Carl

Carl

[kahrl]
Djerassi, Carl, 1929-, American organic chemist and educator, b. Vienna, Austria. He received his Ph.D. from the Univ. of Wisconsin (1945) and, since 1959, has taught at Stanford Univ. He was also president of the Syntex Research Division (1968-72) as well as president (1968-83) and then chairman of the board (1983-88) of the Zoecon Corporation. His synthetic work focused on steroids, antihistamines, and inflammatories and his theoretical work on optical rotatory dispersion and circular dichroism. He produced the first commercial oral contraceptive. His books include The Politics of Contraception: Birth Control in the Year 2001 (1980) and Cantor's Dilemma (1989).
Lewis, Carl (Frederick Carlton Lewis), 1961-, American sprinter and jumper, b. Birmingham, Ala. A star in high school and at the Univ. of Houston, he became possibly the greatest track athlete of all time. After winning three gold medals at the World Championships in Helsinki in 1983, he went on at the 1984 Summer Olympics to match Jesse Owens's record by winning four gold medals (the 100-m and 200-m sprints, the long jump, and the 4 × 100-meter relay). He also won three medals—two gold and one silver—at the 1988 Olympic games, two gold again in 1992, and another gold in 1996, tying the record for most gold medals overall (nine). He retired in 1997.
Nielsen, Carl, 1865-1931, Danish composer. Nielsen was a pupil of Niels Gade at the Royal Conservatory in Copenhagen. Considered Denmark's foremost composer, he is known internationally primarily for his six symphonies. Nielsen also composed one concerto apiece for flute, clarinet, and violin; two operas, Saul and David and Maskarade; a woodwind quintet; four string quartets; songs; incidental music; and many other chamber, choral, and piano pieces. His orchestral writing is extremely dense in texture. His music is frequently polyphonic and often strongly melodic. Although he never abandoned tonality, he built works from contrasting key centers, so that they give little sense of a tonic key. Nielsen's books include Living Music (1925, tr. 1953) and My Childhood (1927, tr. 1953).

See M. Miller, The Nielsen Companion (1995); biography by K. Eskildsen (1999); studies by R. Simpson (1952 and 1965).

Bosch, Carl, 1874-1940, German chemist and engineer, Ph.D. Univ. of Leipzig, 1898. In 1899, Bosch began working as a chemist for BASF, which merged with six other German chemical firms to become I. G. Farben in 1925. He remained with the company until his death in 1940. Bosch was awarded the 1931 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Friedrich Bergius in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high-pressure methods. Bosch is credited with collaborating in the development of the Haber-Bosch process for high-pressure synthesis of ammonia, which is used to produce fertilizers and explosives. He also developed a method for making gasoline from coal dust and hydrogen.
Larsson, Carl, 1853-1919, Swedish painter and illustrator. He was a popular and imaginative illustrator and was equally successful as a watercolorist. In watercolor he painted exquisite interiors that influenced Swedish decorative arts. He is perhaps best known, however, for his historical mural decorations in fresco for the national museum and the opera house in Stockholm.
Van Vechten, Carl, 1880-1964, American music critic, novelist, and photographer, b. Cedar Rapids, Iowa, grad. Univ. of Chicago, 1903. While he was a leading music critic in New York City, he wrote The Music of Spain (1918) and other critical works. At 40 he began writing novels, the best known of which, written in the sophisticated style of the 1920s, are Peter Whiffle (1922), The Tattooed Countess (1924), Nigger Heaven (1926), and Spider Boy (1928). After completing his autobiographical Sacred and Profane Memories (1932), he turned to photography and distinguished himself in that field. Van Vechten was well known for his interest in African-American culture and his efforts to promote better interracial relations.

See Remember Me to Harlem: The Letters of Langston Hughes and Carl Van Vechten (2001), ed. by E. Bernard.

