings with great structural clarity, often inserting grotesque or enigmatic figures. His fame rests largely on his poetic series of 22 etchings of old sections of Paris, Eaux-Fortes sur Paris (1850-54). Meryon died insane at 47.

See studies by L. Delteil (1928) and C. Dodgson (1931).

Gide, Charles, 1847-1932, French economist. A professor at the universities of Bordeaux, Montpellier, and Paris, Gide was an expert on international monetary problems. He also played an important part in the cooperative movement, and his Consumers' Co-operative Societies (1904; tr. from 3d French ed. 1921) is a classic in the field. His other works include Principles of Political Economy (1883; tr. from 23d ed. 1924) and, with Charles Rist, History of Economic Doctrines (1909; tr. from 2d ed. 1915).

See K. Walter, ed., Co-operation and Charles Gide (1933).

Ginner, Charles, 1878-1952, English painter. After study in Paris, Ginner settled in London, becoming a founder of the neorealist school. During both world wars he was an official government artist. Among his World War II paintings are several scenes of air raids.
Hélou, Charles, 1911-2001, Lebanese political leader. After working as a newspaper publisher, he was appointed (1947) Lebanon's representative to the Vatican. He served (1954-55) as minister of justice and health in the government of Camille Chamoun. Hélou served as Lebanon's president from 1964 to 1970.
Rémusat, Charles, comte de, 1797-1875, French philosopher and liberal politician. He was a deputy (1830-48) and minister of the interior (1840) under King Louis Philippe. In the Revolution of 1848 he was associated with Adolphe Thiers. Rémusat went into exile after the coup of Louis Napoleon (later Emperor Napoleon III), becoming politically active again when the emperor had to make concessions to the liberals toward the end of the Second Empire. After Napoleon's fall he served (1871-73) under Thiers as minister of foreign affairs. Among his works are Essais de philosophie (1842), Histoire de la philosophie en Angleterre depuis Bacon jusqu'à Locke (1875), and several biographies.
Seignobos, Charles, 1854-1942, French historian. He taught at the Univ. of Paris and wrote many works on French and European history and civilization, some being contributions to the series edited by Ernest Lavisse and Alfred Rambaud. A number of these are widely used as textbooks in France. Seignobos's most outstanding book is his Histoire politique de l'Europe contemporaine (1897). Noted for his clear and unbiased narrative, Seignobos emphasized political history rather than social and economic change.
Howard, Charles, 1st earl of Carlisle: see Carlisle, Charles Howard, 1st earl of.
Curtis, Charles, 1860-1936, Vice President of the United States (1929-33), b. near North Topeka, Kans. Of part Native American background, Curtis lived for three years on a Kaw reservation. After studying law with a Topeka attorney, he was admitted to the bar (1881) and entered Republican politics in Kansas. He served in the U.S. Congress (1892-1906), where he championed Native American rights to self-government with the Curtis Act (1898). He served in the U.S. Senate from 1907 to 1913 and from 1915 to 1929. He was a fiscal conservative and generally supported farm and veterans' benefits. After an unsuccessful bid for the Republican presidential nomination, he became Herbert Hoover's running mate in 1928. Once elected, he played little part in the administration, but in 1932 he again ran with Hoover in his unsuccessful try for a second term.

See biography by M. Ewy (1961).

de Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970, French general and statesman, first president (1959-69) of the Fifth Republic.

The World Wars

During World War I de Gaulle served with distinction until his capture in 1916. In The Army of the Future (1934, tr. 1941) he foresaw and futilely advocated for France the mechanized warfare by which Germany was to conquer France in 1940. In World War II he was promoted to brigadier general (1940) and became undersecretary of war in the cabinet of Premier Paul Reynaud.

De Gaulle opposed the Franco-German armistice and fled (June, 1940) to London, where he organized the Free French forces and rallied several French colonies to his movement. He was sentenced to death in absentia by a French military court. The Free French forces were successful in Syria, Madagascar, and N Africa. In June, 1943, de Gaulle became copresident, with Gen. Henri Honoré Giraud, of the newly formed French Committee of National Liberation at Algiers. He succeeded in forcing Giraud out of the committee, and in June, 1944, it was proclaimed the provisional government of France.

The Postwar Period

De Gaulle's government returned to Paris on Aug. 26 and was recognized by the principal Allies. He was unanimously elected provisional president of France in Nov., 1945, but he resigned in Jan., 1946, when it became obvious that his views favoring a strong executive would not be incorporated into the new constitution. Many of the rightist elements had gathered under the Gaullist banner, and he became (1947) head of a new party—Rassemblement du Peuple Français [Rally of the French People]—which claimed to speak for all Frenchmen and to be above factional strife but which, nevertheless, took part in subsequent elections. The party had some temporary electoral success, but in 1953 de Gaulle dissolved it and went into retirement.

Algeria and Internal Affairs

In 1958, after the military and civilian revolt in Algeria had created a political crisis in France, he was considered the only leader of sufficient strength and stature to deal with the situation. He became premier with power to rule by decree for six months. During this time a new constitution, which strengthened the presidency, was drawn up (1958). The constitution also provided for the French Community, the first step toward resolving imperial problems. De Gaulle was inaugurated as president of the new Fifth Republic in Jan., 1959. He decided to allow Algeria self-determination. This decision led to several revolts in Algeria by French colonists who opposed independence. Finally in 1962 an agreement was reached that provided for Algerian independence.

In domestic affairs de Gaulle attempted to restore French national finances by devaluing the franc and creating a new franc worth 100 old francs. Much of de Gaulle's program consisted of an attempt to raise France to its former world stature. He argued for French parity with the United States in NATO decisions and promoted French development of atomic weapons. In 1966, he withdrew French troops from NATO and ordered the withdrawal of NATO military installations from France by Apr., 1967.

The Final Presidency

De Gaulle was reelected to a second seven-year term in 1965. Although he rejected limitations on French sovereignty, he supported participation in the Common Market but strongly opposed British membership in it. He fostered ties with West Germany and established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of China. In May, 1968, student demonstrations protesting French political and educational systems were followed by huge workers' strikes that nearly toppled the Gaullist government. Nevertheless, in elections held in June, the Gaullists were returned to power. In 1969, after being defeated in a referendum on constitutional reform, de Gaulle resigned as president.

Bibliography

See De Gaulle's War Memoirs (tr., 3 vol., 1955-60; repr. 1984) and Memoirs of Hope (tr. 1972); biographies by P. Masson (1971), B. Crozier (1973), D. Cook (1984), and C. Williams (1995); A. Werth, The De Gaulle Revolution (1960), P. M. Williams and M. Harrison, De Gaulle's Republic (1960), R. Aron, An Explanation of De Gaulle (1965), J. Hess, The Case for De Gaulle (1968), A. Hartley, Gaullism (1971), P. Alexandre, The Duel: De Gaulle and Pompidou (1972), J. Lacouture, De Gaulle (2 vol., 1990-92).

Demuth, Charles, 1883-1935, American watercolor painter, b. Lancaster, Pa. At the age of 20 he began his art study under William Chase at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts. In 1907 and again in 1912, Demuth visited Europe. On returning to the United States he began a series of line-and-wash illustrations for works of Zola, Poe, and Henry James and made drawings of vaudeville performers. He is perhaps best known for his beautiful translucent flower and fruit studies in watercolor. Demuth was one of the first painters to draw inspiration from the geometric shapes of machines and modern technology. There are several works by him in the Art Institute, Chicago, and many in the Columbus Gallery of Fine Arts, Ohio.

See biography by E. Farnham (1971) and A. L. Eiseman (1986).

Charles (Charles Philip Arthur George), 1948-, prince of Wales, eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II of Great Britain and heir apparent to the British throne. He was created prince of Wales in 1958 and invested at Caernarvon Castle in 1969. He graduated from Cambridge in 1971 and served in the Royal Navy (1971-76).

In 1981 he married Lady Diana Frances Spencer (see Diana, princess of Wales). Their children, next in line to succeed him, are Prince William (b. 1982) and Prince Henry (b. 1984). Following the separation of Charles and Diana in 1992, the deterioration of their personal relationship became the subject of intense, sometimes lurid, media coverage. By the time of their divorce (1996) and her death (Aug., 1997) in a Paris car crash, the sympathies of the British public appeared deeply divided between Charles and Diana.

Charles has been an outspoken critic of contemporary architecture and has sought to bring Britain's architectural heritage to the attention of the nation. He wrote A Vision of Britain (1989), which became a television documentary. He is also an advocate for inner-city reform and environmental issues. In 2005 he married Camilla Parker Bowles, who had long been his mistress; she became the duchess of Cornwall.

Charles, 1771-1847, archduke of Austria; brother of Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. Despite his epilepsy, he was the ablest Austrian commander in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic wars; however, he was handicapped by unwise decisions imposed on him from Vienna. After the disastrous campaign of 1805, Charles was appointed minister of war and chief commander of the Austrian forces. He reorganized the army and headed the patriotic faction at court. In 1809 he defeated Napoleon I at Aspern (May) but was beaten at Wagram (July). In both battles he exacted a heavy toll from the French. Shortly afterward he retired because of political differences with Francis. He was also called Charles Louis.

See F. L. Petre, Napoleon and the Archduke Charles (1908).

Charles, Eugenia (Mary Eugenia Charles), 1919-2005, Dominican politician, first female prime minister of Dominica (1980-95). A lawyer, she was a founder (1968) of the Dominica Freedom party (DFP) and headed the DFP for more than 20 years. Elected to parliament in 1970, she became leader of the opposition in 1975. In 1980 she became prime minister after the DFP swept the elections, and earned a reputation as a corruption fighter. As chair of the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States, she supported America's 1983 invasion of Grenada. She was made a Dame Commander of the British Empire in 1991.
Charles, Jacques Alexandre César, 1746-1823, French physicist. He confirmed Benjamin Franklin's electrical experiments, became interested in aeronautics, and was the first to use hydrogen gas in balloons. In this type of balloon, known as the Charlière, he made an ascent in 1783 of almost 2 mi (3.2 km). He became professor of physics at the Conservatoire des Arts et Métiers, Paris. Inventor of a thermometric hydrometer, he also improved various devices, the Gravesande heliostat and Fahrenheit's aerometer among others, and anticipated Gay-Lussac's law of the expansion of gases. For Charles's law, see gas laws.
Charles, Ray (Ray Charles Robinson), 1930-2004, African-American musician and composer, b. Albany, Ga. Blinded at age seven, he was raised in Florida and at 16 began singing in a local hillbilly group. Two years later he moved to Seattle, where he formed his own trio. Charles rose to fame in the 1950s singing rhythm-and-blues tunes in an exuberant yet sophisticated style to the accompaniment of his piano and band. He had his first national recorded hit, "I've Got a Woman," in 1955. Combining sacred styles with the secular and rooted in gospel music and the blues, his work infused soul into a variety of genres, and it influenced, and was influenced by, jazz and rock music. Among Charles's greatest hits were "Whad'd I Say" (1959), "Georgia on My Mind" (1960), and his soulful rendition of "America the Beautiful" (1984). An outstanding live performer, he also recorded more than 60 albums and won 12 Grammy awards. He was inducted into the Rock-and-Roll Hall of Fame in 1986.

See his autobiography (1978); biographies by D. Ritz (1978) and M. Lydon (1999).

Charles, Thomas, 1755-1814, Welsh nonconformist clergyman. He was brought up under Methodist influence, attended Oxford (1775-78), and was ordained in the Church of England. He held curacies in Somersetshire but resigned them and returned to Bala, Wales, where in 1784 he joined the Calvinistic Methodist Church. Gifted in working with children, he began (1785) to establish Welsh language schools. He secured and distributed thousands of Welsh Bibles and helped to found the British and Foreign Bible Society (see Bible societies). At Bala in 1803, Charles established a printing press for Welsh textbooks.

See W. Hughes, ed., Life and Letters of the Rev. Thomas Charles (1881).

Charles, William, 1776-1820, American cartoonist, etcher, and engraver, b. Edinburgh, Scotland. He probably came to the United States to avoid prosecution for his satirical drawings. He is best known for his cartoons of the War of 1812, in which he mocked the English in the rough, biting style of Gillray. An example of his work is Admiral Cockburn Burning and Plundering Havre-de-Grace (Maryland Historical Society).
Charles, river, c.60 mi (97 km) long, rising in E Mass. and flowing generally NE to Boston Bay; it separates Boston from Cambridge. Extensive development to the riverfront includes the Esplanade, a series of fishing sites, playgrounds, and walking paths; and the Hatch Shell, where free, open-air concerts are held by the Boston Pops Orchestra. Recreational sailing and canoeing, college rowing, and boat races are common on the river; the Charles River Regatta is held on the last Sunday in October.
Chauncy, Charles, 1705-87, American Congregational clergyman, b. Boston. He was ordained as a minister of the First Church, Boston, in 1727 and remained in that pulpit for 60 years. Next to Jonathan Edwards, his great opponent, Chauncy was probably the most influential clergyman of his time in New England. As an intellectual he distrusted emotionalism and opposed the revivalist preaching of the Great Awakening in his Seasonable Thoughts on the State of Religion in New England (1743) and other pamphlets. He became the leader of the "Old Lights" or liberals in theology in the doctrinal disputes following the Great Awakening. He was also the leader in the opposition to the establishment of an Anglican bishopric in the American colonies, writing his Compleat View of Episcopacy (1771) and other works on the subject. A firm believer in the colonial cause, he clearly set forth the political philosophy of the American Revolution in sermons and pamphlets during the period. After the war he defended the doctrine of Universalism in two anonymous tracts: Salvation for All Men (1782) and The Mystery Hid from Ages and Generations (1784).

See W. Walker, Ten New England Leaders (1901, repr. 1969).

Nodier, Charles, 1780-1844, French novelist and poet. From 1824 he was librarian of the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal in Paris. His salon was the nucleus of the beginning romantic movement and was frequented by such men as Hugo, Sainte-Beuve, and Dumas père. His most noted works are the fantastic tales Trilby; ou, Le Lutin d'Argail (1822) and La Fée aux miettes (1832).

See bibliography by S. F. Bell (1971); study by H. Nelson (1972).

Nordhoff, Charles, 1830-1901, American journalist and author, b. Westphalia. In 1835 he emigrated with his family to Cincinnati. His service (1844-47) in the navy, and later on whaling and fishing ships, provided literary material for his books Nine Years a Sailor (1857) and Stories of the Island World (1857). He wrote for the New York Evening Post (1858-71), part of the time as editor, and was Washington correspondent (1874-90) for the New York Herald. A leading political commentator of his day, Nordhoff was the author of such works as Communistic Societies in the United States (1875) and The Cotton States in the Spring and Summer of 1875 (1876). His grandson, Charles Bernard Nordhoff, 1887-1947, was coauthor with J. N. Hall of Mutiny on the Bounty (1932), Men Against the Sea (1933), Pitcairn's Island (1934), and other works.
Townshend, Charles, 1725-67, English statesman; grandson of the 2d Viscount Townshend. Distrusted for his marked instability, he held relatively minor offices until the 1st earl of Chatham made him chancellor of the exchequer in 1766. Because of Chatham's illness Townshend became the leading figure in the ministry. He effectively sabotaged Chatham's plan to bring India under the sovereignty of the crown and undertook the ill-fated American import levies known as the Townshend Acts. He died shortly after the passage of the measures.
Kingsley, Charles, 1819-75, English author and clergyman. Ordained in 1842, he became vicar of Eversley in Hampshire in 1844. From 1848 to 1852 he published tracts advocating Christian socialism. These views were embodied in his first two novels, Alton Locke (1850) and Yeast (1851), both of which deal with contemporary social problems. In his subsequent novels, including Hypatia (1853), Westward Ho! (1855), and Hereward the Wake (1866), he used historical settings to communicate his ideas. A statement denigrating the Roman Catholic clergy, made by Kingsley in an article, started a controversy with John Henry Newman that resulted in Newman's famous Apologia. In 1859, Kingsley was made chaplain to Queen Victoria. From 1860 to 1869 he was professor of modern history at Cambridge and in 1873 was appointed canon of Westminster. Several collections of his sermons were published during his lifetime. Included among his other notable work is the well-known children's book The Water Babies (1863).

See Letters and Memories (ed. by his wife, 2 vol., 1877, repr. 1973); biographies by M. F. Thorp (1937, repr. 1969), U. Pope-Hennessy (1948, repr. 1973), and B. Colloms (1975); study by A. J. Hartley (1981); S. Harris, Charles Kingsley: A Reference Book (1981).

Knight, Charles, 1874-1953, American artist, b. New York City. Knight painted and sculpted animal subjects. He is best known for his murals at the American Museum of Natural History, New York City. These depict scenes of prehistoric life based on information from fossil remains. His books include Before the Dawn of History (1935) and Prehistoric Man (1949).
Wordsworth, Charles: see under Wordsworth, Christopher.
Wuorinen, Charles, 1938-, American composer, conductor, and pianist, b. New York City. Wuorinen studied at Columbia Univ. (B.A., 1961; M.A., 1963) and taught there, at the Manhattan School of Music, and at Rutgers Univ. In 1962 he was one of the founders of the influential Group for Contemporary Music. Composer in residence at the San Francisco Symphony (1985-89) and a guest piano soloist and conductor with many orchestras worldwide, Wuorinen has been the recipient of many awards, including Guggenheim (1968, 1972) and MacArthur (1986-91) fellowships.

In his innovative compositions he has explored and expanded electronic music and serial music; Wuorinen explains his approach in the treatise Simple Composition (1979, repr. 1994). He has written more than 200 compositions—including works for electronic media alone and with traditional instruments—for orchestra, chamber group, ballet, opera, chorus, and soloists. Among his best known pieces are Time's Encomium (1969), an electronic piece that won him the Pulitzer Prize; Reliquary for Igor Stravinsky (1975), based on Stravinsky's last sketches; Bamboula Squared (1984), for orchestra and computer-generated sound; the Dante Trilogy (1993-96), orchestral scores written for the New York City Ballet; and the opera Haroun and the Sea of Stories (2005), adapted from the novel by Salman Rushdie.

See bio-bibliography by R. D. Burbank (1993).

Garnier, Charles (Saint Charles Garnier), 1606-49, French missionary in North America, one of the Jesuit Martyrs of North America. He entered the Society of Jesus in 1624 and went as a missionary to the Huron of Canada in 1636. He was killed by the Iroquois. Feast: Sept. 26 or (among the Jesuits) Mar. 16.
Bulfinch, Charles, 1763-1844, American architect, b. Boston. A member of the Boston board of selectmen in 1791, he was chosen chairman in 1799—an office equivalent to mayor and held by Bulfinch for 19 years. Of the numerous structures that he designed in Boston, most have long been demolished, including the Federal Street Theater (1794), the first theater in New England. His chief monumental works remain—the statehouse in Boston (1799), University Hall at Harvard (1815), and the Massachusetts General Hospital (1820). From 1818 to 1830 Bulfinch carried to completion the Capitol at Washington; of his own contributions there remains the west portico, with the terraces and steps forming the approach to it. In this work and in the Massachusetts statehouse he evolved an architectural composition that has been used for state capitols throughout the country. He designed a memorial column on Beacon Hill (1789), Massachusetts State Prison (1803), a number of Massachusetts courthouses, and Franklin Crescent in Boston (1793). The last was a long curved row of 16 residences, inspired by the continuous block of houses that had been erected by Robert Adam and others in England. The First Church of Christ in Lancaster, Mass. (1816-17), one of the few remaining churches of the many that he designed, is one of his finest works. Bulfinch's works bear a distinctive stamp of his own. Their elegance, repose, and refinement of detail rank them among the best products of the nation's early years.

See H. Kirker, The Architecture of Charles Bulfinch (1969).

Burchfield, Charles, 1893-1967, American painter, b. Ashtabula, Ohio, studied at the Cleveland School of Art. Living at first in Ohio, then moving (1925) to upstate New York, he worked (1921-20) as a wallpaper designer. His paintings, predominantly in watercolor, fall into three periods: from 1916 to the early 1920s, poetic evocations of nature; from the early 1920s to the early 1940s, bold, somber landscapes and urban scenes; and after 1943, a return to lyric expressions of nature, painted with a heightened sense of emotion. Although Burchfield is widely known for his depiction of crumbling Victorian mansions, false-front stores, railroad yards, and other relics of late-19th-century small-town America, his most successful works are usually considered to be his intense, boldly drawn, and highly colored portrayals of nature. Weather and sunlight effects are important in all his works, and along with his friend and contemporary Edward Hopper, he is considered a founder of American Scene painting. Among his many works in museums are Setting Sun through the Catalpas (Cleveland Mus. of Art), October (Columbus Gall. of Fine Art, Ohio), Freight Cars under a Bridge (Detroit Inst. of Arts), and An April Mood (Whitney Mus., New York City).

See The Drawings of Charles Burchfield with text by the artist (1968); Charles Burchfield's Journals (ed. by J. B. Townsend, 1992); biography by J. Baur (1982).

