Djerassi, Carl, 1929-, American organic chemist and educator, b. Vienna, Austria. He received his Ph.D. from the Univ. of Wisconsin (1945) and, since 1959, has taught at Stanford Univ. He was also president of the Syntex Research Division (1968-72) as well as president (1968-83) and then chairman of the board (1983-88) of the Zoecon Corporation. His synthetic work focused on steroids, antihistamines, and inflammatories and his theoretical work on optical rotatory dispersion and circular dichroism. He produced the first commercial oral contraceptive. His books include The Politics of Contraception: Birth Control in the Year 2001 (1980) and Cantor's Dilemma (1989).
Lewis, Carl (Frederick Carlton Lewis), 1961-, American sprinter and jumper, b. Birmingham, Ala. A star in high school and at the Univ. of Houston, he became possibly the greatest track athlete of all time. After winning three gold medals at the World Championships in Helsinki in 1983, he went on at the 1984 Summer Olympics to match Jesse Owens's record by winning four gold medals (the 100-m and 200-m sprints, the long jump, and the 4 × 100-meter relay). He also won three medals—two gold and one silver—at the 1988 Olympic games, two gold again in 1992, and another gold in 1996, tying the record for most gold medals overall (nine). He retired in 1997.
Nielsen, Carl, 1865-1931, Danish composer. Nielsen was a pupil of Niels Gade at the Royal Conservatory in Copenhagen. Considered Denmark's foremost composer, he is known internationally primarily for his six symphonies. Nielsen also composed one concerto apiece for flute, clarinet, and violin; two operas, Saul and David and Maskarade; a woodwind quintet; four string quartets; songs; incidental music; and many other chamber, choral, and piano pieces. His orchestral writing is extremely dense in texture. His music is frequently polyphonic and often strongly melodic. Although he never abandoned tonality, he built works from contrasting key centers, so that they give little sense of a tonic key. Nielsen's books include Living Music (1925, tr. 1953) and My Childhood (1927, tr. 1953).

See M. Miller, The Nielsen Companion (1995); biography by K. Eskildsen (1999); studies by R. Simpson (1952 and 1965).

Bosch, Carl, 1874-1940, German chemist and engineer, Ph.D. Univ. of Leipzig, 1898. In 1899, Bosch began working as a chemist for BASF, which merged with six other German chemical firms to become I. G. Farben in 1925. He remained with the company until his death in 1940. Bosch was awarded the 1931 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Friedrich Bergius in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high-pressure methods. Bosch is credited with collaborating in the development of the Haber-Bosch process for high-pressure synthesis of ammonia, which is used to produce fertilizers and explosives. He also developed a method for making gasoline from coal dust and hydrogen.
Larsson, Carl, 1853-1919, Swedish painter and illustrator. He was a popular and imaginative illustrator and was equally successful as a watercolorist. In watercolor he painted exquisite interiors that influenced Swedish decorative arts. He is perhaps best known, however, for his historical mural decorations in fresco for the national museum and the opera house in Stockholm.
Van Vechten, Carl, 1880-1964, American music critic, novelist, and photographer, b. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, grad. Univ. of Chicago, 1903. While he was a leading music critic in New York City, he wrote The Music of Spain (1918) and other critical works. At 40 he began writing novels, the best known of which, written in the sophisticated style of the 1920s, are Peter Whiffle (1922), The Tattooed Countess (1924), Nigger Heaven (1926), and Spider Boy (1928). After completing his autobiographical Sacred and Profane Memories (1932), he turned to photography and distinguished himself in that field. Van Vechten was well known for his interest in African-American culture and his efforts to promote better interracial relations.

See Remember Me to Harlem: The Letters of Langston Hughes and Carl Van Vechten (2001), ed. by E. Bernard.