Sandburg, Carl, 1878-1967, American poet and biographer, b. Galesburg, Ill. The son of poor Swedish immigrants, he left school at the age of 13 and became a day laborer. He served in the Spanish-American War and, after returning to Galesburg, attended Lombard College (now Knox College). In 1902 he went to work as a newspaperman in Milwaukee. In 1908 he married Lillian Steichen, sister of the photographer Edward Steichen. From 1910 to 1912 he was secretary to the Socialist mayor of Milwaukee. Sandburg later moved to Chicago, where he continued his journalism career, becoming in 1917 an editorial writer for the Chicago Daily News. His poetry first began to attract attention in Harriet Monroe's magazine Poetry. With the appearance of his Chicago Poems (1916), Cornhuskers (1918), Smoke and Steel (1920), and Slabs of the Sunburnt West (1922), his reputation was established. Among his later volumes of verse are Good Morning, America (1928), The People, Yes (1936), Complete Poems (1950; Pulitzer Prize), Harvest Poems, 1910-1960 (1960), and Honey and Salt (1963). Sandburg drew most of his inspiration from American history and was profoundly influenced by Walt Whitman. His verse is vigorous and impressionistic, written without regard for conventional meter and form, in language both simple and noble. Much of his poetry celebrates the beauty of ordinary people and things. Sandburg's most ambitious work was his six-volume biography of Abraham Lincoln (1926-39); this monumental work exalts Lincoln as the symbol and embodiment of the American spirit. The last four volumes won the Pulitzer Prize. At 70, Sandburg produced his first work of fiction, the novel Remembrance Rock (1948), a panoramic epic of America. His other works include The American Songbag (1927), a collection of folk ballads and songs; children's books, such as Rootabaga Stories (1922); and the autobiographical Always the Young Strangers (1953).

See his letters, ed. by H. Mitgang (1968); biographies by N. Callahan (1970) and H. Golden (1988); studies by R. Crowder (1963), H. B. Durnell (1965), and W. A. Sutton (1979).

Reinecke, Carl, 1824-1910, German composer, pianist, and conductor. After serving as court pianist (1846-48) in Denmark, he taught at the Cologne Conservatory and the Univ. of Breslau. In 1860 he moved to Leipzig, where he conducted the Gewandhaus concerts until 1895 and taught composition at the conservatory until 1902. He toured extensively as a pianist, gaining particular acclaim for his interpretations of Mozart. His compositions, the best of which are for piano, are in the German romantic tradition.
Schurz, Carl, 1829-1906, American political leader, b. Germany. He studied at the Univ. of Bonn and participated in the revolutionary uprisings of 1848-49 in Germany. Compelled to flee to Zürich after the collapse of the movement, he finally emigrated (1852) to the United States, where he settled (1856) in Watertown, Wis. and became a strong supporter of Abraham Lincoln, who appointed him (1861) U.S. minister to Spain. Schurz resigned this position to serve in the Civil War. Promoted to major general in 1863, he fought in the battles of Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and Chattanooga and served with Gen. William T. Sherman's army in North Carolina in 1865. Between 1865 and 1868, Schurz was Washington correspondent of the New York Tribune, editor of the Detroit Post, and joint editor and owner of the St. Louis Westliche Post. He was U.S. Senator (1869-75) from his adopted state of Missouri. Antagonized by the radical Republican Reconstruction program and opposed to the administration of President Grant, Schurz aided in forming (1872) the Liberal Republican party. In 1876, Schurz supported Rutherford B. Hayes, whose hard money views he approved, for the presidency. He served (1877-81) in Hayes's cabinet as Secretary of the Interior. He was an editor (1881-83) of the New York Evening Post and wrote editorials (1892-98) for Harper's Weekly. In 1884, convinced of James G. Blaine's unfitness for office, Schurz led the mugwumps in their opposition to Blaine's nomination and candidacy. Schurz supported the Democrat Grover Cleveland in that year and again in 1888 and 1892. He turned to William McKinley in 1896 because of William Jennings Bryan's currency views, but in 1900 he supported Bryan because of his anti-imperialist views. He wrote Life of Henry Clay (2 vol., 1887), Abraham Lincoln: an Essay (1891), and his own reminiscences (3 vol., 1907-8; abridged vol. by Allan Nevins, 1961).

See F. Bancroft, ed., Speeches, Correspondence, and Political Papers of Carl Schurz (6 vol., 1913); J. Schafer, ed., Intimate Letters of Carl Schurz, 1841-1869 (1928); biographies by C. M. Fuess (1932, repr. 1963) and J. P. Terzian (1965).

