Carroll

Carroll

[kar-uhl]
Carroll, Charles, 1737-1832, political leader in the American Revolution, signer of the Declaration of Independence, b. Annapolis, Md. After completing his education in France and England, he returned home (1765) and his father gave him a large estate near Frederick, Md., known as Carrollton Manor; he was afterward styled Charles Carroll of Carrollton. As leader of the Roman Catholic element, he opposed support of the established Anglican Church, presenting his views in a series of articles written for the Maryland Gazette. He threw himself boldly into revolutionary activities, and in 1776 the Continental Congress appointed him, together with Benjamin Franklin and Samuel Chase, to seek Canadian support for the Continental cause. His journal is one of the chief sources for study of this unsuccessful mission. Carroll served (1776-78) in the Continental Congress; he refused to attend the Federal Constitutional Convention (1787), but he later supported the Constitution. He was (1789-92) U.S. Senator from Maryland.

See biographies by K. M. Rowland (1898, repr. 1968), J. Gurn (1932), and E. H. Smith (1942, repr. 1971).

Carroll, James, 1854-1907, American bacteriologist and army surgeon, b. Woolwich, England, M.D. Univ. of Maryland, 1891. He went to Canada at 15 and later joined the U.S. army. A member of the Yellow Fever Commission under Walter Reed, he voluntarily submitted to the bite of an infected mosquito, contracted yellow fever, and recovered. This proved the mosquito to be the carrier of the disease. Carroll also proved that the infectious agent is a filterable virus.
Carroll, John, 1735-1815, American Roman Catholic churchman, b. Maryland. He studied as a child with Jesuits at Bohemia, Md., and later at Saint-Omer in Flanders, since Catholic secondary education was not allowed in Maryland. He joined the Jesuits in 1753, studied at Liège, and was ordained in 1769. After the suppression of the Jesuits he returned to America and traveled about, ministering to scattered Catholics. He maintained a private chapel, for Catholic churches were forbidden by law. He ardently supported the American Revolution and accompanied Benjamin Franklin (his close friend) on an unsuccessful mission to Quebec (1776) to persuade the Canadians to join the Revolutionary cause. Believing that American Roman Catholics should be free of supervision by the vicar apostolic of London, he led in petitioning Rome for the appointment of a priest in America with some episcopal powers. In 1784, Father Carroll was made superior of the missions in the United States. In the same year he published a controversial pamphlet, An Address to the Roman Catholics of the United States of America, to combat a paper impugning the loyalty of Catholics. In 1790 he was consecrated bishop of Baltimore. He welcomed the Sulpicians, who opened a seminary at Baltimore, and he founded Georgetown Univ. Carroll fostered many communities and founded schools throughout his diocese. In 1808 he became archbishop, with suffragans at Boston, New York City, Philadelphia, and Bardstown, Ky. His last years were somewhat clouded by disputes with Catholic communities in Pennsylvania, Virginia, Georgia, South Carolina, and Maryland over his episcopal jurisdiction.

See biographies by J. G. Shea (1888), P. K. Guilday (1922), and A. M. Melville (1955).

Carroll, Lewis, pseud. of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, 1832-98, English writer, mathematician, and amateur photographer, b. near Daresbury, Cheshire (now in Halton). Educated at Christ Church College, Oxford, he was nominated to a studentship (life fellowship) in 1852, and he remained at Oxford for the rest of his life. Although his fellowship was clerical, Carroll never proceeded higher than his ordination as a deacon in 1861. Shy and afflicted with a stammer, he felt himself unsuited to the demanding life of a minister. He did, however, lecture in mathematics at Christ Church from 1855 until 1881. Among his mathematical works, now almost forgotten, is Euclid and His Modern Rivals (1879).

Carroll is chiefly remembered as the author of the famous children's books Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865) and its sequel, Through the Looking Glass (1872), both published under his pseudonym and both illustrated by Sir John Tenniel. He developed these stories from tales he told to the children of H. G. Liddell, the dean of Christ Church College, one of whom was named Alice. Many of his characters—the Mad Hatter, the March Hare, the White Rabbit, the Red Queen, and the White Queen—have become familiar figures in literature and conversation. Although numerous satiric and symbolic meanings have been read into Alice's adventures, the works can be read and valued as simple exercises in fantasy. Carroll himself said that in the books he meant only nonsense. He also wrote humorous verses, the most popular of them being The Hunting of the Snark (1876). His later stories for children, Sylvie and Bruno (1889) and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893), though containing interesting experiments in construction, are widely regarded as failures.

Carroll remained a bachelor all his life. Partly because of his stammer he found association with adults difficult and was most at ease in the company of children, especially little girls, with whom he was clearly obsessed. Early in 1856 he took up photography as a hobby; his photographs of children are still considered remarkable.

Bibliography

See his complete works (ed. by A. Woolcott, 1939) and many recent editions; M. Gardner, ed., The Annotated Alice (1960, repr. 1970); S. Collingwood, Life and Letters (1898, repr. 1968); E. Wakeling, Lewis Carroll, Photographer (2002); biography by M. N. Cohen (1995), mathematical biography by R. Wilson (2008); studies by B. Clark (1988), R. Kelly (1990), and J. Wullschläger (1995); critical essays ed. by H. Bloom (1987).