Burney, Charles, 1726-1814, English music historian, composer, and organist. His General History of Music (1776-89; 2d ed. 1935) was one of the first important music histories in English. He wrote The Present State of Music in France and Italy (1771) and The Present State of Music in Germany (1773). They were published together as Dr. Burney's Musical Tours in Europe (1959). The work describes European society, life, and customs as well as music and important musicians. His daughter, Fanny Burney, compiled his memoirs (1832).

See biographies by P. A. Scholes (1848) and R. H. Lonsdale (1965).

Thomson, Charles, 1729-1824, political leader in the American Revolution, b. Co. Londonderry (now Derry), Ireland. Emigrating to America in 1739, he later taught school and became a merchant. His pre-Revolutionary activities led John Adams to call him "the Sam Adams of Philadelphia." As secretary of the Continental Congress (1774-89), Thomson kept careful records of all proceedings and full notes of the debates. He was the moving spirit in the committee that obtained the design for the Great Seal of the United States. He wrote An Enquiry into the Causes of the Alienation of the Delaware and Shawanese Indians from the British Interest (1759), translated the Septuagint and the New Testament (4 vol., 1808), and published A Synopsis of the Four Evangelists (1815).

See biography by L. R. Harley (1900).

Mingus, Charles, 1922-79, American jazz musician, b. Nogales, Ariz. Mingus was a bassist, pianist, bandleader, composer, and vocalist. He was one of the most important jazz composers of the 20th cent. and an influence on a broad spectrum of musicians. A charismatic, demanding, and sometimes violent risk-taker, Mingus created works with unconventional structures and innovative harmonies. In the 1950s and 60s he led groups noted for their collective improvisations, loose rhythms, and high energy. At various times in his career he played with Louis Armstrong, Lionel Hampton, Red Norvo, Charlie Parker, and Duke Ellington, to whom he dedicated his Open Letter to Duke. He organized his first group, a sextet, in 1945, and later (1955) formed the Charles Mingus Jazz Workshop, a group that brought him worldwide acclaim. His compositions include the ambitious Epitaph, first performed in 1989; Fables of Faubus; Better Git It in Your Soul; and Sue's Changes.

See his autobiography, Beneath the Underdog (1971); biographies by B. Priestly (1982) and G. Santoro (2000).

Inglis, Charles, 1734-1816, Anglican clergyman in America, b. Ireland. He emigrated to America in 1755. While assistant rector (1765-77) of Trinity Church, New York City, he actively espoused England's position in the struggle with the colonies. He refused to omit the prayers for the king, and his True Interest of America Impartially Stated (1776) and other pamphlets as well as his letters to the press, which he signed Papinian, were strongly Loyalist. In 1777, Inglis became rector of Trinity, but he returned to England in 1783 when the British evacuated New York. In 1787 he was appointed the first bishop of Nova Scotia for the Church of England.

See biography by R. U. Harris (1937).

McCarthy, Charles, 1873-1921, American political scientist and author, b. Brockton, Mass. He organized and directed (1901-21) at Madison, Wis., the first official legislative reference library in the country. Through published articles, lectures, and contact with legislators he became one of the chief minds behind the progressive legislation enacted in Wisconsin in the gubernatorial administration of Robert M. La Follette. He wrote The Wisconsin Idea (1912). McCarthy served (1914-15) as the first director of the U.S. Commission on Industrial Relations.

See biography by E. A. Fitzpatrick (1944).

Macintosh, Charles, 1766-1843, Scottish chemist and inventor. In 1823 he developed a waterproof fabric used to make raincoats that were named for him. His other research included preparing sugar of lead and inventing a commercially successful bleaching powder.
Macklin, Charles, 1697?-1797, English actor and dramatist, whose original name was Charles McLaughlin, b. Ireland. He began his career as a strolling player. His style of acting was radically different from the prevailing declamatory style of James Quin and Barton Booth. At first unsuccessful, he won fame with his dignified, tragic portrayal of Shylock in his production (1741) of The Merchant of Venice. This performance foreshadowed the naturalistic school of acting which was to be realized with David Garrick. His production (1772) of Macbeth, in which he used Scottish dress, was noted as an early attempt to achieve historical accuracy in costuming. Macklin's eccentricities and violent temper were notorious. He wrote and acted in Love à la Mode (1759) and The Man of the World (1781).

See biographies by E. A. Perry (1891) and W. W. Appleton (1960).

Churchill, Charles, 1731-64, English poet and satirist. Upon his family's insistence he took religious orders in 1756, but life as a London dandy suited him more, and he resigned his curacy. His first poem and perhaps his best work, The Rosciad (1761), a satire on the leading actresses and actors of the day, was an immediate success. His other works include The Prophecy of Famine (1763), a highly topical political satire, and An Epistle to William Hogarth (1763), attacking Hogarth for his heartless portrait of John Wilkes.

See his works (ed. by D. Grant, 1956); study by W. C. Brown (1953).

Sheeler, Charles, 1883-1965, American painter and photographer, b. Philadelphia, studied at the School of Industrial Art there and later at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts under William M. Chase. With Chase he made two visits to Europe to study art. His characteristic style is a rational, cool simplification in planes and volumes of industrial forms, rural buildings, and Shaker furnishings, although he fully explored the realistic possibilities of these subjects as well. His photographs exhibit a similar simplification and impersonality. Rolling Power (Smith College) exemplifies Sheeler's most realistic painting style; Midwest, 1954 (Walker Art Center, Minneapolis) is an example of his later, more abstract manner.

See C. Troyen and T. E. Stebbins, Jr., Charles Sheeler (2 vol., 1987).

Whittingham, Charles, 1767-1840, English printer. He established a printery in London in 1789, removing to Chiswick and founding the Chiswick Press in 1810. He was assisted in his work by his nephew, also named Charles Whittingham, 1795-1876, who succeeded him. The younger Whittingham revived the use of Caslon's old-style type in 1844. The printery returned to London in 1852. The Chiswick Press printed admirable editions of numerous books for the London publisher William Pickering. Pickering used as his device the anchor and dolphin of Aldus Manutius. William Morris began his active association with printing by commissioning the Chiswick Press to print The Roots of the Mountains in 1889.
Wilkes, Charles, 1798-1877, American naval officer and explorer, b. New York City, educated by his father. In 1815 he entered the merchant service and received (1818) an appointment as a midshipman. For his survey (1832-33) of Narragansett Bay he was designated (1833) head of the department of charts and instruments of the navy. Although an inexperienced leader, he was put in command of a government exploring expedition intended to provide accurate naval charts for the whaling industry. Wilkes, then a lieutenant, set sail (1838) from Norfolk, Va., in charge of a squadron of six ships and 346 seamen, and accompanied by a team of nine scientists and artists. They sailed around South America, did important research in the S Pacific, and explored the Antarctic. The portion of Antarctica that he explored was subsequently named Wilkes Land. Wilkes explored Fiji in 1840, visited the Hawaiian group, and in May, 1841, entered the Strait of Juan de Fuca on the Pacific coast of the United States, and explored the Pacific Northwest.

After having completely encircled the globe (his was the last all-sail naval mission to do so), Wilkes returned to New York in June, 1842. In four years at sea he had logged some 87,000 miles and lost two ships and 28 men. His Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition (5 vol. and an atlas) appeared in 1844. He edited the scientific reports of the expedition (20 vol. and 11 atlases, 1844-74) and was the author of Vol. XI (Meteorology) and Vol. XIII (Hydrography). Moreover, the specimens and artifacts brought back by expedition scientists ultimately formed the foundation for the Smithsonian Institution collection.

Despite his accomplishments, Wilkes acquired a reputation as an arrogant, cruel, and capricious leader. The impetuosity of his nature, for which he was twice court-martialed, was demonstrated when early in the Civil War, as commander of the San Jacinto, he stopped the British mail ship Trent and, contrary to all regulations, forcibly removed Confederate commissioners John Slidell and James M. Mason. The incident almost involved the Union in a war with England (see Trent Affair). Promoted to the rank of commodore in 1862, he commanded a squadron in the West Indies.

See biography by D. Henderson (1953, repr. 1971); W. Bixby, The Forgotten Voyage of Charles Wilkes (1966); R. Silverberg, Stormy Voyager (1968); A. Gurney, The Race to the White Continent (2000); N. Philbrick, Sea of Glory (2003).

Montagu, Charles: see Halifax, Charles Montagu, earl of.
Cotton, Charles, 1630-87, English author. He is chiefly remembered for his contribution to his friend Izaak Walton's Compleat Angler (5th ed. 1676). His pleasant, unaffected verse includes "An Ode to Winter" and "The Retirement." He also wrote burlesques of Vergil (1664) and Lucian (1665) and a translation of Montaigne's Essays (1685-86).
Sturt, Charles, 1795-1869, English explorer and administrator in Australia, b. India. In 1827 he arrived in Sydney with a detachment of the British army. While in command of an expedition (1828-29) to find the source of the Macquarie, he discovered (1828) the Darling River. On a second journey (1829) he explored the Murrumbidgee and found its junction with the Murray, which he followed by boat to its mouth in Lake Alexandrina. He resigned (1833) his commission because of impaired eyesight and settled in Australia. In 1844 he continued his exploration of the river system of S Australia, traveling up the Murray and Darling rivers and penetrating (1845) almost to the center of the continent. He was colonial treasurer (1845) and colonial secretary (1849-51). In 1853 he returned to England. He wrote Two Expeditions into the Interior of Southern Australia (1833) and Narrative of an Expedition into Central Australia (1849, repr. 1969).

See biographies by G. Farwell (1963) and M. Langley (1969).

Goodnight, Charles, 1836-1929, Texas cattleman, b. Macoupin co., Ill. He went to Texas in 1846, where he joined the Texas Rangers and became a noted scout and Indian fighter. He was later a pioneer in cattle ranching in New Mexico and Colorado and in 1866 laid out the Goodnight cattle trail from Texas to Wyoming, later extended (1875) to Colorado. In 1877, in partnership with John Adair, he established in the Texas Panhandle the J A Ranch of nearly 1 million acres (404,700 hectares), on which he maintained about 100,000 head of cattle. He improved his herds by crossing shorthorns and Herefords with the native longhorns. By crossing bison and Polled Angus cattle he produced the first herd of cattalo. He also bred bison and is thereby credited with preserving the remnant of the South Plains herd. In 1880 he organized the Panhandle Stockmen's Association, which suppressed lawlessness and introduced purebred cattle.

See biography by J. E. Haley (1949).

Goodyear, Charles, 1800-1860, American inventor, b. New Haven, Conn., originator of vulcanized rubber. He failed in his earlier business ventures and was in jail for debt when he began his experiments with rubber, searching for a way to prevent it from sticking and melting in hot weather. He experimented endlessly, kneading various chemicals into the raw rubber. He achieved some success in 1837 with a patented acid and metal coating, but it was not until 1839 that he discovered the process of vulcanization. He spent further years in perfecting the process, patenting it in 1844. Goodyear had carried on his research in the face of poverty and debt and was forced to market his patent rights for a fraction of their value. He went to Europe to try to establish the rubber business there but was unsuccessful. He died, poor and overworked, leaving his family in debt.

See studies by R. F. Wolf (1939) and A. C. Regli (1941).

His son Charles Goodyear, 1833-96, b. Germantown, Pa., assisted him in the manufacturing and marketing of rubber articles. He later turned to shoe manufacturing, being one of the first to see the application of Howe's sewing machine to the making of shoes. He organized in 1871 the Goodyear Boot & Shoe Machinery Company of New York to manufacture machines. He was only partially successful until the consolidation in 1880 with Gordon McKay, his chief competitor.

Gore, Charles, 1853-1932, English prelate and theologian. As the first principal (1884-93) of Pusey House, a theological center at Oxford, he was a leading figure in the High Church movement (see England, Church of). In 1887 he founded the Society of the Resurrection, a community of celibate priests living under vows; this later became the Community of the Resurrection. He was also a founder-member of the Christian Social Union. In 1889 he edited Lux Mundi, a collection of essays that stated the views of modernists in the High Church. He was made canon of Westminster in 1894. In 1902 he was consecrated bishop of Worcester, in 1905 bishop of Birmingham, and in 1911 bishop of Oxford. Among his many works are The Church and the Ministry (1889), Christ and Society (1928), and The Philosophy of the Good Life (1930).
Bradlaugh, Charles, 1833-91, British social reformer, a secularist. Editor of the free-thinking weekly National Reformer from 1860 and later associated with Annie Besant, he was an early advocate of woman's suffrage, birth control, free speech, national education, trade unionism, and other controversial causes. In 1880, Bradlaugh was elected to Parliament after several unsuccessful attempts. Rather than take a Bible oath to be sworn in as a member of Parliament, Bradlaugh, an atheist, demanded the right to take an affirmation. This action provoked a great deal of controversy, and it was not until 1886 that the matter was settled in his favor. His numerous works include Land for the People (1877), The True Story of My Parliamentary Struggle (1882), and Speeches (1890).

See W. L. Arnstein, The Bradlaugh Case (1965); D. Tribe, President Charles Bradlaugh, M. P. (1971).

Brandon, Charles: see Suffolk, Charles Brandon, 1st duke of.
Bridges, Charles, fl. 1683-1740, English portrait painter, active (c.1735-c.1740) in Virginia. He was the most skillful practitioner of aristocratic portrait painting in the South. Among the works attributed to him are Mann Page the Second (Coll. of William and Mary) and Maria Taylor Byrd (Metropolitan Mus.).
Stewart, Charles, 1778-1869, American naval officer, b. Philadelphia. He was commissioned a lieutenant in 1798 after having served in the merchant marine and was a brilliant commander of the Constitution in the War of 1812. After a long and varied career Stewart was promoted to rear admiral on the retired list in 1862.
Dullin, Charles, 1885-1949, French actor, producer, and director. Dullin was an outstanding member of Copeau's Théâtre du Vieux Colombier. He organized and toured with his own group before opening the Théâtre de l'Atelier in Paris in 1921. There, among other experimental plays, he introduced the work of Pirandello to the French public.
Ives, Charles, 1874-1954, American composer and organist, b. Danbury, Conn., grad. Yale, 1898; pupil of Dudley Buck and Horatio Parker. He was an organist (1893-1904) in churches in Connecticut, New Jersey, and New York. In the insurance business from 1898 to 1930, Ives was concurrently composing music that was extremely original, iconoclastic, and advanced in style, anticipating some of the innovations of Schoenberg and Stravinsky, but not influencing musical trends because most of his works were not published as they were written. They were little known until 1939, when performance of his second piano sonata, Concord (1911-15), won him wide recognition. In 1947 his Third Symphony was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. Ives's compositions include four numbered symphonies, orchestral suites, sonatas, organ pieces, choral works, a great deal of chamber music, and about 150 songs. His works are frequently dissonant, harmonically dense, and lushly scored with complexly layered themes, textures, and rhythms. In addition, he often uses vernacular American music, e.g., folk music, hymns and spirituals, marches, dances, rags, blues, and parlor songs, in his compositions, evoking the spirit of such aspects of American life as revival meetings and brass-band parades.

See his Essays before a Sonata (new ed. 1962) and his Memos, ed. by J. E. Kirkpatrick (1972); biography by H. and S. Cowell (rev. ed. 1969); V. Perlis, Charles Ives Remembered (1974); R. S. Perry, Charles Ives and the American Mind (1974); H. W. Hitchcock, Ives (1977).

Wesley, Charles, 1707-88, English Methodist preacher and hymn writer. As a student at Oxford he devoted himself to systematic study and to the regular practice of religious duties; he and companions whom he persuaded to adopt the same orderly course were taunted as "methodists." They formed a society, sometimes referred to as the Holy Club, of which his older brother John Wesley became the leader in 1729. Charles Wesley was ordained in the Church of England in 1735, and the same year both brothers sailed for Georgia, Charles to act as secretary to James Oglethorpe. The following year, however, he returned to England in ill health. After experiencing evangelical conversion in May, 1738, he began writing hymns and preaching at the great revival meetings led by the two Wesleys and George Whitefield. For 17 years Charles made continual evangelistic journeys, but after 1756 he worked mainly in Bristol and London. He was firmly opposed to all suggestion of separation from the Church of England. He is said to have produced about 6,500 hymns, many of which are still used in Protestant churches; among the best known are "Hark! the Herald Angels Sing" and "Jesus, Lover of My Soul."

See his journal, ed. by T. Jackson (1849); J. R. Tyson, Charles Wesley on Sanctification: A Biographical and Theological Study (1986) and Charles Wesley: A Reader (1989).

Robinson, Charles, 1818-94, American politician, first governor of the state of Kansas (1861-63), b. Hardwick, Mass. He studied medicine and in 1849 he joined the gold rush to California, where the next year he was elected to the California legislature; he opposed the establishment of slavery in California. He returned (1851) to Massachusetts, again practiced medicine, and for two years edited the Fitchburg News. In 1854, Robinson went to Kansas as agent of the Emigrant Aid Company, began the settlement of Lawrence, and commanded free-state forces in the Wakarusa War. Under the free-state constitution adopted by the Topeka convention he was elected (Jan., 1856) governor. He attempted to avoid conflict with federal authorities, but he ignored the laws passed by the proslavery territorial legislature of 1855. After taking office he was arrested for treason and usurpation of office by the proslavery party. A federal grand jury acquitted him. Robinson was reelected in 1858 and again in 1859, under the Wyandotte Constitution, but he waited until Kansas was admitted (1861) to the Union before assuming the governorship. He was elected state senator in 1874 and 1876, was a regent of the state university (1864-74, 1893-94), and was superintendent of the Haskell Institute at Lawrence (1887-89). He wrote The Kansas Conflict (1892).

See biography by F. W. Blackmar (1901, repr. 1971).

Percier, Charles, 1764-1838, French architect. He won (1786) the Grand Prix de Rome, and in 1794 he became associated with Pierre François Léonard Fontaine. Napoleon appointed them as government architects, and this post lasted until the emperor's fall. In the development of the Empire style under Napoleon's official sponsorship, Percier and Fontaine became its official interpreters, not only for Paris but also in Antwerp, Brussels, and Rome, where they designed many residences. They worked (1802-12) on the palaces of the Louvre and the Tuileries, designed the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, and did alterations and decorations for the imperial châteaux of Versailles, Malmaison, Compiègne, and Saint-Cloud. As interior decorators they designed every detail of furniture, fabric, hardware, and wallpaper in conformity with Empire motives. The partnership dissolved in 1814, and Percier thereafter conducted a student atelier. With Fontaine he published several books on architecture in Rome and interior decoration.
Perrault, Charles, 1628-1703, French poet. His collections of eight fairy tales, Histoires ou contes du temps passé [stories or tales of olden times] (1697) gave classic form to the traditional stories of Bluebeard, Sleeping Beauty, Cinderella, Puss in Boots, Little Red Ridinghood, and Hop-o'-My-Thumb. In the frontispiece of the collection appears the expression "Contes de ma mère Loye" [tales of Mother Goose]. Perrault also published three tales in verse (1694). He is also famous for the stormy literary quarrel that he aroused with a poem (1687) comparing ancient authors unfavorably with modern writers. Boileau, the chief defender of the ancients, bandied insults with Perrault until 1694. This "quarrel of the ancients and the moderns" is considered a harbinger of the 18th-century Enlightenment.
Calvert, Charles, 3d Baron Baltimore, 1637-1715, second proprietor of Maryland. He was sent over as deputy governor of that province in 1661 by his father, Cecilius Calvert, 2d Baron Baltimore, and at his father's death in 1675 succeeded to the proprietorship. A Roman Catholic faced by an overwhelming Protestant population, he ruled arbitrarily, restricting the suffrage, and filling the offices with his partisans. He became involved in a bitter dispute with William Penn over the northern boundary of his grant and in 1684 went to England to defend himself in this dispute and to answer charges of favoring Catholics and obstructing customs collection. He never returned. His charter was overthrown by a Protestant revolt in 1689, and in 1692 a royal government was established.

See C. C. Hall, The Lords Baltimore and the Maryland Palatinate (1902).

Orléans, Charles, duc d', 1391-1465, French prince and poet; nephew of King Charles VI. After the assassination of his father, Louis d'Orléans, he became (1407) titular head of the Armagnacs (see Armagnacs and Burgundians). After the English invasion of France in 1415, Charles was captured at the battle of Agincourt and remained in captivity in England until 1440, when he was ransomed.

In retirement at Blois, he devoted the rest of his life to writing verse and to the society of literary men. Among his poems, which are remarkable for their polish and charm, is the rondeau, "Le temps a laissié son manteau" [the season has shed its cloak]. There are translations of his poems by Andrew Lang, W. E. Henley, and Ezra Pound. Charles's son was King Louis XII.

See biography by E. McLeod (1970).

Hermite, Charles, 1822-1901, French mathematician. A professor at the École polytechnique, Paris (1869-76), and at the Faculty of Sciences (1869-97), he exerted a strong influence on the French school of mathematics. He made valuable contributions to the theory of numbers, the theory of elliptic functions, and the theory of equations (especially of the fifth degree). In 1873, Hermite proved the transcendence of the irrational number e (see separate article).
Münch, Charles, 1891-1968, French conductor and violinist, b. Alsace. Having conducted and directed orchestras in Paris (1933-48), Münch appeared for three seasons from 1947 as guest conductor of the New York Philharmonic, and was chief conductor of the Boston Symphony Orchestra from 1949 until 1962. He was noted for his interpretations of modern French works.