Menger, Carl, 1840-1921, Austrian economist, a founder of the Austrian school of economics. He was professor of economics at the Univ. of Vienna from 1873 until 1903, when he retired to devote himself to research. Following an empirical approach rather than the historical method, he formulated a theory of marginal utility. The basic principle is that consumer goods have value of two orders, as they serve human needs directly or indirectly; thus he explained the economic phenomena of price and distribution in terms of social value. His theories are well known to the English-speaking world through the works of some of his associates, especially Friedrich von Wieser and Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk. In response to a particularly negative review of Menger's Problems of Economics and Sociology (1883) by Gustav Schmoller, Menger published a critique of the historical school of economics. This exchange resulted in long-standing animosity between the two schools of economic thought. His chief work is Principles of Economics (1871; tr. 1950).
Ruggles, Carl, 1876-1971, American composer, b. Marion, Mass. Ruggles studied music at Harvard and was a friend of Charles Ives. His works are highly original, characterized by complex textures and jagged outlines. He wrote relatively little and later disavowed the music he had written before 1918. His best-known pieces include Men and Mountains (1924) and Sun-Treader (1932), for orchestra; Angels, for muted brass (1921); and Evocations (1934-43), for piano.
Andre, Carl, 1935-, American sculptor, b. Quincy, Mass. A former student of Patrick Morgan and Frank Stella, Andre produces sculptures of elemental, classic form. His works reflect the quarries, shipyards, and islands of his birthplace and his years spent as a freight-train brakeman. One of the founders of the minimalist sculpture movement, he is famous for his floor pieces, including Lever (1966), in which fire bricks were arranged to extend laterally 400 feet (122 m) from a gallery wall. In 1988, he was tried and acquitted of pushing his wife, land art sculptor Ana Mendiata, to her death from the window of their 34th-floor apartment.
Orff, Carl, 1895-1982, German composer and educator. After studying at the Academy of Music at Munich, he helped to found the Günter School there in 1924. As a composer Orff wished to simplify music, to return to its primitive components. He attempted to adapt old monodic forms to modern tastes, employing dissonant counterpoint and vigorous rhythms. His most famous work is the Carmina Burana (1937), a scenic oratorio derived from a group of medieval poems in German and Latin (see also Goliardic songs). This oratorio forms part of a trilogy that includes Catulli Carmina (1943), a scenic cantata based on the works of Catullus; and Trionfo di Afrodite (1953). Orff's other works include the operas Der Mond [the moon] (1939) and Die Kluge [the wise woman] (1943). From 1960 he was head of the Orff School for Music in Munich. His work in music education has attracted a considerable following in the United States.
Milles, Carl, 1875-1955, Swedish-American sculptor, whose name originally was Carl Emil Wilhelm Anderson. Influenced by Rodin, he studied in Paris from 1897 until 1904, when he returned to Stockholm. In 1929 he visited the United States for the first time and in 1931 began to teach sculpture at Cranbrook Academy, Cranbrook, Mich. His work, at first inspired by Rodin, later became more angular and abstract. Millesgården near Stockholm contains many of his works. He is represented in the United States by the Peace Monument at St. Paul, Minn.; the Fountain of the Meeting of the Waters at St. Louis; a fountain in the Metropolitan Museum; and statues in Rockefeller Center, New York City.
Spitzweg, Carl, 1808-85, German genre painter and draftsman. Self-taught, he depicted the daily life of his native Munich in small, charming pictures in which realism, fancy, and humor are happily combined. Characteristic are The Poor Poet, Two Hermits, and Scholar in the Attic. He contributed many delightful drawings to the humorous periodical Fliegende Blätter.
Bildt, Carl, 1949-, Swedish political leader. Born into a prominent family, he was elected to parliament in 1979 as a member of the conservative Moderate party, serving there until 2001. Party leader from 1986 to 1999, he became prime minister in 1991, at the head of a center-right coalition government. His tenure (1991-94) was marked by pro-free-market policies and other reforms aimed at improving Sweden's competitiveness and liberalizing its economy and by the modernization of Sweden's welfare system. Bildt was a key figure in the negotiations that led to Sweden's joining (1995) the European Union (EU). He also served as co-chair of the Dayton peace talks in the mid-1990s, as the EU's High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995-97), and as the UN secretary-general's special envoy to the Balkans (1999-2001). In 2006 he returned to Sweden's government as Prime Minister Fredrik Reinfeldt's foreign minister. He has written several books, among them Peace Journey: The Struggle for Peace in Bosnia (1999).
Sternheim, Carl, 1878-1943, German dramatist. In his successful comedy Die Hose (1911, tr. A Pair of Drawers, 1927) and in his later works he satirized as corrupt the manners, morals, and beliefs of bourgeois society. Other works include the plays Bürger Schippel (1913) and Die Marquise von Arcis (1919, tr. The Mask of Virtue, 1935); the novel Fairfax (1921, tr. 1923), which satirized American life; and stories and critical essays. Sternheim's work had an influence on German expressionism. In the Nazi era he lived in Switzerland.
Zuckmayer, Carl, 1896-1977, German dramatist. Zuckmayer devoted himself to writing after the success of his comedy Der fröhliche Weinberg [the merry vineyard] (1925). During World War II he lived in the United States. His popular plays include Der Hauptmann von Köpenick (1931; tr. The Captain of Köpenick, 1932), satirizing German militarism, and Des Teufels General (1946; tr. The Devil's General, 1950), portraying the dilemma of an anti-Nazi German army officer. Both have been adapted as films. Zuckmayer's expressionistic style exhibits a controlled sentimentality. His best-known film script is Der blaue Engel [the blue angel] (1930). Zuckmayer's other works include poems, the espionage novel Das kalte Licht [the bold light] (1955, tr. 1958), and two autobiographies (1940, in English; and 1966, tr. 1970).
Rogers, Carl, 1902-87, American psychologist, b. Oak Park, Ill. In 1930, Rogers served as director of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children in Rochester, New York. He lectured at the Univ. of Rochester (1935-40), Ohio State Univ. (1940-44), and the Univ. of Chicago (1945-57), where he helped to found a therapeutic counseling center. After teaching at Univ. of Wisconsin until 1963, he became a resident at the new Center for Studies of the Person in La Jolla. A prominent figure in the humanistic school of psychology, Rogers is best known for his client-centered therapy, which suggested that the client should have as much impact on the direction of the therapy as the psychologist. His works include Client-Centered Therapy (1951) and On Becoming a Person (1961).