Sandburg, Carl, 1878-1967, American poet and biographer, b. Galesburg, Ill. The son of poor Swedish immigrants, he left school at the age of 13 and became a day laborer. He served in the Spanish-American War and, after returning to Galesburg, attended Lombard College (now Knox College). In 1902 he went to work as a newspaperman in Milwaukee. In 1908 he married Lillian Steichen, sister of the photographer Edward Steichen. From 1910 to 1912 he was secretary to the Socialist mayor of Milwaukee. Sandburg later moved to Chicago, where he continued his journalism career, becoming in 1917 an editorial writer for the Chicago Daily News. His poetry first began to attract attention in Harriet Monroe's magazine Poetry. With the appearance of his Chicago Poems (1916), Cornhuskers (1918), Smoke and Steel (1920), and Slabs of the Sunburnt West (1922), his reputation was established. Among his later volumes of verse are Good Morning, America (1928), The People, Yes (1936), Complete Poems (1950; Pulitzer Prize), Harvest Poems, 1910-1960 (1960), and Honey and Salt (1963). Sandburg drew most of his inspiration from American history and was profoundly influenced by Walt Whitman. His verse is vigorous and impressionistic, written without regard for conventional meter and form, in language both simple and noble. Much of his poetry celebrates the beauty of ordinary people and things. Sandburg's most ambitious work was his six-volume biography of Abraham Lincoln (1926-39); this monumental work exalts Lincoln as the symbol and embodiment of the American spirit. The last four volumes won the Pulitzer Prize. At 70, Sandburg produced his first work of fiction, the novel Remembrance Rock (1948), a panoramic epic of America. His other works include The American Songbag (1927), a collection of folk ballads and songs; children's books, such as Rootabaga Stories (1922); and the autobiographical Always the Young Strangers (1953).

See his letters, ed. by H. Mitgang (1968); biographies by N. Callahan (1970) and H. Golden (1988); studies by R. Crowder (1963), H. B. Durnell (1965), and W. A. Sutton (1979).

Reinecke, Carl, 1824-1910, German composer, pianist, and conductor. After serving as court pianist (1846-48) in Denmark, he taught at the Cologne Conservatory and the Univ. of Breslau. In 1860 he moved to Leipzig, where he conducted the Gewandhaus concerts until 1895 and taught composition at the conservatory until 1902. He toured extensively as a pianist, gaining particular acclaim for his interpretations of Mozart. His compositions, the best of which are for piano, are in the German romantic tradition.
Schurz, Carl, 1829-1906, American political leader, b. Germany. He studied at the Univ. of Bonn and participated in the revolutionary uprisings of 1848-49 in Germany. Compelled to flee to Zürich after the collapse of the movement, he finally emigrated (1852) to the United States, where he settled (1856) in Watertown, Wis. and became a strong supporter of Abraham Lincoln, who appointed him (1861) U.S. minister to Spain. Schurz resigned this position to serve in the Civil War. Promoted to major general in 1863, he fought in the battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and Chattanooga and served with Gen. William T. Sherman's army in North Carolina in 1865. Between 1865 and 1868, Schurz was Washington correspondent of the New York Tribune, editor of the Detroit Post, and joint editor and owner of the St. Louis Westliche Post. He was U.S. Senator (1869-75) from his adopted state of Missouri. Antagonized by the radical Republican Reconstruction program and opposed to the administration of President Grant, Schurz aided in forming (1872) the Liberal Republican party. In 1876, Schurz supported Rutherford B. Hayes, whose hard money views he approved, for the presidency. He served (1877-81) in Hayes's cabinet as Secretary of the Interior. He was an editor (1881-83) of the New York Evening Post and wrote editorials (1892-98) for Harper's Weekly. In 1884, convinced of James G. Blaine's unfitness for office, Schurz led the mugwumps in their opposition to Blaine's nomination and candidacy. Schurz supported the Democrat Grover Cleveland in that year and again in 1888 and 1892. He turned to William McKinley in 1896 because of William Jennings Bryan's currency views, but in 1900 he supported Bryan because of his anti-imperialist views. He wrote Life of Henry Clay (2 vol., 1887), Abraham Lincoln: an Essay (1891), and his own reminiscences (3 vol., 1907-8; abridged vol. by Allan Nevins, 1961).