See his I Am a Conductor (1954, tr. 1955).

Colbert, Charles: see Croissy, Charles Colbert, marquis de.
Koechlin, Charles, 1867-1950, French composer. Koechlin studied composition with Massenet and Fauré. He composed in all forms and many styles, but his music is rarely performed. Koechlin was also active as a teacher and music theorist, and wrote books about Fauré and Debussy, for some of whose works he did orchestration.
Kramař, Charles or Karel, 1860-1937, Czechoslovakian political leader. Elected (1891) to the Austrian parliament, Kramař soon became leader of the liberal nationalist Young Czech party. An ardent Slavophile, he called (1898) for an alliance of Austria-Hungary and Russia against the Germans, whom he regarded as the implacable enemy of all Slavs. He publicly advocated Czech autonomy within the Austrian Empire but privately favored an independent Czech state within a Russian-led Slavic federation. In World War I he led the resistance movement of the Czech nationalists at home, while Thomas G. Masaryk and Eduard Beneš led it abroad. He received a death sentence (1916) for treason, but the sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. An amnesty (1917) brought about his release. On Oct. 28, 1918, Kramař led a bloodless coup in Prague, making Czech independence from Austria a reality. He was (1918-19) the first premier of the new state under President Masaryk, but was forced to resign as a result of his opposition to land reform and other progressive measures. After 1919 he led a rightist minority against Masaryk and Beneš.
Babbage, Charles, 1792-1871, English mathematician and inventor. He devoted most of his life and expended much of his private fortune and a government subsidy in an attempt to perfect a mechanical calculating machine that foreshadowed present-day machines. He was a founder of the Royal Astronomical Society. He wrote Tables of Logarithms (1827) and an autobiography (1864).

See biographies by M. Moseley (1970) and D. Halacy (1970).

Weidman, Charles, 1901-75, American modern dancer and choreographer, b. Lincoln, Neb. Weidman performed with the troupe formed by Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn from 1920 to 1927, when he and Doris Humphrey left to form their own company and school. He created many dances that combined abstract movement with gestures based on his own brilliant mime technique. After starting his own company and school in 1945, Weidman continued to teach and perform. In 1960 he established the Expression of the Two Arts Theater in New York City with the graphic artist Mikhail Santaro. Weidman's most renowned pupil was perhaps José Limón.
Kemble, Charles: see under Kemble, Roger.

Charles de Gaulle, 1967.

(born Nov. 22, 1890, Lille, France—died Nov. 9, 1970, Colombey-les-Deux-Églises) French soldier, statesman, and architect of France's Fifth Republic. He joined the army in 1913 and fought with distinction in World War I. He was promoted to the staff of the supreme war council in 1925. In 1940 he was promoted to brigadier general and served briefly as undersecretary of state for defense under Paul Reynaud. After the fall of France to the Germans, he left for England and started the Free French movement. Devoted to France and dedicated to its liberation, he moved to Algiers in 1943 and became president of the French Committee of National Liberation, at first jointly with Henri-Honoré Giraud. After the liberation of Paris, he returned and headed two provisional governments, then resigned in 1946. He opposed the Fourth Republic, and in 1947 he formed the Rally of the French People (RPF), but severed his connections with it in 1953. He retired from public life and wrote his memoirs. When an insurrection in Algeria threatened to bring civil war to France, he returned to power in 1958, as prime minister with powers to reform the constitution. That same year he was elected president of the new Fifth Republic, which ensured a strong presidency. He ended the Algerian War and transformed France's African territories into 12 independent states. He withdrew France from NATO, and his policy of neutrality during the Vietnam War was seen by many as anti-Americanism. He began a policy of détente with Iron Curtain countries and traveled widely to form a bond with French-speaking countries. After the civil unrest of May 1968 by students and workers, he was defeated in a referendum on constitutional amendments and resigned in 1969.

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Charles Frederick Worth, detail of an engraving

(born Oct. 13, 1825, Bourne, Lincolnshire, Eng.—died March 10, 1895, Paris, France) British-born French fashion designer. In 1845 he left England, where he had been a bookkeeper, and worked in a Paris dress accessories shop. In 1858 he opened his own ladies' tailor shop and soon gained the patronage of the empress Eugénie. He was a pioneer of the “fashion show” (the preparation and showing of a collection), the first man to become prominent in the field of fashion, and the first designer to create dresses intended to be copied and distributed throughout the world. He became the dictator of Paris fashion and was especially noted for his elegant Second Empire gowns. He invented the bustle, which became standard in women's fashion in the 1870s and '80s.

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(born March 3, 1793, London, Eng.—died April 27, 1873, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire) English actor-manager. He made his debut in 1810, and by 1820 he was famous for his performances as Hamlet, Lear, and Macbeth. As theatre manager of London's Covent Garden (1837–39) and Drury Lane (1841–43), he introduced reforms such as full rehearsals, historically accurate costumes and sets, and a reversion to the original Shakespeare texts. He toured the U.S. in 1826, 1843, and 1848–49; his last tour ended with the Astor Place riot, caused by partisans of Edwin Forrest. He retired from the stage in 1851. His diary provides a view of 19th-century theatrical life.

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orig. Charles Edward Weidman, Jr.

(born July 22, 1901, Lincoln, Neb., U.S.—died July 15, 1975, New York, N.Y.) U.S. modern dancer, teacher, and choreographer. He studied at the Denishawn school and was a member of its company in the 1920s. In 1928 he cofounded with Doris Humphrey the Humphrey-Weidman school and dance company, for which he choreographed many works. His dances, often comic and satiric, employed an abstract, rhythmic pantomime. In 1945 he established his own school, and in 1948 he founded the Theatre Dance Company, for which he choreographed his major work, Fables for Our Time. He continued to teach, choreograph, and dance into the 1970s.

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(born Dec. 28, 1719, Dijon, France—died Feb. 13, 1787, Versailles) French statesman. As ambassador to Ottoman Turkey (1754–68), he ably defended French policies during the Seven Years' War. As Louis XVI's minister of foreign affairs (1774–87), he advocated French financial and military support for the colonists in the American Revolution, concluded an alliance with them (1778), and helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris (1783). He also worked to establish a stable balance of power in Europe by mediating the peace in the War of the Bavarian Succession.

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(born June 25, 1925, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. architect. He studied at Princeton University and in Rome at the American Academy. After working with Eero Saarinen and Louis Kahn, he formed a partnership with his wife, Denise Scott Brown, and John Rauch. His philosophy, set forth in the influential books Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966) and Learning from Las Vegas (1972), called for openness to the multiple influences of historical tradition, ordinary commercial architecture, and Pop art. He had such a profound impact on younger architects who were beginning to find similar constraints and limitations in the Modernist architectural aesthetic, that he became the unofficial dean of the postmodern movement in architecture. His buildings often exhibit ironic humour. Important commissions include buildings for Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania, the Seattle Art Museum (1985–91), and the Sainsbury Wing of London's National Gallery (1986–91). He won the 1991 Pritzker Architecture Prize.

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(born July 28, 1915, Greenville, S.C., U.S.) U.S. physicist. He studied at Furman University, Duke University, and the California Institute of Technology and worked for Bell Labs before joining the faculty of Columbia University (1948). In the early 1950s he and his students constructed the first maser and showed that a similar device producing visible light was also possible. For his role in the invention of the maser and later the laser, he shared a 1964 Nobel Prize with Aleksandr M. Prokhorov (b. 1916) and Nikolay G. Basov (b. 1922).

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Alexis de Tocqueville, detail of an oil painting by T. Chassériau; in the Versailles Museum.

(born July 29, 1805, Paris, France—died April 16, 1859, Cannes) French political scientist, historian, and politician. Born into an aristocratic family, he entered government service by choice. After the July Revolution of 1830, his position became precarious because of his family's ties to the ousted king, and he undertook a nine-month study trip to the U.S. with his friend Gustave de Beaumont. Out of it came his best-known work, Democracy in America, 4 vol. (1835–40), a highly perceptive and prescient analysis of the American political and social system, as well as of the vitality, excesses, and potential future of democracy, with attention to the situation in France. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1839 and held various political offices after the Revolution of 1848. The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856), a pessimistic analysis of French political tendencies, was the first volume of his unfinished study of the French Revolution.

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Algernon Charles Swinburne, watercolour by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1862; in the Fitzwilliam Museum, elipsis

(born April 5, 1837, London, Eng.—died April 10, 1909, Putney, London) English poet and critic. After attending Eton and the University of Oxford, Swinburne lived on an allowance from his father. His verse drama Atalanta in Calydon (1865) first showed his lyric powers. Poems and Ballads (1866), containing some of his best work, displays his paganism and masochism and provoked controversy; a second series (1878) was less hectic and sensual. His verse is marked by emphatic rhythms, much alliteration and internal rhyme, and lush subject matter. His health collapsed in 1879 and he spent his last 30 years under a friend's guardianship. His early poetry is noted for innovations in prosody, but his later poetry is considered less important. Among his outstanding critical writings are Essays and Studies (1875) and monographs on William Shakespeare (1880), Victor Hugo (1886), and Ben Jonson (1889).

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Charles Sumner

(born Jan. 6, 1811, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died March 11, 1874, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician. He practiced law while crusading for the abolition of slavery, prison reform, world peace, and educational reform. He was elected to the U.S. Senate (1852–74) and spoke out against slavery. He denounced the Kansas-Nebraska Act as the “crime against Kansas” and scorned its authors, Sen. Stephen A. Douglas and Sen. Andrew P. Butler. In 1856 an incensed relative of Butler, Congressman Preston S. Brooks of South Carolina, invaded the Senate and severely beat Sumner with a cane. He returned to the Senate in 1859, and as chairman of the foreign relations committee (1861–71) he helped resolve the Trent Affair.

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Mrs. Richard Yates, oil painting by Gilbert Stuart, 1793–94; in the National Gallery elipsis

(born Dec. 3, 1755, North Kingston, R.I., U.S.—died July 9, 1828, Boston, Mass.) U.S. painter. He went to London in 1775 and worked six years with Benjamin West. He opened his own London studio in 1782 and enjoyed great success but fled to Dublin in 1787 to escape his creditors. After six years there, he returned to the U.S. He developed a distinctively American portrait style and quickly established himself as the nation's leading portraitist. Critics have praised his painterly brushwork, luminous colour, and psychological penetration. Of his nearly 1,000 portraits, the most famous is an unfinished head of George Washington (1796).

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orig. Karl August Rudolf Steinmetz

Charles Steinmetz.

(born April 9, 1865, Breslau, Prussia—died Oct. 26, 1923, Schenectady, N.Y., U.S.) German-born U.S. electrical engineer. Forced to leave Germany because of his socialist activities, he emigrated to the U.S. in 1889 and began working for General Electric Co. in 1893. He taught at Union College from 1902. His experiments led to the law of hysteresis, which deals with power loss in electrical machinery when magnetic action is converted to unusable heat; the constant he calculated (by age 27) has remained a part of electrical engineering vocabulary. In 1893 he developed a simplified symbolic method of calculating alternating-current phenomena. He also studied electrical transients (changes of very short duration in electrical circuits; e.g., lightning); his theory of traveling waves led to development of devices to protect high-power transmission lines from lightning bolts and to the design of a powerful generator. He patented over 200 inventions.

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orig. Karl Wilhelm Siemens

(born April 4, 1823, Lenthe, Prussia—died Nov. 19, 1883, London, Eng.) German-born British engineer and inventor. He immigrated to Britain in 1844. In 1861 he patented the open-hearth furnace (see open-hearth process), which was soon being widely used in steelmaking and eventually replaced the earlier Bessemer process. He also made a reputation and a fortune in the steel cable and telegraph industries and was a principal in the company that laid the first successful transatlantic telegraph cable (1866). His three brothers were also eminent engineers and industrialists (see Siemens AG).

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(born Nov. 27, 1857, London, Eng.—died March 4, 1952, Eastbourne, Sussex) English physiologist. By studying animals whose cerebral cortexes had been removed, he showed that reflexes are integrated activities of the total organism, not based on isolated “reflex arcs.” Sherrington's law states that when one set of muscles is stimulated, muscles opposing their action are inhibited. He showed that the role of proprioception in reflexes that maintain upright posture against gravity is independent of cerebral function and skin sensation. His work influenced the development of brain surgery and treatment of nervous disorders, and he coined the terms neuron and synapse. His classic work is The Integrative Action of the Nervous System (1906). In 1932 he shared a Nobel Prize with Edgar Adrian (1889–1977).

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(born Jan. 10, 1860, Douglas, N.B.—died Nov. 26, 1943, Toronto, Ont., Can.) Canadian poet. At first a teacher and editor, he became a journalist in New York City and lived in London before settling in Toronto. His best-known poems are simple descriptive lyrics about the scenery and rural life of Nova Scotia and his native New Brunswick. He published some 12 verse volumes, including In Divers Tones (1887) and The Vagrant of Time (1927). His prose includes short stories that display his intimate knowledge of the Canadian woods, including Earth's Enigmas (1896) and Red Fox (1905). He is remembered as the first writer to express national feeling after the confederation of 1867.

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(born June 13, 1854, London, Eng.—died Feb. 11, 1931, Kingston Harbour, Jam.) British mechanical engineer. He began work at the Armstrong engineering works in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1877 and formed his own company to manufacture turbines and other heavy machinery in 1889. He developed the multiple-stage turbine in 1884 and had introduced it in power plants to generate electricity by 1891. Modern steam and nuclear power plants still use turbines of this type to turn their generators. He demonstrated his marine turbine in Turbinia, a vessel that attained a speed of over 34 knots in 1897; Parsons turbines made high-speed ocean liners possible.

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(born Aug. 31, 1913, Oldland Common, Gloucestershire, Eng.) British radio astronomer. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Bristol, worked for the Air Ministry during World War II, and lectured at the University of Manchester after the war. He built the first giant radio telescope (1957) at Jodrell Bank, near Manchester; with a bowl diameter of 250 ft (76 m), the instrument is used for astronomical research and spacecraft tracking and communication.

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(born May 9, 1938, Belgrade, Yugos.) Yugoslavian-born U.S. poet. When he was 15 years old, he and his mother moved to Paris; a year later they joined his father in the U.S. After graduating from New York University, he translated Yugoslavian poetry into English. His first volume of poetry, What the Grass Says (1967), was recognized for its lively, surrealistic imagery; the collection The World Doesn't End (1989) won a Pulitzer Prize. He also published volumes in prose, including the memoir A Fly in the Soup (2000). He was named U.S. poet laureate in 2007.

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orig. Karl Wilhelm Siemens

(born April 4, 1823, Lenthe, Prussia—died Nov. 19, 1883, London, Eng.) German-born British engineer and inventor. He immigrated to Britain in 1844. In 1861 he patented the open-hearth furnace (see open-hearth process), which was soon being widely used in steelmaking and eventually replaced the earlier Bessemer process. He also made a reputation and a fortune in the steel cable and telegraph industries and was a principal in the company that laid the first successful transatlantic telegraph cable (1866). His three brothers were also eminent engineers and industrialists (see Siemens AG).

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(born Nov. 27, 1857, London, Eng.—died March 4, 1952, Eastbourne, Sussex) English physiologist. By studying animals whose cerebral cortexes had been removed, he showed that reflexes are integrated activities of the total organism, not based on isolated “reflex arcs.” Sherrington's law states that when one set of muscles is stimulated, muscles opposing their action are inhibited. He showed that the role of proprioception in reflexes that maintain upright posture against gravity is independent of cerebral function and skin sensation. His work influenced the development of brain surgery and treatment of nervous disorders, and he coined the terms neuron and synapse. His classic work is The Integrative Action of the Nervous System (1906). In 1932 he shared a Nobel Prize with Edgar Adrian (1889–1977).

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(born July 16, 1883, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died May 7, 1965, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.) U.S. painter and photographer. Educated at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, he initially earned a living as a photographer. His acclaimed series of photographs of the Ford automobile plant at River Rouge, Mich. (1927), was followed by a series on Chartres Cathedral (1929). In his paintings, early Cubist influences led to the Precisionism of his maturity. He treated industrial and architectural subjects in an abstract-realist style, emphasizing their formal qualities, as in his painting Rolling Power (1939), which revealed the abstract power of a locomotive's driving wheels.

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(born Feb. 18, 1862, Williamsburg, Pa., U.S.—died Sept. 18, 1939, New York, N.Y.) U.S. entrepreneur and steel-industry pioneer. He joined Andrew Carnegie's steelworks at Braddock, Pa., as a labourer and rose swiftly in the Carnegie empire. In 1892 Carnegie delegated to Schwab the task of returning the plant in Homestead, Pa., to normal production after the bloody Homestead Strike. His success in improving labour relations and increasing production led to his appointment as president of Carnegie Steel Co. in 1897 at the age of 35. Schwab proposed the merger of the competing steel companies that would create the U.S. Steel Corp., and he became its first president in 1901. He resigned in 1903 to devote himself to the Bethlehem Steel Corp., which he built into one of the nation's largest steel producers of its time.

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(born Feb. 16, 1852, Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 31, 1916, Pampa, Texas) U.S. religious leader who founded the International Bible Students Association, the forerunner of the Jehovah's Witnesses. He was raised in the Congregational church but rejected its teachings, unable to reconcile God's mercy with the idea of hell. Influenced by the Adventists, he adopted a doctrine of millennialism. He founded the International Bible Students Association in 1872 (renamed Jehovah's Witnesses in 1931) and taught that the final days would come in 1914 and that Christ's kingdom on earth would begin after a war between capitalism and socialism. In 1884 he founded the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, today one of the world's largest publishers. His books, pamphlets, and periodicals were widely circulated, and he won many converts despite the apparent failure of his apocalyptic prediction.

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(born Feb. 9, 1891, Richmond, Surrey, Eng.—died May 19, 1958, Santa Barbara, Calif., U.S.) British-U.S. film actor. He began a stage and film career in England then moved in 1920 to the U.S., where he first won notice in The White Sister (1923). A romantic leading man, he appeared in other silent films such as Beau Geste (1926), and he easily made the transition to sound movies with his cultivated, expressive voice. His most notable films include Arrowsmith (1931), A Tale of Two Cities (1935), Lost Horizon (1937), If I Were King (1938), Random Harvest (1942), and A Double Life (1947, Academy Award).

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(born Jan. 11, 1924, Dijon, Fr.) French-born U.S. physiologist. He and his colleagues discovered, isolated, and synthesized hypothalamic hormones that regulate thyroid activity, cause the pituitary to release growth hormone, and regulate the activities of the pituitary and the pancreas. He shared a 1977 Nobel Prize with Andrew V. Schally and Rosalyn Yalow. Guillemin is also known for his discovery of endorphins.

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(born Jan. 10, 1860, Douglas, N.B.—died Nov. 26, 1943, Toronto, Ont., Can.) Canadian poet. At first a teacher and editor, he became a journalist in New York City and lived in London before settling in Toronto. His best-known poems are simple descriptive lyrics about the scenery and rural life of Nova Scotia and his native New Brunswick. He published some 12 verse volumes, including In Divers Tones (1887) and The Vagrant of Time (1927). His prose includes short stories that display his intimate knowledge of the Canadian woods, including Earth's Enigmas (1896) and Red Fox (1905). He is remembered as the first writer to express national feeling after the confederation of 1867.

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(born June 25, 1925, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. architect. He studied at Princeton University and in Rome at the American Academy. After working with Eero Saarinen and Louis Kahn, he formed a partnership with his wife, Denise Scott Brown, and John Rauch. His philosophy, set forth in the influential books Complexity and Contradiction in Architecture (1966) and Learning from Las Vegas (1972), called for openness to the multiple influences of historical tradition, ordinary commercial architecture, and Pop art. He had such a profound impact on younger architects who were beginning to find similar constraints and limitations in the Modernist architectural aesthetic, that he became the unofficial dean of the postmodern movement in architecture. His buildings often exhibit ironic humour. Important commissions include buildings for Princeton and the University of Pennsylvania, the Seattle Art Museum (1985–91), and the Sainsbury Wing of London's National Gallery (1986–91). He won the 1991 Pritzker Architecture Prize.

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(born Aug. 6, 1917, Bridgeport, Conn., U.S.—died July 1, 1997, Santa Barbara county, Calif.) U.S. film actor. Expelled from high school in New York City, he spent his teenage years wandering the country and working odd jobs. After joining an acting company in California, he made his screen debut in 1943, acting in several Hopalong Cassidy westerns. He won praise for his role in The Story of G.I. Joe (1945). With his trademark sleepy-eyed, tough-guy appearance, he usually played loners and villains, in movies (many of them B movies that have grown in critical esteem over time) such as Out of the Past (1947), The Lusty Men (1952), The Night of the Hunter (1955), Thunder Road (1958), Cape Fear (1962), The Friends of Eddie Coyle (1973), and Farewell, My Lovely (1975). In his later years, he starred in the television miniseries Winds of War (1983) and War and Remembrance (1988–89).