Schurz

(born March 2, 1829, Liblar, near Cologne, Prussia—died May 14, 1906, New York, N.Y., U.S.) German-U.S. politician and journalist. After participating in the abortive German revolution of 1848, he fled to the U.S. in 1852. He settled in Wisconsin, where he became active in the antislavery movement and the Republican Party. In the American Civil War he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers and saw action in several battles. After the war he became a newspaper editor in St. Louis (1867–69), where he won election to the U.S. Senate (1869–75). As U.S. secretary of the interior (1877–81), he promoted civil-service reform and an improved Indian policy. He later edited the New York Evening Post and the Nation (1881–83) and wrote editorials for Harper's Weekly (1892–98). Pursuing his reform interests, he joined the Mugwumps (1884) and headed the National Civil Service Reform League (1892–1901).

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Carl Sandburg, 1949.

(born Jan. 6, 1878, Galesburg, Ill., U.S.—died July 22, 1967, Flat Rock, N.C.) U.S. poet, historian, novelist, and folklorist. Sandburg tried many occupations and fought in the Spanish-American War before moving to Chicago in 1913, where he worked in journalism. He won recognition in 1914 with poems, including “Chicago,” perhaps his best-known, published in Poetry magazine. His Whitmanesque free verse eulogizing American workers appeared in such volumes as Smoke and Steel (1920) and The People, Yes (1936). The American Songbag (1927) and New American Songbag (1950) collect folk songs he performed. His other works include Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years (1926), Abraham Lincoln: The War Years (1939, Pulitzer Prize), Remembrance Rock (1948), and four children's books, including Rootabaga Stories (1922).

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(born Nov. 9, 1934, Brooklyn, N.Y., N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 20, 1996, Seattle, Wash.) U.S. astronomer and science writer. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. At the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (1962–68), he focused on planetary astronomy and on SETI efforts to find extraterrestrial life. He gained prominence as a popular science writer and commentator noted for his clear writing and enthusiasm; his Dragons of Eden (1977) won a Pulitzer Prize. He coproduced and narrated the television series Cosmos (1980); its companion book became the best-selling English-language science book of all time. In the 1980s he studied the environmental effects of nuclear war and helped popularize the term nuclear winter.

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(born , Dec. 2, 1906, Budapest, Hung.—died Dec. 7, 1977, Westchester county, N.Y., U.S.) Hungarian-U.S. engineer. He earned a doctorate from the University of Vienna before immigrating to the U.S. in 1933. From 1936 to 1972 he worked at the Columbia Broadcasting System Laboratories. In 1940 he demonstrated the first commercial colour-television system; based on a rotating three-colour disk, his system found wide application in closed-circuit television for industry, medical institutions, and schools because his camera was much smaller, lighter, and easier to maintain than those that eventually came to be used in commercial television. In 1948 he introduced the long-playing (LP) phonograph record, which revolutionized the recording industry. In 1950 he developed the scanning system that would allow the U.S. Lunar Orbiter spacecraft (launched in 1966) to relay photographs 238,000 mi (380,000 km) from the Moon to Earth.

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Linus Pauling, photograph by Yousuf Karsh.

