In a woman with cervical incompetence, dilation and effacement of the cervix occur without pain or uterine contractions. Instead of happening in response to uterine contractions, as in normal pregnancy, these events occur because of weakness of the cervix, which opens under the growing pressure of the uterus as pregnancy progresses. If the changes are not halted, rupture of the membranes and birth of a premature baby can result. According to statistics provided by the Mayo Clinic, cervical incompetence is relatively rare in the United States, occurring in only 1—2% of all pregnancies, but it is thought to cause as many as 20—25% of miscarriages in the second trimester.
Cerclage procedures usually entail closing the cervix through the vagina with the aid of a speculum. Another approach involves performing the cerclage through an abdominal incision. Transabdominal cerclage of the cervix makes it possible to place the stitch exactly at the level that is needed. It can be carried out when the cervix is very short, effaced or totally distorted. The complications described in the literature have been rare: hemorrhage from damage to the veins at the time of the procedure; and fetal death due to uterine vessels occlusion.
Note: The first revision of this article was adapted from material from the public domain source "Summary Report: ICD-9-CM coordination and maintenance committee", published at http://www.cms.hhs.gov/paymentsystems/icd9/icd111700.pdf.
Efficacy and results of expansive laminoplasty in patients with severe cervical myelopathy due to cervical canal stenosis
Jan 01, 2004; Introduction Cervical canal stenosis is caused by the narrowing of the central spinal canal or neural foramina and may be either...