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(born Sept. 15, 1889, Worcester, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 21, 1945, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. drama critic, actor, and humorist. Benchley graduated from Harvard University and joined the staff of Life magazine in 1920. A regular member of the Algonquin Round Table, he was drama critic for The New Yorker 1929–40, for which he also wrote “The Wayward Press” column under the pseudonym Guy Fawkes. He had bit parts in many feature films, but he is best known for more than 40 short subjects, including How to Sleep (1934, Academy Award). His writing was warmly humorous, his satire sharp but not cruel.

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(born Aug. 18, 1937, Santa Monica, Calif., U.S.) U.S. film actor and director. He made his Broadway debut in 1959 and won acclaim in Barefoot in the Park (1963; film, 1967). The blond, appealing Redford began acting in films in the mid-1960s. He appeared with Paul Newman in the hits Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969) and The Sting (1973) and also starred in The Candidate (1972), Jeremiah Johnson (1972), All the President's Men (1976), The Natural (1984), Out of Africa (1985), and Indecent Proposal (1993). His directorial debut, Ordinary People (1980, Academy Award), was followed by The Milagro Beanfield War (1988), A River Runs Through It (1992), Quiz Show (1994), The Horse Whisperer (1998), and The Legend of Bagger Vance (2000). He received an honorary Academy Award in 2001. In 1980 he founded the Sundance Institute to sponsor young filmmakers' works, and by the 1990s its film festival was the major showcase for U.S. independent films.

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(born June 8, 1814, near Ipsden, Oxfordshire, Eng.—died April 11, 1884, London) English novelist and dramatist. Though trained in law and an administrator at Oxford University, he put much of his time and resources into writing and staging his melodramatic plays. His novels expose, with passionate indignation, the social injustices of his times. He is best remembered for the historical romance The Cloister and the Hearth (1861). His other novels include It Is Never Too Late to Mend (1856), attacking prison conditions; Hard Cash (1863), on the abuse of mental patients; and Put Yourself in His Place (1870), about terrorism by trade unionists.

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(born , Sept. 27, 1886, Berea, Ohio, U.S.—died Feb. 18, 1975, Phoenix, Ariz.) U.S. educator and political adviser. He taught political science at Columbia University from 1923 to 1954. In the 1920s he prepared studies of criminal justice in a number of cities for New York Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt. When Roosevelt was preparing for his 1932 presidential campaign, Moley formed the Brain Trust to advise him on national issues. Moley wrote many of Roosevelt's campaign speeches and coined the term New Deal. From 1937 to 1968 he was a contributing editor of Newsweek magazine.

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orig. Ray Charles Robinson

(born Sept. 23, 1930, Albany, Ga., U.S.—died June 10, 2004, Beverly Hills, Calif.) U.S. pianist, singer, and songwriter. His family moved to Greenville, Fla., where he began his musical career at age 5 in a neighbourhood café. By age 7 he had completely lost his sight. He learned to write scores in Braille. Orphaned at 15, he left school to play professionally. He recorded “Mess Around” and “It Should've Been Me” in 1952–53, and his arrangement for Guitar Slim's “The Things That I Used to Do” became a million-seller. Combining blues and gospel music influences, a distinctive raspy voice, and liquid phrasing, Charles later had hits with “What'd I Say,” “Georgia on My Mind,” and “Hit the Road, Jack.” His Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music (1962), marking unusual territory for a black performer, sold more than a million copies. He received 13 Grammy Awards, including a lifetime achievement award in 1987. Charles was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986.

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(born Feb. 25, 1746, Charleston, S.C.—died Aug. 16, 1825, Charleston, S.C., U.S.) U.S. soldier, statesman, and diplomat. A cousin of Charles Pinckney and the brother of Thomas Pinckney, he was an aide to George Washington in the American Revolution, commanded at Savannah, Ga., and was promoted to brigadier general in 1783. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. Appointed minister to France (1796), he was involved in negotiations that ended in the XYZ Affair; when one of the group of French negotiators suggested that the U.S. representatives offer a gift in order to gain a peace treaty, Pinckney is said to have replied, “No! No! Not a sixpence!” He was the unsuccessful Federalist candidate for vice president in 1800 and for president in 1804 and 1808.

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(born Oct. 26, 1757, Charleston, S.C.—died Oct. 29, 1824, Charleston, S.C., U.S.) U.S. statesman. A cousin of Charles C. Pinckney and Thomas Pinckney, he fought in the American Revolution. From 1784 to 1787 he served in the Continental Congress, where he was instrumental in calling for the Constitutional Convention. As a delegate to the convention from South Carolina, he proposed numerous provisions that were incorporated in the final draft of the Constitution of the United States. He helped write the South Carolina constitution and was also governor of the state (1789–92, 1796–98, 1806–08). He served in the U.S. Senate from 1798 to 1801 and as minister to Spain from 1801 to 1805.

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(born Jan. 12, 1628, Paris, France—died May 15/16, 1703, Paris) French poet, prose writer, and storyteller. Perrault began to win a literary reputation circa 1660 with light verse and love poetry. He is best remembered for his collection of charming fairy stories written to amuse his children, Contes de ma mère l'oye, or Tales of Mother Goose (1697; see Mother Goose). He spent the rest of his life promoting the study of literature and the arts. A leading member of the Académie Française, he was involved in a famous controversy with Nicholas Boileau on the relative merits of ancient and modern literature; his support for the modern was of landmark significance in the revolt against the constraints of prevailing tradition.

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(born Sept. 10, 1839, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.—died April 19, 1914, near Milford, Pa.) U.S. scientist, logician, and philosopher. He was the son of the mathematician and astronomer Benjamin Peirce (1809–80). After attending Harvard University he spent 30 years with the U.S. Coast Guard Survey (1861–91). As a scientist, he is noted for his contributions to the theory of probability, the study of gravity, and the logic of scientific methodology. He eventually abandoned the physical sciences to study logic, which in its widest sense he identified with semiotics. He lectured on logic at Johns Hopkins University from 1879 to 1894, then spent the rest of his life writing in seclusion. He is regarded as the founder of pragmatism. Though he made eminent contributions to deductive logic, he was a student primarily of “the logic of science”—i.e., of induction and of “retroduction,” or “abduction,” the forming and accepting on probation of a hypothesis in order to explain surprising facts. His lifelong ambition was to establish induction and abduction as permanent branches of logic.

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(born April 15, 1741, Queen Anne's county, Md.—died Feb. 22, 1827, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. painter, inventor, and naturalist. He began his career by exchanging a saddle for painting lessons. He later went to London to study with Benjamin West. On his return he became the preeminent portrait painter of the middle colonies. He damaged his professional career by entering enthusiastically into the revolutionary movement. In 1786 he founded an institution in Philadelphia for the study of natural law and display of natural history and technological objects; the Peale Museum, the first major U.S. museum, was widely imitated by other museums of the period and later by P.T. Barnum. Peale is best remembered for his portraits of the leading figures of the American Revolution.

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(born Aug. 6, 1868, Villeneuve-sur-Fère, France—died Feb. 23, 1955, Paris) French poet, playwright, and diplomat. He converted to Catholicism at age 18. His brilliant diplomatic career began in 1892, and he eventually served as ambassador to Japan (1921–27) and the U.S. (1927–33). At the same time he pursued a literary career, expressing in poetry and drama his conception of the grand design of creation. He reached his largest audience through plays such as Break of Noon (1906), The Hostage (1911), Tidings Brought to Mary (1912), and his masterpiece, The Satin Slipper (1929); recurring themes in these works are human and divine love and the search for salvation. He wrote the librettos for Darius Milhaud's opera Christopher Columbus (1930) and Arthur Honegger's oratorio Joan of Arc (1938). His best-known poetic work is the confessional Five Great Odes (1910).

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(born June 13, 1854, London, Eng.—died Feb. 11, 1931, Kingston Harbour, Jam.) British mechanical engineer. He began work at the Armstrong engineering works in Newcastle upon Tyne in 1877 and formed his own company to manufacture turbines and other heavy machinery in 1889. He developed the multiple-stage turbine in 1884 and had introduced it in power plants to generate electricity by 1891. Modern steam and nuclear power plants still use turbines of this type to turn their generators. He demonstrated his marine turbine in Turbinia, a vessel that attained a speed of over 34 knots in 1897; Parsons turbines made high-speed ocean liners possible.

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(born June 27, 1846, Avondale, County Wicklow, Ire.—died Oct. 6, 1891, Brighton, Sussex, Eng.) Irish nationalist leader. After an education at the University of Cambridge, he returned to Ireland and served in the British Parliament (1875–91), introducing obstructionist legislative tactics to call attention to Ireland's needs. In 1877 he became president of the Home Rule Confederation. He was jailed for making violent speeches against the new land act (1881–82), then released to curb an increase in terrorist acts. Reaction against the Phoenix Park murders enabled him to unite factions in Ireland to win support for parliamentary measures, such as William E. Gladstone's Home Rule proposals. He remained popular in Ireland until he was named in the divorce suit of his mistress, Katherine O'Shea (1890).

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Olivier Messiaen.

(born Dec. 10, 1908, Avignon, France—died April 27, 1992, Clichy, near Paris) French composer. At age 11 he entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he won five first prizes. In 1931 he became principal organist at the church of the Sainte-Trinité, where he would remain for 40 years. He wrote his Quartet for the End of Time in a German POW camp. After the war, he taught at the Conservatoire (1947–78), where his students included Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen, and Iannis Xenakis. His main source of inspiration was his quasi-mystical devout Catholic faith. His love of nature is evident in his many works inspired by birdsong. He also was influenced rhythmically by his study of Indian music, and he systematically explored nontonal harmonic materials. Major works include Vingt regards sur l'enfant Jésus (1944) and Catalogue d'oiseaux (1958) for piano, La Nativité du Seigneur (1935) for organ, the Turangalǐla-symphonie (1948), Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum (1964), and the opera Saint François d'Assise (1983).

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Musset, oil painting by Charles Landelle; in the Louvre, Paris

(born Dec. 11, 1810, Paris, France—died May 2, 1857, Paris) French playwright and poet. A member of a noble family, Musset came under the influence of Romanticism in adolescence and produced his first work, Stories of Spain and of Italy, in 1830. After an early play failed, he published historical tragedies (e.g., Lorenzaccio, 1834) and comedies. Although he refused to let them be performed, he is remembered today primarily as a dramatist. His poetry includes light satirical pieces and passionate, eloquent lyrics such as “The October Night” (1837). A fitful love affair with George Sand inspired some of his finest work.

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(born , Sept. 27, 1886, Berea, Ohio, U.S.—died Feb. 18, 1975, Phoenix, Ariz.) U.S. educator and political adviser. He taught political science at Columbia University from 1923 to 1954. In the 1920s he prepared studies of criminal justice in a number of cities for New York Gov. Franklin D. Roosevelt. When Roosevelt was preparing for his 1932 presidential campaign, Moley formed the Brain Trust to advise him on national issues. Moley wrote many of Roosevelt's campaign speeches and coined the term New Deal. From 1937 to 1968 he was a contributing editor of Newsweek magazine.

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(born Aug. 6, 1917, Bridgeport, Conn., U.S.—died July 1, 1997, Santa Barbara county, Calif.) U.S. film actor. Expelled from high school in New York City, he spent his teenage years wandering the country and working odd jobs. After joining an acting company in California, he made his screen debut in 1943, acting in several Hopalong Cassidy westerns. He won praise for his role in The Story of G.I. Joe (1945). With his trademark sleepy-eyed, tough-guy appearance, he usually played loners and villains, in movies (many of them B movies that have grown in critical esteem over time) such as Out of the Past (1947), The Lusty Men (1952), The Night of the Hunter (1955), Thunder Road (1958), Cape Fear (1962), The Friends of Eddie Coyle (1973), and Farewell, My Lovely (1975). In his later years, he starred in the television miniseries Winds of War (1983) and War and Remembrance (1988–89).

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(born April 22, 1922, Nogales, Ariz., U.S.—died Jan. 5, 1979, Cuernavaca, Mex.) U.S. jazz composer, bassist, and bandleader. Mingus played in the groups of Lionel Hampton, Duke Ellington, and Red Norvo, ultimately working with many of the innovators of bebop. In 1953 he organized the Jazz Workshop ensemble, which played a spirited combination of loosely arranged passages and improvisation, incorporating elements of the blues and free jazz. As a pioneering bandleader and virtuoso bassist, Mingus remained an uncompromising and innovative force in jazz for the rest of his career. He was one of the most important and colourful figures in modern jazz.

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Olivier Messiaen.

(born Dec. 10, 1908, Avignon, France—died April 27, 1992, Clichy, near Paris) French composer. At age 11 he entered the Paris Conservatoire, where he won five first prizes. In 1931 he became principal organist at the church of the Sainte-Trinité, where he would remain for 40 years. He wrote his Quartet for the End of Time in a German POW camp. After the war, he taught at the Conservatoire (1947–78), where his students included Pierre Boulez, Karlheinz Stockhausen, and Iannis Xenakis. His main source of inspiration was his quasi-mystical devout Catholic faith. His love of nature is evident in his many works inspired by birdsong. He also was influenced rhythmically by his study of Indian music, and he systematically explored nontonal harmonic materials. Major works include Vingt regards sur l'enfant Jésus (1944) and Catalogue d'oiseaux (1958) for piano, La Nativité du Seigneur (1935) for organ, the Turangalǐla-symphonie (1948), Et expecto resurrectionem mortuorum (1964), and the opera Saint François d'Assise (1983).

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(born Aug. 24, 1847, Chester County, Pa., U.S.—died Sept. 14, 1909, St. James, Long Island, N.Y.) U.S. architect. He was educated at Harvard University and in Paris at the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1879 he joined William Rutherford Mead and Stanford White to found McKim, Mead & White, the most successful U.S. architectural firm of its time. Until 1887 the firm excelled at Shingle style residences. In later years it championed the formal Renaissance tradition and its Classical antecedents, helping to inspire a Neoclassical revival. Among the widely admired examples of McKim's formal planning are the Boston Public Library (1887), the Columbia University Library (1893), the building program of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893, with Daniel H. Burnham and Richard Morris Hunt), and in New York City the Morgan Library (1903) and the magnificent Pennsylvania Railway Station (1904–10; demolished 1963).

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(born Feb. 20, 1887, Toronto, Ont., Can.—died Dec. 30, 1967, London, Eng.) Canadian administrator, first Canadian governor-general of Canada (1952–59). He taught history at the University of Toronto from 1913 to 1915. During World War I he served as associate secretary of the cabinet war committee. After the war he operated a farm-machinery business until 1925. Active in Liberal Party politics, he served in the cabinet of W.L. Mackenzie King (1925) and was later Canada's first minister to the U.S. (1926–30) and high commissioner for Canada in Britain (1935–46). After serving as chancellor of the University of Toronto (1947–52), he was named governor-general. His brother was the actor Raymond Massey (1896–1983).

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(born March 3, 1793, London, Eng.—died April 27, 1873, Cheltenham, Gloucestershire) English actor-manager. He made his debut in 1810, and by 1820 he was famous for his performances as Hamlet, Lear, and Macbeth. As theatre manager of London's Covent Garden (1837–39) and Drury Lane (1841–43), he introduced reforms such as full rehearsals, historically accurate costumes and sets, and a reversion to the original Shakespeare texts. He toured the U.S. in 1826, 1843, and 1848–49; his last tour ended with the Astor Place riot, caused by partisans of Edwin Forrest. He retired from the stage in 1851. His diary provides a view of 19th-century theatrical life.

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(born June 7, 1868, Glasgow, Scot.—died Dec. 10, 1928, London, Eng.) Scottish architect, furniture designer, and artist. A giant of the Arts and Crafts Movement, he is especially revered for his glass-and-stone studio building at the Glasgow School of Art (1896–1909), where he had attended classes. In the 1890s he achieved an international reputation creating unorthodox posters, craftwork, and furniture. Considered Britain's first designer of true Art Nouveau architecture, he produced work of an unrivaled lightness, elegance, and originality, as exemplified by four remarkable tearooms he designed in Glasgow (1896–1904). By 1914 he was dedicating all his energies to watercolour painting. The late 20th century saw a revival of interest in his work and the manufacture of reproductions of his chairs and settees, which were characterized by starkly simple geometric lines.

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(born Aug. 31, 1913, Oldland Common, Gloucestershire, Eng.) British radio astronomer. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Bristol, worked for the Air Ministry during World War II, and lectured at the University of Manchester after the war. He built the first giant radio telescope (1957) at Jodrell Bank, near Manchester; with a bowl diameter of 250 ft (76 m), the instrument is used for astronomical research and spacecraft tracking and communication.

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Charles A. Lindbergh in front of his airplane Spirit of St. Louis, 1927.

(born Feb. 4, 1902, Detroit, Mich., U.S.—died Aug. 26, 1974, Maui, Hawaii) Aviator who made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean. He left college to enroll in army flying schools and became an airmail pilot in 1926. He obtained backing from St. Louis businessmen to compete for a prize for flying from New York to Paris, and in 1927 in the monoplane Spirit of St. Louis he made the flight in 33.5 hours, becoming an instant hero in the U.S. and Europe. In 1929 he married the writer Anne Morrow (1906–2001), who would later serve as his copilot and navigator. In 1932 their child was kidnapped and murdered, a crime that received worldwide attention. They moved to England to escape the publicity, returning to the U.S. in 1940 to criticism over his speeches calling for U.S. neutrality in World War II. During the war Lindbergh was an adviser to Ford Motor Company and United Aircraft Corporation. After the war he was a consultant to Pan American Airways and the U.S. Department of Defense and served on many aeronautical boards and committees. In 1953 he wrote the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Spirit of St. Louis.

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(born Feb. 24, 1619, Paris, France—died Feb. 12, 1690, Paris) French painter and designer. After study in Paris and Rome, he received large decorative and religious commissions that made his reputation. Possessing extraordinary organizational as well as technical skills, as the first painter to Louis XIV he created or supervised the production of most of the paintings, sculptures, and decorative objects commissioned by the French government for three decades, notably for the Palace of Versailles. As director of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture and organizer of the French Academy at Rome, he was instrumental in establishing the characteristic homogeneity of French art in the 17th century.

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(born July 1, 1899, Scarborough, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Dec. 15, 1962, Hollywood, Calif., U.S.) British actor. He made his London stage debut in 1926 and acted in plays such as The Government Inspector, Medea, and Payment Deferred, in which he made his New York debut in 1931. He appeared in movies from 1929 and earned international acclaim in The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933, Academy Award). With his bulky frame and ordinary face Laughton defied Hollywood typecasting and emerged as one of the most versatile performers of his generation. He played a wide range of character roles in films such as Mutiny on the Bounty (1935), Ruggles of Red Gap (1935), The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939), Witness for the Prosecution (1957), and Advise and Consent (1962). He directed the memorable The Night of the Hunter (1955).

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(born Feb. 10, 1775, London, Eng.—died Dec. 27, 1834, Edmonton, Middlesex) English essayist and critic. Lamb was employed as a clerk at East India House (headquarters for the East India Company) from 1792 to 1825. From 1796 he was guardian of his sister, the writer Mary Lamb (1764–1847), who, in a fit of madness (which proved recurrent), had killed their mother. He is best known for the often autobiographical essays he wrote under the pseudonym Elia for London Magazine, collected in Essays of Elia (1823) and The Last Essays of Elia (1833). Among the greatest of English letter writers, he included some of his most perceptive literary criticism, often in the form of marginalia, in letters. He collaborated with Mary on Tales from Shakespear (1807), a highly popular retelling of the plays for children.

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(born June 23, 1894, Hoboken, N.J., U.S.—died Aug. 25, 1956, Bloomington, Ind.) U.S. zoologist and expert on human sexual behaviour. After earning a Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1920, he taught zoology at Indiana University, where he became the founder-director, in 1942, of the university's Institute for Sex Research (renamed the Kinsey Institute for Sex Research, Inc., in 1981). His inquiries into human sexuality led him to publish Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953). These reports, based on 18,500 personal interviews, received extraordinary publicity for their conclusions about contemporary sexual mores and behaviour. Kinsey's methodologies and statistical samplings, however, have been highly questioned and criticized in recent years.

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(born June 12, 1819, Holne Vicarage, Devon, Eng.—died Jan. 23, 1875, Eversley, Hampshire) English clergyman and novelist. After studies at Cambridge, he became a parish priest and later chaplain to Queen Victoria, professor of modern history at Cambridge, and canon of Westminster. An enthusiastic advocate of Christian socialism, he published several novels about social problems before writing the very successful historical novels Hypatia (1853), Westward Ho! (1855), and Hereward the Wake (1866). Fearing the Anglican church's trend in the direction of Catholicism, he engaged in a famous controversy with John Henry Newman. His wholehearted acceptance of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution inspired his popular children's book The Water-Babies (1863).