See F. Bancroft, ed., Speeches, Correspondence, and Political Papers of Carl Schurz (6 vol., 1913); J. Schafer, ed., Intimate Letters of Carl Schurz, 1841-1869 (1928); biographies by C. M. Fuess (1932, repr. 1963) and J. P. Terzian (1965).

Menger, Carl, 1840-1921, Austrian economist, a founder of the Austrian school of economics. He was professor of economics at the Univ. of Vienna from 1873 until 1903, when he retired to devote himself to research. Following an empirical approach rather than the historical method, he formulated a theory of marginal utility. The basic principle is that consumer goods have value of two orders, as they serve human needs directly or indirectly; thus he explained the economic phenomena of price and distribution in terms of social value. His theories are well known to the English-speaking world through the works of some of his associates, especially Friedrich von Wieser and Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk. In response to a particularly negative review of Menger's Problems of Economics and Sociology (1883) by Gustav Schmoller, Menger published a critique of the historical school of economics. This exchange resulted in long-standing animosity between the two schools of economic thought. His chief work is Principles of Economics (1871; tr. 1950).
Ruggles, Carl, 1876-1971, American composer, b. Marion, Mass. Ruggles studied music at Harvard and was a friend of Charles Ives. His works are highly original, characterized by complex textures and jagged outlines. He wrote relatively little and later disavowed the music he had written before 1918. His best-known pieces include Men and Mountains (1924) and Sun-Treader (1932), for orchestra; Angels, for muted brass (1921); and Evocations (1934-43), for piano.
Andre, Carl, 1935-, American sculptor, b. Quincy, Mass. A former student of Patrick Morgan and Frank Stella, Andre produces sculptures of elemental, classic form. His works reflect the quarries, shipyards, and islands of his birthplace and his years spent as a freight-train brakeman. One of the founders of the minimalist sculpture movement, he is famous for his floor pieces, including Lever (1966), in which fire bricks were arranged to extend laterally 400 feet (122 m) from a gallery wall. In 1988, he was tried and acquitted of pushing his wife, land art sculptor Ana Mendiata, to her death from the window of their 34th-floor apartment.
Orff, Carl, 1895-1982, German composer and educator. After studying at the Academy of Music at Munich, he helped to found the Günter School there in 1924. As a composer Orff wished to simplify music, to return to its primitive components. He attempted to adapt old monodic forms to modern tastes, employing dissonant counterpoint and vigorous rhythms. His most famous work is the Carmina Burana (1937), a scenic oratorio derived from a group of medieval poems in German and Latin (see also Goliardic songs). This oratorio forms part of a trilogy that includes Catulli Carmina (1943), a scenic cantata based on the works of Catullus; and Trionfo di Afrodite (1953). Orff's other works include the operas Der Mond [the moon] (1939) and Die Kluge [the wise woman] (1943). From 1960 he was head of the Orff School for Music in Munich. His work in music education has attracted a considerable following in the United States.
Milles, Carl, 1875-1955, Swedish-American sculptor, whose name originally was Carl Emil Wilhelm Anderson. Influenced by Rodin, he studied in Paris from 1897 until 1904, when he returned to Stockholm. In 1929 he visited the United States for the first time and in 1931 began to teach sculpture at Cranbrook Academy, Cranbrook, Mich. His work, at first inspired by Rodin, later became more angular and abstract. Millesgården near Stockholm contains many of his works. He is represented in the United States by the Peace Monument at St. Paul, Minn.; the Fountain of the Meeting of the Waters at St. Louis; a fountain in the Metropolitan Museum; and statues in Rockefeller Center, New York City.
Spitzweg, Carl, 1808-85, German genre painter and draftsman. Self-taught, he depicted the daily life of his native Munich in small, charming pictures in which realism, fancy, and humor are happily combined. Characteristic are The Poor Poet, Two Hermits, and Scholar in the Attic. He contributed many delightful drawings to the humorous periodical Fliegende Blätter.