(born Feb. 28, 1901, Portland, Ore., U.S.—died Aug. 19, 1994, Big Sur, Calif.) U.S. chemist. He received his doctorate from the California Institute of Technology and became a professor there in 1931. He was one of the first researchers to apply quantum mechanics to the study of molecular structures; to calculate interatomic distances and the angles between chemical bonds (see bonding), he effectively used X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, magnetic effects, and the heat of reaction. His book The Nature of the Chemical Bond, and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals (1939) became one of the century's most influential chemistry texts. He was the first recipient of the American Chemical Society's Langmuir Prize (1931) and later the first recipient of its Lewis medal (1951), and in 1954 he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. In 1962 his efforts on behalf of control of nuclear weapons and against nuclear testing brought him the Nobel Peace Prize, making him the first recipient of two unshared Nobel Prizes. In later years he devoted himself to the study of the prevention and treatment of illness by taking high doses of vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin C.

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(born July 10, 1895, Munich, Ger.—died March 29, 1982, Munich) German composer and music educator. He trained at the Munich Academy and held several musical posts thereafter. In the 1920s he grew interested in early Baroque music and the association of music with movement. In 1924 he cofounded a school for which he devised a comprehensive music education program (Orff Schulwerk) involving improvisation on specially designed gamelan-like percussion instruments; the program has since come into wide international use. He typically used repetitive rhythms, bare harmonies, and powerfully direct vocal parts, as in his best-known work, the secular oratorio Carmina Burana (1937), which is based on a manuscript of medieval poems.

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(born June 9, 1865, Sortelung, near Norre Lyndelse, Den.—died Oct. 3, 1931, Copenhagen) Danish composer. He studied violin and trumpet as a child and began composing by imitating classical models. In 1890 he went to Germany to learn of newer developments and met Johannes Brahms, whose music came to influence his own. His individual style—still following classical forms but using intense chromaticism combined with a lyric, melodic strain—emerged after 1900. The last five of his six symphonies (1902–25) are the core of his work, but he also composed many short orchestra pieces, piano and chamber music, concertos for violin, flute, and clarinet, and a wind quintet.

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Linus Pauling, photograph by Yousuf Karsh.

(born Feb. 28, 1901, Portland, Ore., U.S.—died Aug. 19, 1994, Big Sur, Calif.) U.S. chemist. He received his doctorate from the California Institute of Technology and became a professor there in 1931. He was one of the first researchers to apply quantum mechanics to the study of molecular structures; to calculate interatomic distances and the angles between chemical bonds (see bonding), he effectively used X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, magnetic effects, and the heat of reaction. His book The Nature of the Chemical Bond, and the Structure of Molecules and Crystals (1939) became one of the century's most influential chemistry texts. He was the first recipient of the American Chemical Society's Langmuir Prize (1931) and later the first recipient of its Lewis medal (1951), and in 1954 he received the Nobel Prize for Chemistry. In 1962 his efforts on behalf of control of nuclear weapons and against nuclear testing brought him the Nobel Peace Prize, making him the first recipient of two unshared Nobel Prizes. In later years he devoted himself to the study of the prevention and treatment of illness by taking high doses of vitamins and minerals, particularly vitamin C.

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Carl Lewis approaching his gold-medal-winning long jump at the 1984 Olympics in Los Angeles.

(born July 1, 1961, Birmingham, Ala., U.S.) U.S. track-and-field athlete. He qualified for the 1980 Olympics but did not participate, because of the U.S. boycott of the Moscow games. At the 1984 Olympics he won the 100-m and 200-m races, the long jump, and the 4 × 100-m relay. At the 1988 Olympics he won the long jump (becoming the first athlete ever to win that event consecutively) and the 100-m race and received a silver medal in the 200-m. In 1992 he again won the long jump and anchored the winning U.S. 4 × 100-m relay team, and in 1996 he astounded observers by winning a fourth consecutive long-jump h1.

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Carl Jung

(born July 26, 1875, Kesswil, Switz.—died June 6, 1961, Küsnacht) Swiss psychiatrist. As a youth he read widely in philosophy and theology. After taking his medical degree (1902), he worked in Zürich with Eugen Bleuler on studies of mental illness. From this research emerged Jung's notion of the complex, or cluster of emotionally charged (and largely unconscious) associations. Between 1907 and 1912 he was Sigmund Freud's close collaborator and most likely successor, but he broke with Freud over the latter's insistence on the sexual basis of neuroses. In the succeeding years Jung founded the field of analytic psychology, a response to Freud's psychoanalysis. Jung advanced the concepts of the introvert and extravert personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious (the pool of human experience passed from generation to generation). He went on to formulate new psychotherapeutic techniques designed to reacquaint the person with his unique “myth” or place in the collective unconscious, as expressed in dream and imagination. Sometimes dismissed as disguised religion and criticized for its lack of verifiability, Jung's perspective nonetheless remains influential in religion and literature as well as psychiatry. His important works include The Psychology of the Unconscious (1912; revised as Symbols of Transformation), Psychological Types (1921), Psychology and Religion (1938), and Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1962).

