The CIA has often been criticized for covert operations in the domestic politics of foreign countries. The agency was heavily involved in the failed 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba, deeply embarrassing the United States. In 1971 the U.S. government acknowledged that the CIA had recruited and paid an army fighting in Laos. In 1973 the CIA came under congressional investigation for its role in the Pentagon Papers case. The agency had provided members of the White House staff, on request, with a personality profile of Daniel Ellsberg, defendant in the Pentagon Papers trial in 1973, and had indirectly aided the White House "Plumbers," the special unit established to investigate internal security leaks. This direct violation of the National Security Act's prohibition led Congress to strengthen provisions barring the agency from domestic operations.
Its foreign operations came under attack in 1974 for involvement in Chilean internal affairs during the administration of Salvador Allende, and in 1986 it was shown to be involved in the Iran-Contra affair. Diminished in the early 1990s after the end of the cold war, it began rebuilding later in the decade, accelerating the process after the terror attacks of Sept. 11, 2001. It was subsequently hurt, however, by the revelation that Director George Tenet had insisted, prior to the Iraq invasion of 2003, that Iraq possessed weapons of mass destruction, and the quality of the intelligence that it had provided was criticized. One result of the intelligence failures relating to Sept., 2001, and Iraq was the reorganization of 2004, which demoted the director of the CIA and made the CIA one of several agencies overseen by the new position of director of national intelligence.
See publications by the CIA History Staff; see also H. H. Ransom, The Intelligence Establishment (rev. ed. 1970); P. J. McGarvey, CIA: The Myth and the Madness (1972); S. D. Breckinridge, The CIA and the U.S. Intelligence System (1986); J. Ranelagh, The Agency (1986); S. Turner, Secrecy and Democracy; The CIA in Transition (1986); J. Marshall, The Iran-Contra Connection (1987); G. F. Treverton, Covert Action (1987); P. Agee, On the Run (1987); R. Jeffrey-Jones, The CIA and American Democracy (1989); E. Thomas, The Very Best Men: Four Who Dared: The Early Years of the CIA (1996); T. Weiner, Legacy of Ashes: The History of the CIA (2007).
The functions of this position were served by the Deputy Director of Central Intelligence (DDCI) until that position was abolished under the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004. The position of DD/CIA was created administratively by then-D/CIA Porter Goss and is awaiting statutory approval from the U.S. Congress.
The first DDCI was Kingman Douglass, appointed by the Director of Central Intelligence (now the Director of the Central Intelligence Agency) in 1946. In April 1953, Congress amended the National Security Act to allow the President of the United States to appoint the DDCI (with U.S. Senate confirmation). The amendment stipulated that the Director and Deputy Director positions could not be simultaneously filled by military officers.
Under current law, the Deputy Director is appointed by the D/CIA and is not required to be confirmed by the Senate. The current Deputy Director is Stephen R. Kappes.
|Name||Appointment Date||End of Term|
|Kingman Douglass||1946 March||1946 July|
|Vacant||1946 July||1947 January|
|Edwin Kennedy Wright||1947 January||1949 March|
|Vacant||1949 March||1950 October|
|William Harding Jackson||1950 October||1951 August|
|Allen Welsh Dulles||1951 August||1953 February|
|Gen Charles Pearre Cabell||1953 April||1962 January|
|LTG Marshall Sylvester Carter||1962 April||1965 April|
|Richard McGarrah Helms||1965 April||1966 June|
|Rufus Lackland Taylor||1966 October||1969 February|
|Gen Robert Everton Cushman, Jr.||1969 May||1971 December|
|Vernon Anthony Walters||1972 May||1976 July|
|Enno Henry Knoche||1976 July||1977 August|
|John Francis Blake||1974 August||1978 February|
|Frank Charles Carlucci III||1978 February||1981 February|
|ADM Bobby Ray Inman||1981 February||1982 June|
|John Norman McMahon||1982 June||1986 March|
|Robert Michael Gates||1986 April||1989 March|
|Richard James Kerr||1989 March||1992 March|
|ADM William Oliver Studeman||1992 April||1995 July|
|George John Tenet||1995 July||1997 July|
|Gen John Alexander Gordon||1997 October||2000 June|
|John Edward McLaughlin||2000 October||2004 November|
|Vacant||2004 November||2005 July|
Note: The office of Deputy Director of Central Intelligence was separated into the offices of Principal Deputy Director of National Intelligence and Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency.
|Name||Appointment Date||End of Term|
|VADM Albert M. Calland||15 July 2005||23 July 2006|
|Stephen R. Kappes||24 July 2006||Present|