Carroll, Paul Vincent, 1900-1968, Irish playwright. His plays, vigorous commentaries on the conflicts of village life in Ireland, include Shadow and Substance (1937), The White Steed (1939), The Wise Have Not Spoken (1946), and The Wayward Saint (1955).

See his Irish Stories and Plays (1958).

orig. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson

(born Jan. 27, 1832, Daresbury, Cheshire, Eng.—died Jan. 14, 1898, Guildford, Surrey) British logician, mathematician, and novelist. An unmarried deacon and a lecturer in mathematics at the University of Oxford, he enjoyed the company of young girls. His novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865; illustrated by John Tenniel) is based on stories he told to amuse young friends, especially Alice Liddell. Its sequel, Through the Looking-Glass (1871), describes Alice's further adventures. The two books, full of whimsy but also of sophisticated wit and puzzles, became among the most famous and admired children's books in the world. Carroll's other works include the narrative nonsense poem The Hunting of the Snark (1876) and the children's novels Sylvie and Bruno (1889) and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893). He was also an important early portrait photographer.

Learn more about Carroll, Lewis with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 19, 1737, Annapolis, Md.—died Nov. 14, 1832, Baltimore, Md., U.S.) American patriot leader. He attended Jesuit colleges in Maryland and studied law in France and England. He served on Committees of Correspondence, signed the Declaration of Independence, and served in the Continental Congress (1776–78). He was a U.S. senator (1789–92).

Learn more about Carroll, Charles with a free trial on Britannica.com.

orig. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson

(born Jan. 27, 1832, Daresbury, Cheshire, Eng.—died Jan. 14, 1898, Guildford, Surrey) British logician, mathematician, and novelist. An unmarried deacon and a lecturer in mathematics at the University of Oxford, he enjoyed the company of young girls. His novel Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865; illustrated by John Tenniel) is based on stories he told to amuse young friends, especially Alice Liddell. Its sequel, Through the Looking-Glass (1871), describes Alice's further adventures. The two books, full of whimsy but also of sophisticated wit and puzzles, became among the most famous and admired children's books in the world. Carroll's other works include the narrative nonsense poem The Hunting of the Snark (1876) and the children's novels Sylvie and Bruno (1889) and Sylvie and Bruno Concluded (1893). He was also an important early portrait photographer.

Learn more about Carroll, Lewis with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 19, 1737, Annapolis, Md.—died Nov. 14, 1832, Baltimore, Md., U.S.) American patriot leader. He attended Jesuit colleges in Maryland and studied law in France and England. He served on Committees of Correspondence, signed the Declaration of Independence, and served in the Continental Congress (1776–78). He was a U.S. senator (1789–92).

Learn more about Carroll, Charles with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Carroll is a city in Carroll County, Iowa, United States, along the Middle Raccoon River. The population was 10,106 at the 2000 census. It is the county seat of Carroll County.

Geography

Carroll is located at (42.069544, -94.866361).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 5.5 square miles (14.3 km²), all of it land.

History

Carroll County is named in honor of Charles Carroll of Carrollton, Maryland. He was the only Roman Catholic to sign the Declaration of Independence, and the longest living signatory .

In 1855 a county government was set up in the town Carrollton. Three years later a courthouse was constructed at a cost of approximately $3,000. Construction was begun by Nelson Moore, but he died with only one floor completed. The second story was completed by L. J. Hampton.

In 1869 the centrally located railroad town of Carroll City was selected as the county seat, replacing, with some protest, Carrollton. The Chicago and Northwestern Railroad laid out the town and built its first building, a warehouse. Later a $4,000 courthouse was constructed on the town square. This building was used until it burned to the ground in 1886. The vaults and records were undamaged, however, and moved to temporary housing in the Joyce Building and Drees' Music Hall.

The following winter a $40,000 bond issue was approved toward the construction of a new, permanent courthouse. The impressive building was built on the northwest corner of the square (the parking lot of the current courthouse). The stone and brick building, complete with a clock tower, was used for more than three-quarters of a century. It was replaced by a modern-looking building in 1965.

A $750,000 bond issue was used to construct and equip the new courthouse. This building was officially dedicated on September 24, 1966. The highlight of the dedication ceremony was the opening of the boxes sealed in the cornerstone of the old courthouse. The bell from the previous courthouse clock tower sits on the courthouse grounds.

Source: Marie Hackett, Curator of the Carroll County Historical Museum, 1991

Of more recent note was the town's request that Wal Mart build close to downtown, the idea being that it could act as a magnet to downtown, instead of being a threat to established businesses. The arrangement has worked fairly well. However it has disrupted some of the close knit feelings that the people in Carroll used to have.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 10,106 people, 4,173 households, and 2,649 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,823.2 people per square mile (704.3/km²). There were 4,431 housing units at an average density of 799.4/sq mi (308.8/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 98.57% White, 0.18% African American, 0.10% Native American, 0.51% Asian, 0.28% from other races, and 0.37% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.57% of the population.

There were 4,173 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.7% were married couples living together, 8.9% had a female householder with no husband present, and 36.5% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.99.

Population spread: 25.9% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 26.0% from 25 to 44, 20.4% from 45 to 64, and 19.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 89.5 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $39,854, and the median income for a family was $51,020. Males had a median income of $31,124 versus $22,215 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,442. About 3.4% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.8% of those under age 18 and 7.4% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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