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(born Sept. 1, 1878, Chichester, Sussex, Eng.—died Feb. 10, 1966, Falmouth, Cornwall) British military theoretician and historian. He served as chief of staff of the British tank corps in World War I. He planned the surprise attack of 381 tanks at the Battle of Cambrai (Nov. 20, 1917), the first massed tank assault in history. After the war he launched a crusade for the mechanization and modernization of the British army. His emphasis on the armoured offensive met with resistance among English military tacticians, but his teachings were largely vindicated in World War II. His works include Tanks in the Great War (1920), Machine Warfare (1942), and A Military History of the Western World (1954–56).

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(born April 11, 1862, Glens Falls, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 27, 1948, Osterville, Mass.) U.S. jurist and statesman. He became prominent in 1905 as counsel to New York legislative committees investigating abuses in the life insurance and utilities industries. His two terms as governor of New York (1906–10) were marked by extensive reform. He was appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States in 1910 but resigned in 1916 to run as the Republican presidential candidate. After losing the election to Woodrow Wilson in a close race, he returned to his law practice. As secretary of state (1921–25), he planned and chaired the Washington Conference (1921–22). He served as a member of the Hague Tribunal (1926–30) and the Permanent Court of International Justice (1928–30) before being appointed chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1930 by Pres. Herbert Hoover. He led the court through the great controversies arising out the New Deal legislation of Pres. Franklin Roosevelt. Although generally favouring the exercise of government power, he spoke for the court in invalidating (in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. U.S.) a principal New Deal statute, and he attacked Roosevelt's court-packing plan (1937). He wrote the opinion sustaining collective bargaining under the Wagner Act. He served until 1941.

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(born Jan. 11, 1924, Dijon, Fr.) French-born U.S. physiologist. He and his colleagues discovered, isolated, and synthesized hypothalamic hormones that regulate thyroid activity, cause the pituitary to release growth hormone, and regulate the activities of the pituitary and the pancreas. He shared a 1977 Nobel Prize with Andrew V. Schally and Rosalyn Yalow. Guillemin is also known for his discovery of endorphins.

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(born Sept. 17, 1884, Elmira, N.Y., U.S.—died April 8, 1920, New York City) U.S. composer. He studied music in Berlin with Engelbert Humperdinck and others, then returned and taught at a boys' school in Tarrytown, N.Y., for the rest of his short life. His early works reflect German Romanticism, but his mature style combined Impressionism and orientalism. His principal works are for piano, though some were later orchestrated: The Pleasure-Dome of Kubla Khan (1912), a piano sonata (circa 1912), and Roman Sketches (including “The White Peacock”) (1915).

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(born March 4, 1901, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died April 3, 1991, Encino, Calif.) U.S. contract bridge authority. Goren learned bridge while a law student at McGill University. His innovative system of point-count bidding and his repeated successes in tournaments made him one of the world's most famous and influential players. His several popular books include the widely translated Goren's Bridge Complete (1963).

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orig. Charles William Gordon

(born Sept. 13, 1860, Indian Lands, Glengarry county, Ont., Can.—died Oct. 31, 1937, Winnipeg, Man.) Canadian novelist. Ordained a Presbyterian minister in 1890, Connor became a missionary to mining and lumber camps in the Canadian Rocky Mountains; this experience and memories of his childhood in Glengarry, Ont., provided material for his novels, including The Sky Pilot (1899) and The Prospector (1904), which, combining adventure with religious messages and wholesome sentiment, made him the best-selling Canadian novelist of the early 20th century. His best books are considered to be The Man from Glengarry (1901) and Glengarry School Days (1902).

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Charles George Gordon, portrait by Lady Julia Abercromby; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born Jan. 28, 1833, Woolwich, near London, Eng.—died Jan. 26, 1885, Khartoum, Sudan) British general. Gordon distinguished himself as a young officer in the Crimean War (1853–56) and subsequently volunteered for the second Opium War (1856–60). In 1862 he helped defend Shanghai during the Taiping Rebellion. These exploits earned him the epithet “Chinese” Gordon. In 1873 the Egyptian ruler Ismāaynīl Pasha, who regularly employed Europeans, appointed Gordon governor of the province of Equatoria in southern Sudan (1874–76) and as governor-general of the Sudan (1874–80). In that post Gordon acted to crush rebellions and suppress the slave trade. He was again sent to the Sudan by Britain in 1884 to evacuate Anglo-Egyptian forces from Khartoum, which was threatened by Mahdist movement insurgents. After his arrival the city was besieged; it remained isolated for several months until it finally succumbed (Jan. 26, 1885). Gordon was killed in the action.

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(born Dec. 29, 1800, New Haven, Conn., U.S.—died July 1, 1860, New York, N.Y.) U.S. inventor of the vulcanization process that permitted the commercial use of rubber. Interested in treating rubber so that it would lose its adhesive quality and not melt, he discovered vulcanization in 1839 when he accidentally dropped a rubber-sulfur mixture onto a hot stove. The process would prove profoundly important for the future uses of rubber. He patented it in 1844 but had to fight numerous patent infringements in the U.S. and Europe. He never profited from his discovery, and he died in debt. The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (founded 1898) honours his name.

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Mrs. Richard Yates, oil painting by Gilbert Stuart, 1793–94; in the National Gallery elipsis

(born Dec. 3, 1755, North Kingston, R.I., U.S.—died July 9, 1828, Boston, Mass.) U.S. painter. He went to London in 1775 and worked six years with Benjamin West. He opened his own London studio in 1782 and enjoyed great success but fled to Dublin in 1787 to escape his creditors. After six years there, he returned to the U.S. He developed a distinctively American portrait style and quickly established himself as the nation's leading portraitist. Critics have praised his painterly brushwork, luminous colour, and psychological penetration. Of his nearly 1,000 portraits, the most famous is an unfinished head of George Washington (1796).

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(born Sept. 14, 1867, Roxbury, Mass., U.S.—died Dec. 23, 1944, New York, N.Y.) U.S. illustrator. He studied at New York's Art Students League and began to contribute drawings to Life, Scribner's, Harper's, and Century. His “Gibson girl” drawings, relying on his wife as a model, defined the U.S. ideal of spirited feminine beauty at the turn of the century, and his refined pen-and-ink style was widely imitated. Collier's reportedly paid him the unprecedented sum of $50,000 to produce a double-page illustration every week for a year. He also published several collections of satirical drawings of high society.

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(born Dec. 7, 1879, Prague —died Nov. 12, 1972, Hollywood, Calif., U.S.) Czech-born U.S. composer. He studied under Antonín Dvorhacekák, and he immigrated to the U.S. in 1906. In 1912, replacing Victor Herbert, he composed the highly successful operetta The Firefly (with Otto Harbach). The next major success of his approximately 30 operettas, Rose Marie (1924; with “Indian Love Call”), was followed by The Vagabond King (1925; with “Song of the Vagabonds” and “Some Day”) and The Three Musketeers (1928), among the last operettas to enjoy popular success.

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(born Jan. 24, 1749, London, Eng.—died Sept. 13, 1806, Chiswick, Devon) British politician. He entered Parliament in 1768 and became leader of the Whigs in the House of Commons, where he used his brilliant oratorical skills to strongly oppose Britain's policy toward the American colonies. Almost always in the political opposition, he conducted a vendetta against George III and was later an enemy of William Pitt. He served as Britain's first foreign secretary (1782, 1783, 1806). He achieved two important reforms by steering through Parliament a resolution pledging it to end the slave trade and by enacting the 1792 Libel Act, which restored to juries their right to decide what constituted libel and whether or not a defendant was guilty of it. He is remembered as a great champion of liberty.

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Charles Fourier, engraving by Samuel Sartain after a painting by Jean-François Gigoux

(born April 7, 1772, Besançon, France—died Oct. 10, 1837, Paris) French social theorist. He advocated a reconstruction of society based on communal associations of producers known as phalanges (phalanxes). His system became known as Fourierism. He felt that phalanges would distribute wealth more equitably than would capitalism and that they would contribute both to a cooperative lifestyle and to individual self-fulfillment. After inheriting his mother's estate in 1812, he devoted himself to writing and refining his theories. Cooperative settlements based on Fourierism were started in France and the U.S., including Brook Farm.

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(born March 20, 1834, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 22, 1926, Northeast Harbor, Maine) U.S. educator and influential university president. He studied at Harvard University and taught mathematics and chemistry there (1858–63) and at MIT (1865–69). Eliot was named president of Harvard in 1869 after studying European educational systems, and he soon set about a program of fundamental reforms. He demanded a place for the sciences in liberal education, and he replaced the program of required courses for undergraduates with the elective system. Under Eliot, the graduate school of arts and sciences was created (1890), Radcliffe College was established (1894), the quality of the professional schools was raised, and the university became an institution of world renown. His reforms had widespread influence in American higher education. After resigning in 1909, he edited the 50-volume Harvard Classics (1909–10), wrote several books, and devoted himself to public service.

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(born June 3, 1904, Washington, D.C., U.S.—died April 1, 1950, near Burlington, N.C.) U.S. physician and surgeon. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia University. While researching the properties and preservation of blood plasma, he developed efficient ways to process and store plasma in blood banks. He directed the U.S. and Britain's World War II blood-plasma programs until 1942. An African American, he resigned over the segregation of the blood of blacks and whites in blood banks.

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orig. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson

(born Jan. 27, 1832, Daresbury, Cheshire, Eng.—died Jan. 14, 1898, Guildford, Surrey) British logician, mathematician, and novelist. An unmarried deacon and a lecturer in mathematics at the University of Oxford, he enjoyed the company of young girls. His novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865; illustrated by John Tenniel) is based on stories he told to amuse young friends, especially Alice Liddell. Its sequel, Through the Looking-Glass (1871), describes Alice's further adventures. The two books, full of whimsy but also of sophisticated wit and puzzles, became among the most famous and admired children's books in the world. Carroll's other works include the narrative nonsense poem The Hunting of the Snark (1876) and the children's novels Sylvie and Bruno (1889) and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893). He was also an important early portrait photographer.

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(born Feb. 7, 1812, Portsmouth, Hampshire, Eng.—died June 9, 1870, Gad's Hill, near Chatham, Kent) British novelist, generally considered the greatest of the Victorian period. The defining moment of Dickens's life occurred when he was 12 years old. With his father in debtors' prison, he was withdrawn from school and forced to work in a factory. This deeply affected the sensitive boy. Though he returned to school at 13, his formal education ended at 15. As a young man, he worked as a reporter. His fiction career began with short pieces reprinted as Sketches by “Boz” (1836). He exhibited a great ability to spin a story in an entertaining manner and this quality, combined with the serialization of his comic novel The Pickwick Papers (1837), made him the most popular English author of his time. The serialization of such works as Oliver Twist (1838) and The Old Curiosity Shop (1841) followed. After a trip to America, he wrote A Christmas Carol (1843) in a few weeks. With Dombey and Son (1848), his novels began to express a heightened uneasiness about the evils of Victorian industrial society, which intensified in the semiautobiographical David Copperfield (1850), as well as in Bleak House (1853), Little Dorrit (1857), Great Expectations (1861), and others. A Tale of Two Cities (1859) appeared in the period when he achieved great popularity for his public readings. Dickens's works are characterized by an encyclopaedic knowledge of London, pathos, a vein of the macabre, a pervasive spirit of benevolence and geniality, inexhaustible powers of character creation, an acute ear for characteristic speech, and a highly individual and inventive prose style.

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(baptized March 4, 1745, Southampton, Hampshire, Eng.—died July 25, 1814, London) British composer, novelist, and actor. A cathedral chorister, Dibdin began working for a music publisher at age 15 and began his stage career in 1762. His first operetta was The Shepherd's Artifice (1764). By 1778, when he became exclusive composer for Covent Garden, he had produced eight operas, including The Padlock (1768), The Waterman (1774), and The Quaker (1775). He later produced his ballad opera Liberty Hall. He was author, singer, and accompanist for his celebrated one-man “table entertainments”; most of his popular sea songs were written for these. In all, he wrote about 100 stage works and 1,400 songs. He was one of the most popular British composers of the 18th century.

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(born Nov. 8, 1883, Lancaster, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 23, 1935, Lancaster) U.S. painter. He studied in Philadelphia and later in Europe. On his return he became an important channel for the transmission of modern European movements into American art. Best known as an exponent of Precisionism, he excelled at watercolour and executed an outstanding series of flowers, circuses, and café scenes. Later he incorporated advertisements and billboard lettering into hard-edged, abstract cityscapes. Among his well-known works are his so-called “poster portraits” such as I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold (1928), a symbolic portrait of the poet William Carlos Williams.

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(born Aug. 27, 1865, Marietta, Ohio, U.S.—died April 23, 1951, Evanston, Ill.) U.S. politician. He practiced law in Nebraska before being appointed U.S. comptroller of the currency (1897–1902). In World War I he headed supply procurement for the American Expeditionary Force in France. In 1923 he chaired the Allied Reparations Commission and arranged the Dawes Plan. He served as vice president (1925–29) under Calvin Coolidge. He shared the 1925 Nobel Prize for Peace with Sir Austen Chamberlain.

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(born Feb. 12, 1809, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Eng.—died April 19, 1882, Downe, Kent) British naturalist. The grandson of Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood, he studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh and biology at Cambridge. He was recommended as a naturalist on HMS Beagle, which was bound on a long scientific survey expedition to South America and the South Seas (1831–36). His zoological and geological discoveries on the voyage resulted in numerous important publications and formed the basis of his theories of evolution. Seeing competition between individuals of a single species, he recognized that within a local population the individual bird, for example, with the sharper beak might have a better chance to survive and reproduce and that if such traits were passed on to new generations, they would be predominant in future populations. He saw this natural selection as the mechanism by which advantageous variations were passed on to later generations and less advantageous traits gradually disappeared. He worked on his theory for more than 20 years before publishing it in his famous On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859). The book was immediately in great demand, and Darwin's intensely controversial theory was accepted quickly in most scientific circles; most opposition came from religious leaders. Though Darwin's ideas were modified by later developments in genetics and molecular biology, his work remains central to modern evolutionary theory. His many other important works included Variation in Animals and Plants Under Domestication (1868) and The Descent of Manelipsis (1871). He was buried in Westminster Abbey. Seealso Darwinism.

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(born Aug. 8, 1819, Hinsdale, N.H., U.S.—died Oct. 17, 1897, Glen Cove, N.Y.) U.S. journalist. Dana lived at the utopian Brook Farm community for five years in the 1840s before becoming an editor for Horace Greeley's New York Tribune, where he actively promoted the antislavery cause. He became a national figure as editor and part owner of the New York Sun (1868–97), which under his control was much admired and imitated. With George Ripley, he edited the New American Cyclopaedia (1857–63). He also edited a highly successful verse anthology and wrote books such as The Art of Newspaper Making (1895).

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(born Dec. 16, 1685, Amiens, Fr.—died Jan. 10, 1768, Paris) French cabinetmaker. He also studied sculpture and became an accomplished metalworker. In 1710 he went to Paris, where he worked in the studio of the cabinetmaker André-Charles Boulle. In 1715 Cressent was appointed official cabinetmaker to Philippe II, duke d'Orléans. He was elected to the Academy of St.-Luc in 1719, and he consequently received important commissions from French aristocrats, including Madame de Pompadour. His early works were in the Louis XIV style, but later pieces (circa 1730–50) were lighter and more curvilinear. Cressent was the leading proponent of the Régence style and introduced marquetries of coloured wood and ormolu to case decoration.

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or Father Coughlin

(born Oct. 25, 1891, Hamilton, Ont., Can.—died Oct. 27, 1979, Bloomfield Hills, Mich., U.S.) Canadian-born U.S. clergyman. Ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1923, he became pastor of a Michigan church. In 1930 he began radio broadcasts of his sermons, into which he gradually injected reactionary political statements and anti-Semitic rhetoric. His sermons attracted one of the first deeply loyal mass audiences in broadcast history. He attacked Herbert Hoover and later turned on Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal. His magazine, Social Justice, targeted Wall Street, communism, and Jews. It was banned from the mails and ceased publication in 1942, the same year the Catholic hierarchy ordered Coughlin to stop broadcasting.

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(born Aug. 17, 1864, Ann Arbor, Mich., U.S.—died May 8, 1929, Ann Arbor) U.S. sociologist. The son of an eminent Michigan jurist, Cooley taught sociology at the University of Michigan from 1894. He believed that the mind is social, that society is a mental construct, and that the moral unity of society derives from face-to-face relationships in primary groups such as the family and neighbourhood. In Human Nature and the Social Order (1902), he referred to this form of social reference as “the looking glass self.” Cooley's other works include Social Organization (1909) and Social Process (1918).

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(born Feb. 9, 1891, Richmond, Surrey, Eng.—died May 19, 1958, Santa Barbara, Calif., U.S.) British-U.S. film actor. He began a stage and film career in England then moved in 1920 to the U.S., where he first won notice in The White Sister (1923). A romantic leading man, he appeared in other silent films such as Beau Geste (1926), and he easily made the transition to sound movies with his cultivated, expressive voice. His most notable films include Arrowsmith (1931), A Tale of Two Cities (1935), Lost Horizon (1937), If I Were King (1938), Random Harvest (1942), and A Double Life (1947, Academy Award).

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(born Aug. 6, 1868, Villeneuve-sur-Fère, France—died Feb. 23, 1955, Paris) French poet, playwright, and diplomat. He converted to Catholicism at age 18. His brilliant diplomatic career began in 1892, and he eventually served as ambassador to Japan (1921–27) and the U.S. (1927–33). At the same time he pursued a literary career, expressing in poetry and drama his conception of the grand design of creation. He reached his largest audience through plays such as Break of Noon (1906), The Hostage (1911), Tidings Brought to Mary (1912), and his masterpiece, The Satin Slipper (1929); recurring themes in these works are human and divine love and the search for salvation. He wrote the librettos for Darius Milhaud's opera Christopher Columbus (1930) and Arthur Honegger's oratorio Joan of Arc (1938). His best-known poetic work is the confessional Five Great Odes (1910).

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(born June 20, 1858, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.—died Nov. 15, 1932, Cleveland) U.S. writer, the first important African American novelist. As a young school principal in North Carolina, he was so distressed by the treatment of African Americans that he moved his family to Cleveland, where he became an attorney and began writing in his spare time. He published numerous tales and essays, two collections of short stories, a biography of Frederick Douglass, and three novels, including The Colonel's Dream (1905). A psychological realist, he used familiar scenes of folk life to protest social injustice.

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(born Jan. 1, 1705, Boston, Mass.—died Feb. 10, 1787, Boston, Mass., U.S.) American clergyman. He served as minister of the First Church of Boston from 1727 until his death. He opposed the establishment of an Anglican bishopric in the American colonies. He is best known as a leading critic of the Great Awakening. He also wrote books, pamphlets, and sermons espousing the cause of the American Revolution.

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orig. Ray Charles Robinson

(born Sept. 23, 1930, Albany, Ga., U.S.—died June 10, 2004, Beverly Hills, Calif.) U.S. pianist, singer, and songwriter. His family moved to Greenville, Fla., where he began his musical career at age 5 in a neighbourhood café. By age 7 he had completely lost his sight. He learned to write scores in Braille. Orphaned at 15, he left school to play professionally. He recorded “Mess Around” and “It Should've Been Me” in 1952–53, and his arrangement for Guitar Slim's “The Things That I Used to Do” became a million-seller. Combining blues and gospel music influences, a distinctive raspy voice, and liquid phrasing, Charles later had hits with “What'd I Say,” “Georgia on My Mind,” and “Hit the Road, Jack.” His Modern Sounds in Country and Western Music (1962), marking unusual territory for a black performer, sold more than a million copies. He received 13 Grammy Awards, including a lifetime achievement award in 1987. Charles was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1986.

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or Carolus Magnus (“Charles the Great”)

(born April 2, c. 742—died Jan. 28, 814, Aachen, Austrasia) King of the Franks (768–814) and emperor (800–14). The elder son of the Frankish king Pippin III (the Short), he ruled the Frankish kingdom jointly with his brother Carloman until the latter's death in 771. He then became sole king of the Franks and began a series of campaigns to conquer and Christianize neighbouring kingdoms. He defeated and became king of the Lombards in northern Italy (774). His expedition against the Muslims in Spain failed (778), but he successfully annexed Bavaria (788). Charlemagne fought against the Saxons for many years, finally defeating and Christianizing them in 804. He subdued the Avars of the Danube and gained control of many of the Slav states. With the exception of the British Isles, southern Italy, and part of Spain, he united in one vast state almost all the Christian lands of western Europe. His coronation as emperor at Rome on Christmas Day, 800, after restoring Leo III to the papacy, marks the revival of the empire in Latin Europe and was the forerunner of the Holy Roman Empire. Charlemagne established his capital at Aachen (Aix-la-Chapelle), where he built a magnificent palace. He invited many scholars and poets to assist him in the promotion of the religious and cultural revival known as the Carolingian renaissance. He also codifed the laws and increased the use of writing in government and society. He was succeeded on his death by his son Louis the Pious, whom Charlemagne had crowned coemperor in 813. Seealso Carolingian dynasty.