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(born July 6, 1859, Olshammar, Swed.—died May 20, 1940, Övralid) Swedish poet and novelist. His first book of poems, Pilgrimage and Wander Years (1888), drew on his years living in southern Europe and the Middle East and was an immediate success. With his essay “Renaissance” (1889), he became a leader of the opposition in Sweden to naturalism, calling for a rebirth of the literature of fantasy, beauty, and nationalism. Many of the poems he wrote in this vein are translated in Sweden's Laureate (1919). He also wrote historical fiction, including The Charles Men (1897–98) and The Tree of the Folkungs (1905–07). He was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1916.

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(born , Dec. 2, 1906, Budapest, Hung.—died Dec. 7, 1977, Westchester county, N.Y., U.S.) Hungarian-U.S. engineer. He earned a doctorate from the University of Vienna before immigrating to the U.S. in 1933. From 1936 to 1972 he worked at the Columbia Broadcasting System Laboratories. In 1940 he demonstrated the first commercial colour-television system; based on a rotating three-colour disk, his system found wide application in closed-circuit television for industry, medical institutions, and schools because his camera was much smaller, lighter, and easier to maintain than those that eventually came to be used in commercial television. In 1948 he introduced the long-playing (LP) phonograph record, which revolutionized the recording industry. In 1950 he developed the scanning system that would allow the U.S. Lunar Orbiter spacecraft (launched in 1966) to relay photographs 238,000 mi (380,000 km) from the Moon to Earth.

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orig. Johann Friedrich Carl Gauss

(born April 30, 1777, Brunswick, Duchy of Brunswick—died Feb. 23, 1855, Göttingen, Hanover) German mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. Born to poor parents, he was a prodigy of astounding depth. By his early teens he had already performed astonishing proofs. He published over 150 works and made such important contributions as the fundamental theorem of algebra (in his doctoral dissertation), the least squares method, Gauss-Jordan elimination (for solving matrix equations), and the bell curve, or Gaussian error curve (see normal distribution). Gauss made important contributions to physics and astronomy and pioneered the application of mathematics to gravitation, electricity, and magnetism. He also developed the fields of potential theory and real analysis. With Archimedes and Newton, he is one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

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Carl Dreyer

(born Feb. 3, 1889, Copenhagen, Den.—died March 20, 1968, Copenhagen) Danish film director. He entered the film industry as a writer of subh1s and became a scriptwriter and editor. His first film as a director was The President (1919); after several others, he made his most famous silent film, The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928). He created a new directorial style based on extensive close-ups and the use of authentic settings. His other films include Vampire (1932), the celebrated Day of Wrath (1943), The Word (1955), and Gertrud (1964).

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Swedish Carl Gustaf Folke Hubertus

(born April 30, 1946, Stockholm, Swed.) King of Sweden from 1973. Grandson of King Gustav VI Adolf (1882–1973), he became crown prince in 1950, his father having died in 1947. After studying at military schools, he became a naval officer. His accession occurred at a time when the role of the Swedish monarchy was being radically altered; the new constitutional laws of 1973 left the king with a solely symbolic function rather than a formal role in the country's administration.

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Carl Dreyer

(born Feb. 3, 1889, Copenhagen, Den.—died March 20, 1968, Copenhagen) Danish film director. He entered the film industry as a writer of subh1s and became a scriptwriter and editor. His first film as a director was The President (1919); after several others, he made his most famous silent film, The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928). He created a new directorial style based on extensive close-ups and the use of authentic settings. His other films include Vampire (1932), the celebrated Day of Wrath (1943), The Word (1955), and Gertrud (1964).