Bildt, Carl, 1949-, Swedish political leader. Born into a prominent family, he was elected to parliament in 1979 as a member of the conservative Moderate party, serving there until 2001. Party leader from 1986 to 1999, he became prime minister in 1991, at the head of a center-right coalition government. His tenure (1991-94) was marked by pro-free-market policies and other reforms aimed at improving Sweden's competitiveness and liberalizing its economy and by the modernization of Sweden's welfare system. Bildt was a key figure in the negotiations that led to Sweden's joining (1995) the European Union (EU). He also served as co-chair of the Dayton peace talks in the mid-1990s, as the EU's High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995-97), and as the UN secretary-general's special envoy to the Balkans (1999-2001). In 2006 he returned to Sweden's government as Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt's foreign minister. He has written several books, among them Peace Journey: The Struggle for Peace in Bosnia (1999).
Sternheim, Carl, 1878-1943, German dramatist. In his successful comedy Die Hose (1911, tr. A Pair of Drawers, 1927) and in his later works he satirized as corrupt the manners, morals, and beliefs of bourgeois society. Other works include the plays Bürger Schippel (1913) and Die Marquise von Arcis (1919, tr. The Mask of Virtue, 1935); the novel Fairfax (1921, tr. 1923), which satirized American life; and stories and critical essays. Sternheim's work had an influence on German expressionism. In the Nazi era he lived in Switzerland.
Zuckmayer, Carl, 1896-1977, German dramatist. Zuckmayer devoted himself to writing after the success of his comedy Der fröhliche Weinberg [the merry vineyard] (1925). During World War II he lived in the United States. His popular plays include Der Hauptmann von Köpenick (1931; tr. The Captain of Köpenick, 1932), satirizing German militarism, and Des Teufels General (1946; tr. The Devil's General, 1950), portraying the dilemma of an anti-Nazi German army officer. Both have been adapted as films. Zuckmayer's expressionistic style exhibits a controlled sentimentality. His best-known film script is Der blaue Engel [the blue angel] (1930). Zuckmayer's other works include poems, the espionage novel Das kalte Licht [the bold light] (1955, tr. 1958), and two autobiographies (1940, in English; and 1966, tr. 1970).
Rogers, Carl, 1902-87, American psychologist, b. Oak Park, Ill. In 1930, Rogers served as director of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in Rochester, New York. He lectured at the Univ. of Rochester (1935-40), Ohio State Univ. (1940-44), and the Univ. of Chicago (1945-57), where he helped to found a therapeutic counseling center. After teaching at Univ. of Wisconsin until 1963, he became a resident at the new Center for Studies of the Person in La Jolla. A prominent figure in the humanistic school of psychology, Rogers is best known for his client-centered therapy, which suggested that the client should have as much impact on the direction of the therapy as the psychologist. His works include Client-Centered Therapy (1951) and On Becoming a Person (1961).
Carl is a town in Barrow County, Georgia, United States. The population was 205 at the 2000 census.


Carl is located at (34.006635, -83.812016).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.8 square miles (2.1 km²), all of it land.


As of the census of 2000, there were 205 people, 90 households, and 59 families residing in the town. The population density was 257.6 people per square mile (98.9/km²). There were 99 housing units at an average density of 124.4/sq mi (47.8/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 92.20% White, 2.93% African American, 4.39% from other races, and 0.49% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.39% of the population.

There were 90 households out of which 18.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 4.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.4% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.80.

In the town the population was spread out with 16.6% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, and 21.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 122.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.5 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $45,417, and the median income for a family was $56,250. Males had a median income of $32,356 versus $23,500 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,948. About 1.5% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under the age of eighteen and 10.9% of those sixty five or over.


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