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(born Nov. 10, 1433, Dijon, Burgundy [France]—died Jan. 5, 1477, near Nancy, Lorraine) Last of the great dukes of Burgundy (1467–77). An opponent of Louis XI of France, Charles tried to make Burgundy an independent kingdom. He had great success until 1474, casting off French rule, extending Burgundy's possessions, and building a centralized government. Charles brutally quelled a revolt in Liège (1468) and invaded Normandy (1471). Through negotiation, warfare, and purchases, he sought to extend his territory as far as the Rhine, but a coalition of Swiss, Austrians, and towns on the upper Rhine resisted him. He suffered defeats by the Swiss in 1476 and was killed in battle near Nancy.

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Swedish Karl

(born Nov. 8, 1622, Nyköping Castle, Swed.—died Feb. 13, 1660, Göteborg) King of Sweden (1809–18) and first king of the union of Sweden and Norway (1814–18). Second son of King Adolf Frederick (1710–71), he served as admiral of the fleet in the Russo-Swedish war. On the death of his brother Gustav III (1792), Charles became regent for his nephew Gustav IV. After the latter's deposition in 1809, Charles was elected king. He was prematurely aged and childless. In 1810 Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte (later Charles XIV John) was named heir apparent; from then on, Charles was eclipsed by the crown prince.

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Swedish Karl

(born June 17, 1682, Stockholm, Swed.—died Nov. 30, 1718, Fredrikshald, Nor.) King of Sweden (1697–1718). Son of Charles XI, he became absolute monarch at age 15. He defended his country for 18 years in the Second Northern War, gradually taking increased responsibility for planning and executing armed operations. He launched a disastrous invasion of Russia (1707–09) that resulted in the collapse of the Swedish armies and the loss of Sweden's status as a great power. Ruling early in the Enlightenment, he promoted significant domestic reforms. He was killed during an invasion of Norway.

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Swedish Karl

(born Nov. 24, 1655, Stockholm, Swed.—died April 5, 1697, Stockholm) King of Sweden (1660–97). At age five he succeeded his father, Charles X Gustav, and the kingdom was ruled under a regency of aristocrats until Charles came of age in 1672. The regents drew Sweden into the Dutch War (1672–78), but Charles took control of the armies and won favorable results for Sweden by the Treaties of Nijmegen, after which he maintained a foreign policy of neutrality. Within Sweden, Charles expanded royal power at the expense of the higher nobility and established an absolutist monarchy.

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(born Oct. 9, 1757, Versailles, France—died Nov. 6, 1836, Gorizia, Friuli) King of France (1824–30). Fifth son of the dauphin Louis, and grandson of Louis XV, until 1824 he was known as Charles-Philippe, count d'Artois. During the French Revolution he went into exile and became the leader of the émigré nobility. Returning to France in 1814, he led the ultras during the Bourbon Restoration. On the death of his brother Louis XVIII, Charles became king. His popularity waned as his reign became increasingly reactionary. After the July Revolution he was forced to abdicate in favour of Louis-Philippe. His reign dramatized the failure of the Bourbons to reconcile the tradition of the monarchy by divine right with the democratic spirit produced in the wake of the Revolution.

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(born Aug. 28, 1916, Waco, Texas, U.S.—died March 20, 1962, Nyack, N.Y.) U.S. sociologist. After studying at the University of Texas (B.A., M.A., 1939) and the University of Wisconsin (Ph.D., 1941), Mills joined the faculty of Columbia University; there he became associated with the theories of Max Weber and with issues regarding the role of intellectuals in modern life, and he contributed to the development of a critical sociology in the U.S. and abroad. Mills believed social scientists should shun “abstracted empiricism” and become activists on behalf of social change. His radical analysis of U.S. business and society appeared in White Collar (1951) and The Power Elite (1956); other works include The Causes of World War Three (1958) and The Sociological Imagination (1959). A colourful public figure, he wore black leather and rode a motorcycle. His death at 45 resulted from heart disease.

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(born April 15, 1741, Queen Anne's county, Md.—died Feb. 22, 1827, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. painter, inventor, and naturalist. He began his career by exchanging a saddle for painting lessons. He later went to London to study with Benjamin West. On his return he became the preeminent portrait painter of the middle colonies. He damaged his professional career by entering enthusiastically into the revolutionary movement. In 1786 he founded an institution in Philadelphia for the study of natural law and display of natural history and technological objects; the Peale Museum, the first major U.S. museum, was widely imitated by other museums of the period and later by P.T. Barnum. Peale is best remembered for his portraits of the leading figures of the American Revolution.

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(born March 20, 1834, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Aug. 22, 1926, Northeast Harbor, Maine) U.S. educator and influential university president. He studied at Harvard University and taught mathematics and chemistry there (1858–63) and at MIT (1865–69). Eliot was named president of Harvard in 1869 after studying European educational systems, and he soon set about a program of fundamental reforms. He demanded a place for the sciences in liberal education, and he replaced the program of required courses for undergraduates with the elective system. Under Eliot, the graduate school of arts and sciences was created (1890), Radcliffe College was established (1894), the quality of the professional schools was raised, and the university became an institution of world renown. His reforms had widespread influence in American higher education. After resigning in 1909, he edited the 50-volume Harvard Classics (1909–10), wrote several books, and devoted himself to public service.

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orig. Charles Edward Weidman, Jr.

(born July 22, 1901, Lincoln, Neb., U.S.—died July 15, 1975, New York, N.Y.) U.S. modern dancer, teacher, and choreographer. He studied at the Denishawn school and was a member of its company in the 1920s. In 1928 he cofounded with Doris Humphrey the Humphrey-Weidman school and dance company, for which he choreographed many works. His dances, often comic and satiric, employed an abstract, rhythmic pantomime. In 1945 he established his own school, and in 1948 he founded the Theatre Dance Company, for which he choreographed his major work, Fables for Our Time. He continued to teach, choreograph, and dance into the 1970s.

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(born June 20, 1858, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.—died Nov. 15, 1932, Cleveland) U.S. writer, the first important African American novelist. As a young school principal in North Carolina, he was so distressed by the treatment of African Americans that he moved his family to Cleveland, where he became an attorney and began writing in his spare time. He published numerous tales and essays, two collections of short stories, a biography of Frederick Douglass, and three novels, including The Colonel's Dream (1905). A psychological realist, he used familiar scenes of folk life to protest social injustice.

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(born June 30, 1470, Amboise, France—died April 7, 1498, Amboise) King of France (1483–98). He abandoned claims to parts of present-day France and Spain, and he consolidated French ownership of Brittany, in preparation for his grand enterprise, an expedition to Italy to assert his inherited right to the kingdom of Naples. This inaugurated wars with Italy that lasted more than 50 years and gained little in return for vast outlays. Charles was crowned in Naples in 1495, but his opponents rallied against him and he lost his conquests. He died while preparing another expedition.

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(born Feb. 22, 1403, Paris, France—died July 22, 1461, Mehun-sur-Yèvre) King of France (1422–61). Despite the treaty signed by his father, Charles VI, which excluded his succession, Charles assumed the h1 of king on his father's death. In 1429, with the aid of Joan of Arc, he raised the siege of Orléans. He drove the English from France (1436) and gradually recovered French lands, ending the Hundred Years' War. His financial and military reforms increased the power of the monarchy.

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German Karl

(born Oct. 1, 1685, Vienna, Austria—died Oct. 20, 1740, Vienna) Holy Roman emperor (1711–40) and king of Hungary (as Charles III). Son of Emperor Leopold I, he tried unsuccessfully to claim the Spanish throne (as the pretender Charles III), which caused the War of the Spanish Succession. He conducted a successful war against the Ottoman Empire (1716–18) but lost the War of the Polish Succession (1733–38), and a new conflict with Turkey (1736–39) resulted in the loss of most of the territories gained in 1718. He promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction in an attempt to ensure that his daughter Maria Theresa would succeed him, which led to the War of the Austrian Succession.

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German Karl

(born Feb. 24, 1500, Ghent—died Sept. 21, 1558, San Jerónimo de Yuste, Spain) Holy Roman emperor (1519–56) and king of Spain (as Charles I, 1516–56). Son of Philip I of Castile and grandson of Ferdinand V and Isabella I and of Emperor Maximilian I, he succeeded to his grandfathers' kingdoms on their deaths in 1516 and 1519, respectively. Important events of his reign include the Diet of Worms and the beginning of the Reformation; his defeat of Francis I, which assured Spanish supremacy in Italy (see Italian Wars); wars against Turkey under Süleyman I; the formation of the Schmalkaldic League; the Council of Trent; and the Peace of Augsburg. He struggled to hold his vast Spanish and Habsburg empire together against the growing forces of Protestantism, Turkish and French pressure, and even hostility from Pope Adrian VI. In 1555–56 Charles abdicated his claims to the Netherlands and Spain in favour of his son Philip II and the h1 of emperor to his brother Ferdinand I, and in 1557 he retired to a monastery in Spain.

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(born Sept. 17, 1884, Elmira, N.Y., U.S.—died April 8, 1920, New York City) U.S. composer. He studied music in Berlin with Engelbert Humperdinck and others, then returned and taught at a boys' school in Tarrytown, N.Y., for the rest of his short life. His early works reflect German Romanticism, but his mature style combined Impressionism and orientalism. His principal works are for piano, though some were later orchestrated: The Pleasure-Dome of Kubla Khan (1912), a piano sonata (circa 1912), and Roman Sketches (including “The White Peacock”) (1915).

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(born Feb. 14, 1869, Glencorse, Midlothian, Scot.—died Nov. 15, 1959, Carlops, Peeblesshire) Scottish physicist. His invention of the Wilson cloud chamber, a device that became widely used in the study of radioactivity, X rays, cosmic rays, and other particle phenomena, also led to the later development of the bubble chamber. He shared the 1927 Nobel Prize for Physics with Arthur Compton.

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(born Feb. 16, 1852, Pittsburgh, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 31, 1916, Pampa, Texas) U.S. religious leader who founded the International Bible Students Association, the forerunner of the Jehovah's Witnesses. He was raised in the Congregational church but rejected its teachings, unable to reconcile God's mercy with the idea of hell. Influenced by the Adventists, he adopted a doctrine of millennialism. He founded the International Bible Students Association in 1872 (renamed Jehovah's Witnesses in 1931) and taught that the final days would come in 1914 and that Christ's kingdom on earth would begin after a war between capitalism and socialism. In 1884 he founded the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, today one of the world's largest publishers. His books, pamphlets, and periodicals were widely circulated, and he won many converts despite the apparent failure of his apocalyptic prediction.

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Charles Sumner

(born Jan. 6, 1811, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died March 11, 1874, Washington, D.C.) U.S. politician. He practiced law while crusading for the abolition of slavery, prison reform, world peace, and educational reform. He was elected to the U.S. Senate (1852–74) and spoke out against slavery. He denounced the Kansas-Nebraska Act as the “crime against Kansas” and scorned its authors, Sen. Stephen A. Douglas and Sen. Andrew P. Butler. In 1856 an incensed relative of Butler, Congressman Preston S. Brooks of South Carolina, invaded the Senate and severely beat Sumner with a cane. He returned to the Senate in 1859, and as chairman of the foreign relations committee (1861–71) he helped resolve the Trent Affair.

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(born June 27, 1846, Avondale, County Wicklow, Ire.—died Oct. 6, 1891, Brighton, Sussex, Eng.) Irish nationalist leader. After an education at the University of Cambridge, he returned to Ireland and served in the British Parliament (1875–91), introducing obstructionist legislative tactics to call attention to Ireland's needs. In 1877 he became president of the Home Rule Confederation. He was jailed for making violent speeches against the new land act (1881–82), then released to curb an increase in terrorist acts. Reaction against the Phoenix Park murders enabled him to unite factions in Ireland to win support for parliamentary measures, such as William E. Gladstone's Home Rule proposals. He remained popular in Ireland until he was named in the divorce suit of his mistress, Katherine O'Shea (1890).

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(born May 9, 1938, Belgrade, Yugos.) Yugoslavian-born U.S. poet. When he was 15 years old, he and his mother moved to Paris; a year later they joined his father in the U.S. After graduating from New York University, he translated Yugoslavian poetry into English. His first volume of poetry, What the Grass Says (1967), was recognized for its lively, surrealistic imagery; the collection The World Doesn't End (1989) won a Pulitzer Prize. He also published volumes in prose, including the memoir A Fly in the Soup (2000). He was named U.S. poet laureate in 2007.

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(born July 16, 1883, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died May 7, 1965, Dobbs Ferry, N.Y.) U.S. painter and photographer. Educated at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, he initially earned a living as a photographer. His acclaimed series of photographs of the Ford automobile plant at River Rouge, Mich. (1927), was followed by a series on Chartres Cathedral (1929). In his paintings, early Cubist influences led to the Precisionism of his maturity. He treated industrial and architectural subjects in an abstract-realist style, emphasizing their formal qualities, as in his painting Rolling Power (1939), which revealed the abstract power of a locomotive's driving wheels.

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(born Sept. 10, 1839, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.—died April 19, 1914, near Milford, Pa.) U.S. scientist, logician, and philosopher. He was the son of the mathematician and astronomer Benjamin Peirce (1809–80). After attending Harvard University he spent 30 years with the U.S. Coast Guard Survey (1861–91). As a scientist, he is noted for his contributions to the theory of probability, the study of gravity, and the logic of scientific methodology. He eventually abandoned the physical sciences to study logic, which in its widest sense he identified with semiotics. He lectured on logic at Johns Hopkins University from 1879 to 1894, then spent the rest of his life writing in seclusion. He is regarded as the founder of pragmatism. Though he made eminent contributions to deductive logic, he was a student primarily of “the logic of science”—i.e., of induction and of “retroduction,” or “abduction,” the forming and accepting on probation of a hypothesis in order to explain surprising facts. His lifelong ambition was to establish induction and abduction as permanent branches of logic.

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(born Jan. 7, 1912, Westfield, N.J., U.S.—died Sept. 29, 1988, New York, N.Y.) U.S. cartoonist. He worked briefly as a commercial artist before selling his first cartoon to The New Yorker in 1933. He became famous for darkly humorous cartoons depicting morbid behaviour by sinister-looking characters, especially a family of ghouls whose activities travestied those of a conventional family; in one popular image, they prepare to pour boiling oil on a group of Christmas carolers. These evolved into The Addams Family, a 1960s television series that generated two Hollywood films.

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(born Feb. 12, 1809, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Eng.—died April 19, 1882, Downe, Kent) British naturalist. The grandson of Erasmus Darwin and Josiah Wedgwood, he studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh and biology at Cambridge. He was recommended as a naturalist on HMS Beagle, which was bound on a long scientific survey expedition to South America and the South Seas (1831–36). His zoological and geological discoveries on the voyage resulted in numerous important publications and formed the basis of his theories of evolution. Seeing competition between individuals of a single species, he recognized that within a local population the individual bird, for example, with the sharper beak might have a better chance to survive and reproduce and that if such traits were passed on to new generations, they would be predominant in future populations. He saw this natural selection as the mechanism by which advantageous variations were passed on to later generations and less advantageous traits gradually disappeared. He worked on his theory for more than 20 years before publishing it in his famous On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection (1859). The book was immediately in great demand, and Darwin's intensely controversial theory was accepted quickly in most scientific circles; most opposition came from religious leaders. Though Darwin's ideas were modified by later developments in genetics and molecular biology, his work remains central to modern evolutionary theory. His many other important works included Variation in Animals and Plants Under Domestication (1868) and The Descent of Manelipsis (1871). He was buried in Westminster Abbey. Seealso Darwinism.

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(born June 3, 1904, Washington, D.C., U.S.—died April 1, 1950, near Burlington, N.C.) U.S. physician and surgeon. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia University. While researching the properties and preservation of blood plasma, he developed efficient ways to process and store plasma in blood banks. He directed the U.S. and Britain's World War II blood-plasma programs until 1942. An African American, he resigned over the segregation of the blood of blacks and whites in blood banks.

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(born June 7, 1868, Glasgow, Scot.—died Dec. 10, 1928, London, Eng.) Scottish architect, furniture designer, and artist. A giant of the Arts and Crafts Movement, he is especially revered for his glass-and-stone studio building at the Glasgow School of Art (1896–1909), where he had attended classes. In the 1890s he achieved an international reputation creating unorthodox posters, craftwork, and furniture. Considered Britain's first designer of true Art Nouveau architecture, he produced work of an unrivaled lightness, elegance, and originality, as exemplified by four remarkable tearooms he designed in Glasgow (1896–1904). By 1914 he was dedicating all his energies to watercolour painting. The late 20th century saw a revival of interest in his work and the manufacture of reproductions of his chairs and settees, which were characterized by starkly simple geometric lines.

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(born June 8, 1814, near Ipsden, Oxfordshire, Eng.—died April 11, 1884, London) English novelist and dramatist. Though trained in law and an administrator at Oxford University, he put much of his time and resources into writing and staging his melodramatic plays. His novels expose, with passionate indignation, the social injustices of his times. He is best remembered for the historical romance The Cloister and the Hearth (1861). His other novels include It Is Never Too Late to Mend (1856), attacking prison conditions; Hard Cash (1863), on the abuse of mental patients; and Put Yourself in His Place (1870), about terrorism by trade unionists.

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orig. Karl August Rudolf Steinmetz

Charles Steinmetz.

(born April 9, 1865, Breslau, Prussia—died Oct. 26, 1923, Schenectady, N.Y., U.S.) German-born U.S. electrical engineer. Forced to leave Germany because of his socialist activities, he emigrated to the U.S. in 1889 and began working for General Electric Co. in 1893. He taught at Union College from 1902. His experiments led to the law of hysteresis, which deals with power loss in electrical machinery when magnetic action is converted to unusable heat; the constant he calculated (by age 27) has remained a part of electrical engineering vocabulary. In 1893 he developed a simplified symbolic method of calculating alternating-current phenomena. He also studied electrical transients (changes of very short duration in electrical circuits; e.g., lightning); his theory of traveling waves led to development of devices to protect high-power transmission lines from lightning bolts and to the design of a powerful generator. He patented over 200 inventions.

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(born Oct. 26, 1757, Charleston, S.C.—died Oct. 29, 1824, Charleston, S.C., U.S.) U.S. statesman. A cousin of Charles C. Pinckney and Thomas Pinckney, he fought in the American Revolution. From 1784 to 1787 he served in the Continental Congress, where he was instrumental in calling for the Constitutional Convention. As a delegate to the convention from South Carolina, he proposed numerous provisions that were incorporated in the final draft of the Constitution of the United States. He helped write the South Carolina constitution and was also governor of the state (1789–92, 1796–98, 1806–08). He served in the U.S. Senate from 1798 to 1801 and as minister to Spain from 1801 to 1805.

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(born Jan. 12, 1628, Paris, France—died May 15/16, 1703, Paris) French poet, prose writer, and storyteller. Perrault began to win a literary reputation circa 1660 with light verse and love poetry. He is best remembered for his collection of charming fairy stories written to amuse his children, Contes de ma mère l'oye, or Tales of Mother Goose (1697; see Mother Goose). He spent the rest of his life promoting the study of literature and the arts. A leading member of the Académie Française, he was involved in a famous controversy with Nicholas Boileau on the relative merits of ancient and modern literature; his support for the modern was of landmark significance in the revolt against the constraints of prevailing tradition.

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later Baron Snow (of the City of Leicester)

C.P. Snow

(born Oct. 15, 1905, Leicester, Leicestershire, Eng.—died July 1, 1980, London) British novelist, scientist, and government administrator. Snow was a molecular physicist at the University of Cambridge for some 20 years and served as a scientific adviser to the British government. His 11-novel sequence Strangers and Brothers (1940–70), which analyzes bureaucratic man and the corrupting influence of power, includes The Masters (1951), The New Men (1954), and Corridors of Power (1964). The Two Cultures and the Scientific Revolution (1959) and later nonfiction works deal with the cultural separation between practitioners of science and literature.

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(born April 22, 1922, Nogales, Ariz., U.S.—died Jan. 5, 1979, Cuernavaca, Mex.) U.S. jazz composer, bassist, and bandleader. Mingus played in the groups of Lionel Hampton, Duke Ellington, and Red Norvo, ultimately working with many of the innovators of bebop. In 1953 he organized the Jazz Workshop ensemble, which played a spirited combination of loosely arranged passages and improvisation, incorporating elements of the blues and free jazz. As a pioneering bandleader and virtuoso bassist, Mingus remained an uncompromising and innovative force in jazz for the rest of his career. He was one of the most important and colourful figures in modern jazz.

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(born Feb. 18, 1862, Williamsburg, Pa., U.S.—died Sept. 18, 1939, New York, N.Y.) U.S. entrepreneur and steel-industry pioneer. He joined Andrew Carnegie's steelworks at Braddock, Pa., as a labourer and rose swiftly in the Carnegie empire. In 1892 Carnegie delegated to Schwab the task of returning the plant in Homestead, Pa., to normal production after the bloody Homestead Strike. His success in improving labour relations and increasing production led to his appointment as president of Carnegie Steel Co. in 1897 at the age of 35. Schwab proposed the merger of the competing steel companies that would create the U.S. Steel Corp., and he became its first president in 1901. He resigned in 1903 to devote himself to the Bethlehem Steel Corp., which he built into one of the nation's largest steel producers of its time.