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Schurz

(born March 2, 1829, Liblar, near Cologne, Prussia—died May 14, 1906, New York, N.Y., U.S.) German-U.S. politician and journalist. After participating in the abortive German revolution of 1848, he fled to the U.S. in 1852. He settled in Wisconsin, where he became active in the antislavery movement and the Republican Party. In the American Civil War he was appointed brigadier general of volunteers and saw action in several battles. After the war he became a newspaper editor in St. Louis (1867–69), where he won election to the U.S. Senate (1869–75). As U.S. secretary of the interior (1877–81), he promoted civil-service reform and an improved Indian policy. He later edited the New York Evening Post and the Nation (1881–83) and wrote editorials for Harper's Weekly (1892–98). Pursuing his reform interests, he joined the Mugwumps (1884) and headed the National Civil Service Reform League (1892–1901).

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Carl Sandburg, 1949.

(born Jan. 6, 1878, Galesburg, Ill., U.S.—died July 22, 1967, Flat Rock, N.C.) U.S. poet, historian, novelist, and folklorist. Sandburg tried many occupations and fought in the Spanish-American War before moving to Chicago in 1913, where he worked in journalism. He won recognition in 1914 with poems, including “Chicago,” perhaps his best-known, published in Poetry magazine. His Whitmanesque free verse eulogizing American workers appeared in such volumes as Smoke and Steel (1920) and The People, Yes (1936). The American Songbag (1927) and New American Songbag (1950) collect folk songs he performed. His other works include Abraham Lincoln: The Prairie Years (1926), Abraham Lincoln: The War Years (1939, Pulitzer Prize), Remembrance Rock (1948), and four children's books, including Rootabaga Stories (1922).

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C.P.E. Bach, engraving by A. Stöttrup

(born March 8, 1714, Weimar, Saxe-Weimar—died Dec. 14, 1788, Hamburg) German composer. Second son of Johann Sebastian Bach, he received a superb musical education from his father. In 1740 he became harpsichordist at the court of Frederick II the Great, where he remained for 28 years, after which he moved to Hamburg to take the city's leading musical position. He was a leader of the Empfindsamkeit (“sensitivity”) movement, which emphasized rhapsodic freedom and sentiment. A founder of the Classical style, he is one of the first composers in whose works sonata form becomes clearly evident. He wrote some 200 works for harpsichord, clavichord, and piano (including dozens of sonatas), some 50 keyboard concertos, many symphonies, and several oratorios and Passions. His Essay on the True Manner of Playing Keyboard Instruments (1753) was a highly important practical music treatise.

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(born July 10, 1895, Munich, Ger.—died March 29, 1982, Munich) German composer and music educator. He trained at the Munich Academy and held several musical posts thereafter. In the 1920s he grew interested in early Baroque music and the association of music with movement. In 1924 he cofounded a school for which he devised a comprehensive music education program (Orff Schulwerk) involving improvisation on specially designed gamelan-like percussion instruments; the program has since come into wide international use. He typically used repetitive rhythms, bare harmonies, and powerfully direct vocal parts, as in his best-known work, the secular oratorio Carmina Burana (1937), which is based on a manuscript of medieval poems.

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Carl Jung

(born July 26, 1875, Kesswil, Switz.—died June 6, 1961, Küsnacht) Swiss psychiatrist. As a youth he read widely in philosophy and theology. After taking his medical degree (1902), he worked in Zürich with Eugen Bleuler on studies of mental illness. From this research emerged Jung's notion of the complex, or cluster of emotionally charged (and largely unconscious) associations. Between 1907 and 1912 he was Sigmund Freud's close collaborator and most likely successor, but he broke with Freud over the latter's insistence on the sexual basis of neuroses. In the succeeding years Jung founded the field of analytic psychology, a response to Freud's psychoanalysis. Jung advanced the concepts of the introvert and extravert personality, archetypes, and the collective unconscious (the pool of human experience passed from generation to generation). He went on to formulate new psychotherapeutic techniques designed to reacquaint the person with his unique “myth” or place in the collective unconscious, as expressed in dream and imagination. Sometimes dismissed as disguised religion and criticized for its lack of verifiability, Jung's perspective nonetheless remains influential in religion and literature as well as psychiatry. His important works include The Psychology of the Unconscious (1912; revised as Symbols of Transformation), Psychological Types (1921), Psychology and Religion (1938), and Memories, Dreams, Reflections (1962).

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orig. Johann Friedrich Carl Gauss

(born April 30, 1777, Brunswick, Duchy of Brunswick—died Feb. 23, 1855, Göttingen, Hanover) German mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. Born to poor parents, he was a prodigy of astounding depth. By his early teens he had already performed astonishing proofs. He published over 150 works and made such important contributions as the fundamental theorem of algebra (in his doctoral dissertation), the least squares method, Gauss-Jordan elimination (for solving matrix equations), and the bell curve, or Gaussian error curve (see normal distribution). Gauss made important contributions to physics and astronomy and pioneered the application of mathematics to gravitation, electricity, and magnetism. He also developed the fields of potential theory and real analysis. With Archimedes and Newton, he is one of the greatest mathematicians of all time.

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(born Nov. 9, 1934, Brooklyn, N.Y., N.Y., U.S.—died Dec. 20, 1996, Seattle, Wash.) U.S. astronomer and science writer. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. At the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (1962–68), he focused on planetary astronomy and on SETI efforts to find extraterrestrial life. He gained prominence as a popular science writer and commentator noted for his clear writing and enthusiasm; his Dragons of Eden (1977) won a Pulitzer Prize. He coproduced and narrated the television series Cosmos (1980); its companion book became the best-selling English-language science book of all time. In the 1980s he studied the environmental effects of nuclear war and helped popularize the term nuclear winter.

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(born June 9, 1865, Sortelung, near Norre Lyndelse, Den.—died Oct. 3, 1931, Copenhagen) Danish composer. He studied violin and trumpet as a child and began composing by imitating classical models. In 1890 he went to Germany to learn of newer developments and met Johannes Brahms, whose music came to influence his own. His individual style—still following classical forms but using intense chromaticism combined with a lyric, melodic strain—emerged after 1900. The last five of his six symphonies (1902–25) are the core of his work, but he also composed many short orchestra pieces, piano and chamber music, concertos for violin, flute, and clarinet, and a wind quintet.

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(born Sept. 16, 1935, Quincy, Mass., U.S.) U.S. sculptor. The son of a draftsman for a shipbuilding firm, he attended Phillips Andover Academy and Northeastern University. He moved to New York City in 1957 and soon was producing large-scale horizontal sculptures out of steel plates, slabs of granite, styrofoam planks, bricks, and cement blocks, using a grid system based on simple mathematical principles. His work from this period was often intended to be placed directly on the gallery or museum floor; its monumental austerity was central to the Minimalist movement. Beginning in the 1970s he also experimented with large-scale wood sculpture.

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C.P.E. Bach, engraving by A. Stöttrup

(born March 8, 1714, Weimar, Saxe-Weimar—died Dec. 14, 1788, Hamburg) German composer. Second son of Johann Sebastian Bach, he received a superb musical education from his father. In 1740 he became harpsichordist at the court of Frederick II the Great, where he remained for 28 years, after which he moved to Hamburg to take the city's leading musical position. He was a leader of the Empfindsamkeit (“sensitivity”) movement, which emphasized rhapsodic freedom and sentiment. A founder of the Classical style, he is one of the first composers in whose works sonata form becomes clearly evident. He wrote some 200 works for harpsichord, clavichord, and piano (including dozens of sonatas), some 50 keyboard concertos, many symphonies, and several oratorios and Passions. His Essay on the True Manner of Playing Keyboard Instruments (1753) was a highly important practical music treatise.

Learn more about Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Sept. 16, 1935, Quincy, Mass., U.S.) U.S. sculptor. The son of a draftsman for a shipbuilding firm, he attended Phillips Andover Academy and Northeastern University. He moved to New York City in 1957 and soon was producing large-scale horizontal sculptures out of steel plates, slabs of granite, styrofoam planks, bricks, and cement blocks, using a grid system based on simple mathematical principles. His work from this period was often intended to be placed directly on the gallery or museum floor; its monumental austerity was central to the Minimalist movement. Beginning in the 1970s he also experimented with large-scale wood sculpture.

Learn more about Andre, Carl with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Carl is a town in Barrow County, Georgia, United States. The population was 205 at the 2000 census.

Geography

Carl is located at (34.006635, -83.812016).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.8 square miles (2.1 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 205 people, 90 households, and 59 families residing in the town. The population density was 257.6 people per square mile (98.9/km²). There were 99 housing units at an average density of 124.4/sq mi (47.8/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 92.20% White, 2.93% African American, 4.39% from other races, and 0.49% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 4.39% of the population.

There were 90 households out of which 18.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.6% were married couples living together, 4.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.4% were non-families. 30.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.80.

In the town the population was spread out with 16.6% under the age of 18, 6.3% from 18 to 24, 29.8% from 25 to 44, 26.3% from 45 to 64, and 21.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 122.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 116.5 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $45,417, and the median income for a family was $56,250. Males had a median income of $32,356 versus $23,500 for females. The per capita income for the town was $20,948. About 1.5% of families and 6.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.0% of those under the age of eighteen and 10.9% of those sixty five or over.

References

External links

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