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Latin Carolus Martellus (“Charles the Hammer”)

(born circa 688—died Oct. 22, 741, Quierzy-sur-Oise, Fr.) Carolingian mayor of the palace (715–41). He was a child born out of wedlock to Pippin of Herstal, mayor of the palace and virtual ruler of the Frankish realm in the waning days of the Merovingian dynasty. On his father's death he overcame family opposition and rivals among the nobility to reunite and rule the entire Frankish realm. He subdued Neustria (724), attacked Aquitaine, and fought against the Frisians, Saxons, and Bavarians. His victory at the Battle of Tours/Poitiers (732) stemmed the Muslim invasion, and he controlled Burgundy by 739. He also supported the activities of St. Boniface and other missionaries. In Frankish royal tradition, he divided the kingdom between his sons Pippin III and Carloman who succeeded him as mayor; his grandson was Charlemagne.

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(born Feb. 24, 1619, Paris, France—died Feb. 12, 1690, Paris) French painter and designer. After study in Paris and Rome, he received large decorative and religious commissions that made his reputation. Possessing extraordinary organizational as well as technical skills, as the first painter to Louis XIV he created or supervised the production of most of the paintings, sculptures, and decorative objects commissioned by the French government for three decades, notably for the Palace of Versailles. As director of the Academy of Painting and Sculpture and organizer of the French Academy at Rome, he was instrumental in establishing the characteristic homogeneity of French art in the 17th century.

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(born July 1, 1899, Scarborough, Yorkshire, Eng.—died Dec. 15, 1962, Hollywood, Calif., U.S.) British actor. He made his London stage debut in 1926 and acted in plays such as The Government Inspector, Medea, and Payment Deferred, in which he made his New York debut in 1931. He appeared in movies from 1929 and earned international acclaim in The Private Life of Henry VIII (1933, Academy Award). With his bulky frame and ordinary face Laughton defied Hollywood typecasting and emerged as one of the most versatile performers of his generation. He played a wide range of character roles in films such as Mutiny on the Bounty (1935), Ruggles of Red Gap (1935), The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1939), Witness for the Prosecution (1957), and Advise and Consent (1962). He directed the memorable The Night of the Hunter (1955).

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(born Feb. 10, 1775, London, Eng.—died Dec. 27, 1834, Edmonton, Middlesex) English essayist and critic. Lamb was employed as a clerk at East India House (headquarters for the East India Company) from 1792 to 1825. From 1796 he was guardian of his sister, the writer Mary Lamb (1764–1847), who, in a fit of madness (which proved recurrent), had killed their mother. He is best known for the often autobiographical essays he wrote under the pseudonym Elia for London Magazine, collected in Essays of Elia (1823) and The Last Essays of Elia (1833). Among the greatest of English letter writers, he included some of his most perceptive literary criticism, often in the form of marginalia, in letters. He collaborated with Mary on Tales from Shakespear (1807), a highly popular retelling of the plays for children.

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(born June 12, 1819, Holne Vicarage, Devon, Eng.—died Jan. 23, 1875, Eversley, Hampshire) English clergyman and novelist. After studies at Cambridge, he became a parish priest and later chaplain to Queen Victoria, professor of modern history at Cambridge, and canon of Westminster. An enthusiastic advocate of Christian socialism, he published several novels about social problems before writing the very successful historical novels Hypatia (1853), Westward Ho! (1855), and Hereward the Wake (1866). Fearing the Anglican church's trend in the direction of Catholicism, he engaged in a famous controversy with John Henry Newman. His wholehearted acceptance of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution inspired his popular children's book The Water-Babies (1863).

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(born Feb. 7, 1812, Portsmouth, Hampshire, Eng.—died June 9, 1870, Gad's Hill, near Chatham, Kent) British novelist, generally considered the greatest of the Victorian period. The defining moment of Dickens's life occurred when he was 12 years old. With his father in debtors' prison, he was withdrawn from school and forced to work in a factory. This deeply affected the sensitive boy. Though he returned to school at 13, his formal education ended at 15. As a young man, he worked as a reporter. His fiction career began with short pieces reprinted as Sketches by “Boz” (1836). He exhibited a great ability to spin a story in an entertaining manner and this quality, combined with the serialization of his comic novel The Pickwick Papers (1837), made him the most popular English author of his time. The serialization of such works as Oliver Twist (1838) and The Old Curiosity Shop (1841) followed. After a trip to America, he wrote A Christmas Carol (1843) in a few weeks. With Dombey and Son (1848), his novels began to express a heightened uneasiness about the evils of Victorian industrial society, which intensified in the semiautobiographical David Copperfield (1850), as well as in Bleak House (1853), Little Dorrit (1857), Great Expectations (1861), and others. A Tale of Two Cities (1859) appeared in the period when he achieved great popularity for his public readings. Dickens's works are characterized by an encyclopaedic knowledge of London, pathos, a vein of the macabre, a pervasive spirit of benevolence and geniality, inexhaustible powers of character creation, an acute ear for characteristic speech, and a highly individual and inventive prose style.

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(born Jan. 24, 1749, London, Eng.—died Sept. 13, 1806, Chiswick, Devon) British politician. He entered Parliament in 1768 and became leader of the Whigs in the House of Commons, where he used his brilliant oratorical skills to strongly oppose Britain's policy toward the American colonies. Almost always in the political opposition, he conducted a vendetta against George III and was later an enemy of William Pitt. He served as Britain's first foreign secretary (1782, 1783, 1806). He achieved two important reforms by steering through Parliament a resolution pledging it to end the slave trade and by enacting the 1792 Libel Act, which restored to juries their right to decide what constituted libel and whether or not a defendant was guilty of it. He is remembered as a great champion of liberty.

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Swedish Karl

(born Oct. 4, 1550, Stockholm, Swed.—died Oct. 30, 1611, Nyköping) King of Sweden (1604–11). Third son of Gustav I Vasa, he helped lead a rebellion against the rule of his half brother Erik XIV that placed his other brother on the throne as John III. After the accession (1592) of his devoutly Catholic nephew, Sigismund III, Charles called the Convention of Uppsala, which demanded that Lutheranism be retained as the national religion. He opposed Sigismund in a civil war, and after the latter was deposed Charles became the virtual ruler of Sweden (1599–1604). Declared king in 1604, he pursued an aggressive foreign policy that led to war with Poland (1605) and Denmark (the Kalmar War, 1611–13).

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Spanish Carlos

(born Nov. 11, 1748, Portici, Kingdom of Naples—died Jan. 20, 1819, Rome) King of Spain (1788–1808) during the turbulent period of the French Revolution. Son of Charles III, he lacked leadership qualities and entrusted the government to Manuel de Godoy. After a French invasion in 1794, Spain was reduced to the status of a French satellite. When Napoleon again occupied northern Spain in 1807, Charles was forced to abdicate (1808) and go into exile.

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known as Charles the Fat

(born 839, Bavaria? [Germany]—died Jan. 13, 888, Neidingen) Frankish king and emperor (881–87). The great-grandson of Charlemagne, he inherited the kingdoms of Swabia (876) and Italy (879). Charles was crowned emperor by the pope in 881. He gained control of the eastern and western Frankish kingdoms on the deaths of their rulers, and by 885 he had reunited all of Charlemagne's empire except Provence. Chronically ill, he failed to attack the Saracens and used tribute to buy off Viking invaders. His nephew Arnulf led an uprising against him in 887, and his fall marked the final disintegration of the empire of Charlemagne.

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known as Charles the Bad

(born 1332—died Jan. 1, 1387) King of Navarra (1349–87). He acquired Normandy from John II of France by threatening an English alliance. Arrested for his treachery in 1356, he escaped a year later and regained Normandy. He pursued shifting alliances in Spain in an effort to expand Navarrese power. Charles V voided his claims in France, and the discovery of his plot to poison the French king cost him all of Normandy except Cherbourg.

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known as Charles of Anjou

(born March 1226—died Jan. 7, 1285, Foggia, Kingdom of Naples [Italy]) King of Naples and Sicily (1266–85), the first of the Angevin dynasty. The younger brother of Louis IX of France, Charles allied with the papacy and conquered Naples and Sicily in the 1260s, defeating the last representatives of the Hohenstaufen dynasty. He created a great but short-lived Mediterranean empire, expanding into the Balkans and becoming heir to the kingdom of Jerusalem (1277). The Sicilians rebelled against French domination in 1282 (see Sicilian Vespers) and drove out the Angevins in 1284. Charles died while preparing a counteroffensive, and his kingdom was eventually secured by the Spanish.

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(born Aug. 17, 1864, Ann Arbor, Mich., U.S.—died May 8, 1929, Ann Arbor) U.S. sociologist. The son of an eminent Michigan jurist, Cooley taught sociology at the University of Michigan from 1894. He believed that the mind is social, that society is a mental construct, and that the moral unity of society derives from face-to-face relationships in primary groups such as the family and neighbourhood. In Human Nature and the Social Order (1902), he referred to this form of social reference as “the looking glass self.” Cooley's other works include Social Organization (1909) and Social Process (1918).

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(born Feb. 27, 1899, West Pembroke, Maine, U.S.—died March 31, 1978, Toronto, Ont., Can.) U.S.-born Canadian physiologist. He was a professor and administrator at the University of Toronto 1929–67. With Frederick Banting, he was the first to obtain a pancreatic extract of insulin in a form useful for controlling diabetes mellitus (1921). He did not receive the 1923 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Banting and J. J. R. Macleod because he did not yet have his medical degree, although Banting voluntarily shared his portion of the prize with Best. Best also discovered the vitamin choline and the enzyme histaminase and was one of the first to introduce anticoagulants to treat thrombosis.

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(born March 4, 1901, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died April 3, 1991, Encino, Calif.) U.S. contract bridge authority. Goren learned bridge while a law student at McGill University. His innovative system of point-count bidding and his repeated successes in tournaments made him one of the world's most famous and influential players. His several popular books include the widely translated Goren's Bridge Complete (1963).

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(born July 28, 1915, Greenville, S.C., U.S.) U.S. physicist. He studied at Furman University, Duke University, and the California Institute of Technology and worked for Bell Labs before joining the faculty of Columbia University (1948). In the early 1950s he and his students constructed the first maser and showed that a similar device producing visible light was also possible. For his role in the invention of the maser and later the laser, he shared a 1964 Nobel Prize with Aleksandr M. Prokhorov (b. 1916) and Nikolay G. Basov (b. 1922).

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(born Dec. 28, 1719, Dijon, France—died Feb. 13, 1787, Versailles) French statesman. As ambassador to Ottoman Turkey (1754–68), he ably defended French policies during the Seven Years' War. As Louis XVI's minister of foreign affairs (1774–87), he advocated French financial and military support for the colonists in the American Revolution, concluded an alliance with them (1778), and helped negotiate the Treaty of Paris (1783). He also worked to establish a stable balance of power in Europe by mediating the peace in the War of the Bavarian Succession.

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(born Dec. 29, 1800, New Haven, Conn., U.S.—died July 1, 1860, New York, N.Y.) U.S. inventor of the vulcanization process that permitted the commercial use of rubber. Interested in treating rubber so that it would lose its adhesive quality and not melt, he discovered vulcanization in 1839 when he accidentally dropped a rubber-sulfur mixture onto a hot stove. The process would prove profoundly important for the future uses of rubber. He patented it in 1844 but had to fight numerous patent infringements in the U.S. and Europe. He never profited from his discovery, and he died in debt. The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (founded 1898) honours his name.

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Charles George Gordon, portrait by Lady Julia Abercromby; in the National Portrait Gallery, London.

(born Jan. 28, 1833, Woolwich, near London, Eng.—died Jan. 26, 1885, Khartoum, Sudan) British general. Gordon distinguished himself as a young officer in the Crimean War (1853–56) and subsequently volunteered for the second Opium War (1856–60). In 1862 he helped defend Shanghai during the Taiping Rebellion. These exploits earned him the epithet “Chinese” Gordon. In 1873 the Egyptian ruler Ismāaynīl Pasha, who regularly employed Europeans, appointed Gordon governor of the province of Equatoria in southern Sudan (1874–76) and as governor-general of the Sudan (1874–80). In that post Gordon acted to crush rebellions and suppress the slave trade. He was again sent to the Sudan by Britain in 1884 to evacuate Anglo-Egyptian forces from Khartoum, which was threatened by Mahdist movement insurgents. After his arrival the city was besieged; it remained isolated for several months until it finally succumbed (Jan. 26, 1885). Gordon was killed in the action.

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(born Aug. 27, 1865, Marietta, Ohio, U.S.—died April 23, 1951, Evanston, Ill.) U.S. politician. He practiced law in Nebraska before being appointed U.S. comptroller of the currency (1897–1902). In World War I he headed supply procurement for the American Expeditionary Force in France. In 1923 he chaired the Allied Reparations Commission and arranged the Dawes Plan. He served as vice president (1925–29) under Calvin Coolidge. He shared the 1925 Nobel Prize for Peace with Sir Austen Chamberlain.

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Charles Frederick Worth, detail of an engraving

(born Oct. 13, 1825, Bourne, Lincolnshire, Eng.—died March 10, 1895, Paris, France) British-born French fashion designer. In 1845 he left England, where he had been a bookkeeper, and worked in a Paris dress accessories shop. In 1858 he opened his own ladies' tailor shop and soon gained the patronage of the empress Eugénie. He was a pioneer of the “fashion show” (the preparation and showing of a collection), the first man to become prominent in the field of fashion, and the first designer to create dresses intended to be copied and distributed throughout the world. He became the dictator of Paris fashion and was especially noted for his elegant Second Empire gowns. He invented the bustle, which became standard in women's fashion in the 1870s and '80s.

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Charles Francis Adams

(born Aug. 18, 1807, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 21, 1886, Boston) U.S. diplomat. The son of John Quincy Adams and the grandson of John Adams, he served in the Massachusetts legislature and edited a Whig journal. He helped form the antislavery Free-Soil Party and in 1848 was chosen its candidate for U.S. vice president. As ambassador to Britain (1861–68) he was instrumental in securing Britain's neutrality during the American Civil War and in promoting the arbitration of the Alabama claims.

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(born Aug. 24, 1847, Chester County, Pa., U.S.—died Sept. 14, 1909, St. James, Long Island, N.Y.) U.S. architect. He was educated at Harvard University and in Paris at the École des Beaux-Arts. In 1879 he joined William Rutherford Mead and Stanford White to found McKim, Mead & White, the most successful U.S. architectural firm of its time. Until 1887 the firm excelled at Shingle style residences. In later years it championed the formal Renaissance tradition and its Classical antecedents, helping to inspire a Neoclassical revival. Among the widely admired examples of McKim's formal planning are the Boston Public Library (1887), the Columbia University Library (1893), the building program of the World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago (1893, with Daniel H. Burnham and Richard Morris Hunt), and in New York City the Morgan Library (1903) and the magnificent Pennsylvania Railway Station (1904–10; demolished 1963).

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(born April 11, 1862, Glens Falls, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 27, 1948, Osterville, Mass.) U.S. jurist and statesman. He became prominent in 1905 as counsel to New York legislative committees investigating abuses in the life insurance and utilities industries. His two terms as governor of New York (1906–10) were marked by extensive reform. He was appointed to the Supreme Court of the United States in 1910 but resigned in 1916 to run as the Republican presidential candidate. After losing the election to Woodrow Wilson in a close race, he returned to his law practice. As secretary of state (1921–25), he planned and chaired the Washington Conference (1921–22). He served as a member of the Hague Tribunal (1926–30) and the Permanent Court of International Justice (1928–30) before being appointed chief justice of the U.S. Supreme Court in 1930 by Pres. Herbert Hoover. He led the court through the great controversies arising out the New Deal legislation of Pres. Franklin Roosevelt. Although generally favouring the exercise of government power, he spoke for the court in invalidating (in Schechter Poultry Corp. v. U.S.) a principal New Deal statute, and he attacked Roosevelt's court-packing plan (1937). He wrote the opinion sustaining collective bargaining under the Wagner Act. He served until 1941.

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(born April 9, 1893, Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio, U.S.—died Jan. 10, 1967, Gardenville, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He attended the Cleveland School of Art and, after service in World War I, worked as a wallpaper designer in Buffalo, N.Y. In the 1920s and '30s he was one of the leading painters of American life; his work was associated with Edward Hopper's in its portrayal of the loneliness and bleakness of small-town life (e.g., November Evening, 1934). In the 1940s he abandoned realism for a more personal interpretation of nature, emphasizing its mystery, movement, and colour from season to season (e.g., The Sphinx and the Milky Way, 1946).

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orig. Charles Edward Louis Philip Casimir Stuart known as Bonnie Prince Charlie

(born Dec. 31, 1720, Rome—died Jan. 31, 1788, Rome) Claimant to the British throne. He was the son of the royal pretender James Edward and grandson of the exiled James II of England. Seeking to regain the throne, in 1745 the “Young Pretender” landed in Scotland, where he raised an army of 2,400 among the clans. After taking Edinburgh and routing the English at Prestonpans, he crossed the English border and reached Derby, but a lack of strong support from the Jacobites and the French forced his retreat into Scotland. He was decisively defeated at the Battle of Culloden (1746) and, aided by Flora Macdonald (1722–90) and disguised as her maid, escaped to France. He wandered about Europe trying to revive his cause, but his debauched behaviour alienated his friends. He settled in Italy in 1766. He later became romanticized in ballads and legends.

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or Father Coughlin

(born Oct. 25, 1891, Hamilton, Ont., Can.—died Oct. 27, 1979, Bloomfield Hills, Mich., U.S.) Canadian-born U.S. clergyman. Ordained a Roman Catholic priest in 1923, he became pastor of a Michigan church. In 1930 he began radio broadcasts of his sermons, into which he gradually injected reactionary political statements and anti-Semitic rhetoric. His sermons attracted one of the first deeply loyal mass audiences in broadcast history. He attacked Herbert Hoover and later turned on Franklin Roosevelt and the New Deal. His magazine, Social Justice, targeted Wall Street, communism, and Jews. It was banned from the mails and ceased publication in 1942, the same year the Catholic hierarchy ordered Coughlin to stop broadcasting.

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(baptized March 4, 1745, Southampton, Hampshire, Eng.—died July 25, 1814, London) British composer, novelist, and actor. A cathedral chorister, Dibdin began working for a music publisher at age 15 and began his stage career in 1762. His first operetta was The Shepherd's Artifice (1764). By 1778, when he became exclusive composer for Covent Garden, he had produced eight operas, including The Padlock (1768), The Waterman (1774), and The Quaker (1775). He later produced his ballad opera Liberty Hall. He was author, singer, and accompanist for his celebrated one-man “table entertainments”; most of his popular sea songs were written for these. In all, he wrote about 100 stage works and 1,400 songs. He was one of the most popular British composers of the 18th century.

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(born Nov. 8, 1883, Lancaster, Pa., U.S.—died Oct. 23, 1935, Lancaster) U.S. painter. He studied in Philadelphia and later in Europe. On his return he became an important channel for the transmission of modern European movements into American art. Best known as an exponent of Precisionism, he excelled at watercolour and executed an outstanding series of flowers, circuses, and café scenes. Later he incorporated advertisements and billboard lettering into hard-edged, abstract cityscapes. Among his well-known works are his so-called “poster portraits” such as I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold (1928), a symbolic portrait of the poet William Carlos Williams.

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(born Sept. 14, 1867, Roxbury, Mass., U.S.—died Dec. 23, 1944, New York, N.Y.) U.S. illustrator. He studied at New York's Art Students League and began to contribute drawings to Life, Scribner's, Harper's, and Century. His “Gibson girl” drawings, relying on his wife as a model, defined the U.S. ideal of spirited feminine beauty at the turn of the century, and his refined pen-and-ink style was widely imitated. Collier's reportedly paid him the unprecedented sum of $50,000 to produce a double-page illustration every week for a year. He also published several collections of satirical drawings of high society.

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(born Dec. 16, 1685, Amiens, Fr.—died Jan. 10, 1768, Paris) French cabinetmaker. He also studied sculpture and became an accomplished metalworker. In 1710 he went to Paris, where he worked in the studio of the cabinetmaker André-Charles Boulle. In 1715 Cressent was appointed official cabinetmaker to Philippe II, duke d'Orléans. He was elected to the Academy of St.-Luc in 1719, and he consequently received important commissions from French aristocrats, including Madame de Pompadour. His early works were in the Louis XIV style, but later pieces (circa 1730–50) were lighter and more curvilinear. Cressent was the leading proponent of the Régence style and introduced marquetries of coloured wood and ormolu to case decoration.

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(born Feb. 25, 1746, Charleston, S.C.—died Aug. 16, 1825, Charleston, S.C., U.S.) U.S. soldier, statesman, and diplomat. A cousin of Charles Pinckney and the brother of Thomas Pinckney, he was an aide to George Washington in the American Revolution, commanded at Savannah, Ga., and was promoted to brigadier general in 1783. He was a delegate to the Constitutional Convention. Appointed minister to France (1796), he was involved in negotiations that ended in the XYZ Affair; when one of the group of French negotiators suggested that the U.S. representatives offer a gift in order to gain a peace treaty, Pinckney is said to have replied, “No! No! Not a sixpence!” He was the unsuccessful Federalist candidate for vice president in 1800 and for president in 1804 and 1808.

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(born Jan. 1, 1705, Boston, Mass.—died Feb. 10, 1787, Boston, Mass., U.S.) American clergyman. He served as minister of the First Church of Boston from 1727 until his death. He opposed the establishment of an Anglican bishopric in the American colonies. He is best known as a leading critic of the Great Awakening. He also wrote books, pamphlets, and sermons espousing the cause of the American Revolution.

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(born Sept. 19, 1737, Annapolis, Md.—died Nov. 14, 1832, Baltimore, Md., U.S.) American patriot leader. He attended Jesuit colleges in Maryland and studied law in France and England. He served on Committees of Correspondence, signed the Declaration of Independence, and served in the Continental Congress (1776–78). He was a U.S. senator (1789–92).

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(born April 7, 1726, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Eng.—died April 12, 1814, Chelsea, Middlesex) British music historian. After being apprenticed to Thomas Arne, he taught music and played the organ. In 1770 he set off on European travels, undertaken to research his seminal General History of Music, 4 vol. (1776–89). His accounts of the many famous musicians and others he met, including Christoph Willibald Gluck and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, provide an entertaining and invaluable account of 18th-century European musical life and of intellectual life in general. The novelist Fanny Burney was his daughter.

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(born April 9, 1893, Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio, U.S.—died Jan. 10, 1967, Gardenville, N.Y.) U.S. painter. He attended the Cleveland School of Art and, after service in World War I, worked as a wallpaper designer in Buffalo, N.Y. In the 1920s and '30s he was one of the leading painters of American life; his work was associated with Edward Hopper's in its portrayal of the loneliness and bleakness of small-town life (e.g., November Evening, 1934). In the 1940s he abandoned realism for a more personal interpretation of nature, emphasizing its mystery, movement, and colour from season to season (e.g., The Sphinx and the Milky Way, 1946).

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(born Aug. 8, 1763, Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony—died April 4, 1844, Boston, Mass., U.S.) First professional U.S. architect. He studied at Harvard University and then toured Europe, visiting major architectural sites in France and Italy. Most of his works incorporate Classical orders and show a mastery of proportion. Chiefly a designer of government buildings, he served as architect of the U.S. Capitol in 1817–30. He used the plans of his immediate predecessor, Benjamin H. Latrobe, for the wings but prepared a new design for the rotunda. His son Thomas Bulfinch (1796–1867) wrote the famous Bulfinch's Mythology.

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(born Aug. 16, 1920, Andernach, Ger.—died March 9, 1994, San Pedro, Calif., U.S.) German-born U.S. poet, short-story writer, and novelist. His family immigrated to Los Angeles in 1922. He began publishing short stories in the mid 1940s. His first poetry collection, Flower, Fist and Bestial Wail, appeared in 1959, and the poetry volumes he published regularly for the next few years earned a devoted cult following. His novels include Post Office (1971) and Factotum (1975); he also wrote the screenplay for the film Barfly (1987), a semiautobiographical comedy about alcoholic lovers. The novel Hollywood (1989) dealt with its filming. His writing, often scurrilous but humorous, frequently reflected his perpetually down-and-out mode of existence.

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(born Jan. 17, 1771, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Feb. 22, 1810, Philadelphia) U.S. writer. Brown left his law studies to devote himself to writing. His gothic novels in American settings were the first in a tradition later adapted by Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne. Wieland (1798), his best-known work, shows the ease with which mental balance is lost when common sense is confronted with the uncanny. His writings reflect a thoughtful liberalism while exploiting horror and terror. He has been called the “father of the American novel.”

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Baudelaire, photograph by Étienne Carjat, 1863.

(born April 9, 1821, Paris, France—died Aug. 31, 1867, Paris) French poet. While a law student he became addicted to opium and hashish and contracted syphilis. His early reckless spending on fine clothes and furnishings led to a life dogged by debt. In 1844 he formed an association with Jeanne Duval, a woman of mixed black and white ancestry who inspired some of his finest poetry. He published a single novel, La fanfarlo, in 1847. His discovery of the works of Edgar Allan Poe in 1852 led to years of work on Poe, which produced many masterly translations and critical articles. His reputation rests primarily on the extraordinary poetry collection Les fleurs du mal (1857; The Flowers of Evil), which dealt with erotic, aesthetic, and social themes in ways that appalled many of his middle-class readers, and he was accused of obscenity and blasphemy. Though the h1 became a byword for depravity, the book became perhaps the most influential collection of lyrics published in Europe in the 19th century. His Petits poèmes en prose (1868) was an important and innovative experiment in prose poetry. He also wrote provocative essays in art criticism. Baudelaire's later years were darkened by disillusionment, despair, and mounting debt; his death at 46 resulted from syphilis. He is regarded as the earliest and finest poet of modernism in French.

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Charles Babbage, detail of an oil painting by Samuel Lawrence, 1845; in the National Portrait elipsis

(born Dec. 26, 1791, London, Eng.—died Oct. 18, 1871, London) British mathematician and inventor. Educated at Cambridge University, he devoted himself from about 1812 to devising machines capable of calculating mathematical tables. His first small calculator could perform certain computations to eight decimals. In 1823 he obtained government support for the design of a projected machine with a 20-decimal capacity. In the 1830s he developed plans for the so-called Analytical Engine, capable of performing any arithmetical operation on the basis of instructions from punched cards, a memory unit in which to store numbers, sequential control, and most of the other basic elements of the present-day computer. The forerunner of the modern digital computer, the Analytical Engine was never completed. In 1991 British scientists built Difference Engine No. 2 (accurate to 31 digits) to Babbage's specifications. His other contributions included establishing the modern postal system in England, compiling the first reliable actuarial tables, and inventing the locomotive cowcatcher.

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(born Nov. 27, 1874, near Knightstown, Ind., U.S.—died Sept. 1, 1948, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. historian. Beard taught at Columbia University (1904–17) and cofounded New York's New School for Social Research (1919). He is best known for iconoclastic studies of the development of U.S. political institutions, emphasizing the dynamics of socioeconomic conflict and change and analyzing motivational factors in the founding of institutions. His works include An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (1913), claiming that the Constitution was formulated to serve the economic interests of the founders; The Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy (1915); and, with his wife, Mary R. Beard (1876–1958), The Rise of American Civilization (1927).

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Charles A. Lindbergh in front of his airplane Spirit of St. Louis, 1927.

(born Feb. 4, 1902, Detroit, Mich., U.S.—died Aug. 26, 1974, Maui, Hawaii) Aviator who made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean. He left college to enroll in army flying schools and became an airmail pilot in 1926. He obtained backing from St. Louis businessmen to compete for a prize for flying from New York to Paris, and in 1927 in the monoplane Spirit of St. Louis he made the flight in 33.5 hours, becoming an instant hero in the U.S. and Europe. In 1929 he married the writer Anne Morrow (1906–2001), who would later serve as his copilot and navigator. In 1932 their child was kidnapped and murdered, a crime that received worldwide attention. They moved to England to escape the publicity, returning to the U.S. in 1940 to criticism over his speeches calling for U.S. neutrality in World War II. During the war Lindbergh was an adviser to Ford Motor Company and United Aircraft Corporation. After the war he was a consultant to Pan American Airways and the U.S. Department of Defense and served on many aeronautical boards and committees. In 1953 he wrote the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Spirit of St. Louis.

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(born Aug. 8, 1819, Hinsdale, N.H., U.S.—died Oct. 17, 1897, Glen Cove, N.Y.) U.S. journalist. Dana lived at the utopian Brook Farm community for five years in the 1840s before becoming an editor for Horace Greeley's New York Tribune, where he actively promoted the antislavery cause. He became a national figure as editor and part owner of the New York Sun (1868–97), which under his control was much admired and imitated. With George Ripley, he edited the New American Cyclopaedia (1857–63). He also edited a highly successful verse anthology and wrote books such as The Art of Newspaper Making (1895).

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Italian Carlo Alberto

(born Oct. 2, 1798, Turin, Piedmont, French Republic—died July 28, 1849, Oporto, Port.) King of Sardinia-Piedmont (1831–49). A member of the house of Savoy, he ascended the throne after the death of Charles Felix in 1831. He mitigated the harsh administration of his country and accelerated its economic and social development. The spread of revolutionary ideas forced him to grant a statute for representative government in 1848. After the election of Pius IX as pope and the Austrian occupation of Ferrara, he sought to lead the liberation of Italy. He went to war against Austria in 1848 and again in 1849, but, after his defeat in the Battle of Novara, he abdicated in favor of his son, Victor Emmanuel II.

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Baudelaire, photograph by Étienne Carjat, 1863.

(born April 9, 1821, Paris, France—died Aug. 31, 1867, Paris) French poet. While a law student he became addicted to opium and hashish and contracted syphilis. His early reckless spending on fine clothes and furnishings led to a life dogged by debt. In 1844 he formed an association with Jeanne Duval, a woman of mixed black and white ancestry who inspired some of his finest poetry. He published a single novel, La fanfarlo, in 1847. His discovery of the works of Edgar Allan Poe in 1852 led to years of work on Poe, which produced many masterly translations and critical articles. His reputation rests primarily on the extraordinary poetry collection Les fleurs du mal (1857; The Flowers of Evil), which dealt with erotic, aesthetic, and social themes in ways that appalled many of his middle-class readers, and he was accused of obscenity and blasphemy. Though the h1 became a byword for depravity, the book became perhaps the most influential collection of lyrics published in Europe in the 19th century. His Petits poèmes en prose (1868) was an important and innovative experiment in prose poetry. He also wrote provocative essays in art criticism. Baudelaire's later years were darkened by disillusionment, despair, and mounting debt; his death at 46 resulted from syphilis. He is regarded as the earliest and finest poet of modernism in French.

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Charles de Gaulle, 1967.

(born Nov. 22, 1890, Lille, France—died Nov. 9, 1970, Colombey-les-Deux-Églises) French soldier, statesman, and architect of France's Fifth Republic. He joined the army in 1913 and fought with distinction in World War I. He was promoted to the staff of the supreme war council in 1925. In 1940 he was promoted to brigadier general and served briefly as undersecretary of state for defense under Paul Reynaud. After the fall of France to the Germans, he left for England and started the Free French movement. Devoted to France and dedicated to its liberation, he moved to Algiers in 1943 and became president of the French Committee of National Liberation, at first jointly with Henri-Honoré Giraud. After the liberation of Paris, he returned and headed two provisional governments, then resigned in 1946. He opposed the Fourth Republic, and in 1947 he formed the Rally of the French People (RPF), but severed his connections with it in 1953. He retired from public life and wrote his memoirs. When an insurrection in Algeria threatened to bring civil war to France, he returned to power in 1958, as prime minister with powers to reform the constitution. That same year he was elected president of the new Fifth Republic, which ensured a strong presidency. He ended the Algerian War and transformed France's African territories into 12 independent states. He withdrew France from NATO, and his policy of neutrality during the Vietnam War was seen by many as anti-Americanism. He began a policy of détente with Iron Curtain countries and traveled widely to form a bond with French-speaking countries. After the civil unrest of May 1968 by students and workers, he was defeated in a referendum on constitutional amendments and resigned in 1969.

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(born Sept. 19, 1737, Annapolis, Md.—died Nov. 14, 1832, Baltimore, Md., U.S.) American patriot leader. He attended Jesuit colleges in Maryland and studied law in France and England. He served on Committees of Correspondence, signed the Declaration of Independence, and served in the Continental Congress (1776–78). He was a U.S. senator (1789–92).

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(born April 7, 1726, Shrewsbury, Shropshire, Eng.—died April 12, 1814, Chelsea, Middlesex) British music historian. After being apprenticed to Thomas Arne, he taught music and played the organ. In 1770 he set off on European travels, undertaken to research his seminal General History of Music, 4 vol. (1776–89). His accounts of the many famous musicians and others he met, including Christoph Willibald Gluck and Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, provide an entertaining and invaluable account of 18th-century European musical life and of intellectual life in general. The novelist Fanny Burney was his daughter.

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(born Aug. 8, 1763, Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony—died April 4, 1844, Boston, Mass., U.S.) First professional U.S. architect. He studied at Harvard University and then toured Europe, visiting major architectural sites in France and Italy. Most of his works incorporate Classical orders and show a mastery of proportion. Chiefly a designer of government buildings, he served as architect of the U.S. Capitol in 1817–30. He used the plans of his immediate predecessor, Benjamin H. Latrobe, for the wings but prepared a new design for the rotunda. His son Thomas Bulfinch (1796–1867) wrote the famous Bulfinch's Mythology.

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(born Aug. 16, 1920, Andernach, Ger.—died March 9, 1994, San Pedro, Calif., U.S.) German-born U.S. poet, short-story writer, and novelist. His family immigrated to Los Angeles in 1922. He began publishing short stories in the mid 1940s. His first poetry collection, Flower, Fist and Bestial Wail, appeared in 1959, and the poetry volumes he published regularly for the next few years earned a devoted cult following. His novels include Post Office (1971) and Factotum (1975); he also wrote the screenplay for the film Barfly (1987), a semiautobiographical comedy about alcoholic lovers. The novel Hollywood (1989) dealt with its filming. His writing, often scurrilous but humorous, frequently reflected his perpetually down-and-out mode of existence.

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(born Jan. 17, 1771, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.—died Feb. 22, 1810, Philadelphia) U.S. writer. Brown left his law studies to devote himself to writing. His gothic novels in American settings were the first in a tradition later adapted by Edgar Allan Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne. Wieland (1798), his best-known work, shows the ease with which mental balance is lost when common sense is confronted with the uncanny. His writings reflect a thoughtful liberalism while exploiting horror and terror. He has been called the “father of the American novel.”

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Louis Blanc.

(born Oct. 29, 1811, Madrid, Spain—died Dec. 6, 1882, Cannes, France) French utopian socialist and journalist. In 1839 he founded the socialist newspaper Revue du Progrès and serially published his The Organization of Labour, which described his theory of worker-controlled “social workshops” that would gradually take over production until a socialist society came into being. He was a member of the provisional government of the Second Republic (1848) but was forced to flee to England after workers unsuccessfully revolted. In exile (1848–70), he wrote a history of the French Revolution and other political works.

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(born Feb. 27, 1899, West Pembroke, Maine, U.S.—died March 31, 1978, Toronto, Ont., Can.) U.S.-born Canadian physiologist. He was a professor and administrator at the University of Toronto 1929–67. With Frederick Banting, he was the first to obtain a pancreatic extract of insulin in a form useful for controlling diabetes mellitus (1921). He did not receive the 1923 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine with Banting and J. J. R. Macleod because he did not yet have his medical degree, although Banting voluntarily shared his portion of the prize with Best. Best also discovered the vitamin choline and the enzyme histaminase and was one of the first to introduce anticoagulants to treat thrombosis.

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(born Sept. 15, 1889, Worcester, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 21, 1945, New York, N.Y., U.S.) U.S. drama critic, actor, and humorist. Benchley graduated from Harvard University and joined the staff of Life magazine in 1920. A regular member of the Algonquin Round Table, he was drama critic for The New Yorker 1929–40, for which he also wrote “The Wayward Press” column under the pseudonym Guy Fawkes. He had bit parts in many feature films, but he is best known for more than 40 short subjects, including How to Sleep (1934, Academy Award). His writing was warmly humorous, his satire sharp but not cruel.

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(born Nov. 27, 1874, near Knightstown, Ind., U.S.—died Sept. 1, 1948, New Haven, Conn.) U.S. historian. Beard taught at Columbia University (1904–17) and cofounded New York's New School for Social Research (1919). He is best known for iconoclastic studies of the development of U.S. political institutions, emphasizing the dynamics of socioeconomic conflict and change and analyzing motivational factors in the founding of institutions. His works include An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution of the United States (1913), claiming that the Constitution was formulated to serve the economic interests of the founders; The Economic Origins of Jeffersonian Democracy (1915); and, with his wife, Mary R. Beard (1876–1958), The Rise of American Civilization (1927).

Learn more about Beard, Charles A(ustin) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Charles Babbage, detail of an oil painting by Samuel Lawrence, 1845; in the National Portrait elipsis

(born Dec. 26, 1791, London, Eng.—died Oct. 18, 1871, London) British mathematician and inventor. Educated at Cambridge University, he devoted himself from about 1812 to devising machines capable of calculating mathematical tables. His first small calculator could perform certain computations to eight decimals. In 1823 he obtained government support for the design of a projected machine with a 20-decimal capacity. In the 1830s he developed plans for the so-called Analytical Engine, capable of performing any arithmetical operation on the basis of instructions from punched cards, a memory unit in which to store numbers, sequential control, and most of the other basic elements of the present-day computer. The forerunner of the modern digital computer, the Analytical Engine was never completed. In 1991 British scientists built Difference Engine No. 2 (accurate to 31 digits) to Babbage's specifications. His other contributions included establishing the modern postal system in England, compiling the first reliable actuarial tables, and inventing the locomotive cowcatcher.

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Algernon Charles Swinburne, watercolour by Dante Gabriel Rossetti, 1862; in the Fitzwilliam Museum, elipsis

(born April 5, 1837, London, Eng.—died April 10, 1909, Putney, London) English poet and critic. After attending Eton and the University of Oxford, Swinburne lived on an allowance from his father. His verse drama Atalanta in Calydon (1865) first showed his lyric powers. Poems and Ballads (1866), containing some of his best work, displays his paganism and masochism and provoked controversy; a second series (1878) was less hectic and sensual. His verse is marked by emphatic rhythms, much alliteration and internal rhyme, and lush subject matter. His health collapsed in 1879 and he spent his last 30 years under a friend's guardianship. His early poetry is noted for innovations in prosody, but his later poetry is considered less important. Among his outstanding critical writings are Essays and Studies (1875) and monographs on William Shakespeare (1880), Victor Hugo (1886), and Ben Jonson (1889).

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(born June 23, 1894, Hoboken, N.J., U.S.—died Aug. 25, 1956, Bloomington, Ind.) U.S. zoologist and expert on human sexual behaviour. After earning a Ph.D. from Harvard University in 1920, he taught zoology at Indiana University, where he became the founder-director, in 1942, of the university's Institute for Sex Research (renamed the Kinsey Institute for Sex Research, Inc., in 1981). His inquiries into human sexuality led him to publish Sexual Behavior in the Human Male (1948) and Sexual Behavior in the Human Female (1953). These reports, based on 18,500 personal interviews, received extraordinary publicity for their conclusions about contemporary sexual mores and behaviour. Kinsey's methodologies and statistical samplings, however, have been highly questioned and criticized in recent years.

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Alexis de Tocqueville, detail of an oil painting by T. Chassériau; in the Versailles Museum.

(born July 29, 1805, Paris, France—died April 16, 1859, Cannes) French political scientist, historian, and politician. Born into an aristocratic family, he entered government service by choice. After the July Revolution of 1830, his position became precarious because of his family's ties to the ousted king, and he undertook a nine-month study trip to the U.S. with his friend Gustave de Beaumont. Out of it came his best-known work, Democracy in America, 4 vol. (1835–40), a highly perceptive and prescient analysis of the American political and social system, as well as of the vitality, excesses, and potential future of democracy, with attention to the situation in France. He was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1839 and held various political offices after the Revolution of 1848. The Old Regime and the Revolution (1856), a pessimistic analysis of French political tendencies, was the first volume of his unfinished study of the French Revolution.

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(born Jan. 7, 1912, Westfield, N.J., U.S.—died Sept. 29, 1988, New York, N.Y.) U.S. cartoonist. He worked briefly as a commercial artist before selling his first cartoon to The New Yorker in 1933. He became famous for darkly humorous cartoons depicting morbid behaviour by sinister-looking characters, especially a family of ghouls whose activities travestied those of a conventional family; in one popular image, they prepare to pour boiling oil on a group of Christmas carolers. These evolved into The Addams Family, a 1960s television series that generated two Hollywood films.

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Charles Francis Adams

(born Aug. 18, 1807, Boston, Mass., U.S.—died Nov. 21, 1886, Boston) U.S. diplomat. The son of John Quincy Adams and the grandson of John Adams, he served in the Massachusetts legislature and edited a Whig journal. He helped form the antislavery Free-Soil Party and in 1848 was chosen its candidate for U.S. vice president. As ambassador to Britain (1861–68) he was instrumental in securing Britain's neutrality during the American Civil War and in promoting the arbitration of the Alabama claims.

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For people with family name Charles, see Charles (surname)

Charles is a given name for males, and has its origins in the Common Germanic term Churl, where it originally was used to indicate a free man, but not one belonging to the nobility.

Derivations of Charles include Charlie and Chuck.

Female versions of this name include Charlotte, Lotte, Charlotta, Carolyn, Lotta and Charlene.

Charles may also refer to:

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