Ancient district, southwestern Anatolia. It was one of the most thoroughly Hellenized districts in ancient Anatolia; its territory included Greek cities along the shore of the Aegean Sea and a mountainous interior bounded by Lydia, Phrygia, and Lycia. Absorbed first by Lydia, it later was annexed (6th century BC) by the Persian Achaemenian Empire, one of whose governors, Mausolus, transferred its capital from Mylasa to Halicarnassus. Taken from Persia in 334–332 BC by Alexander the Great, it was incorporated into the Roman province of Asia in 129 BC.
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|Ancient Region of Anatolia|
|State existed:||11-6th c. BC|
On the tip of the Bodrum Peninsula (Cape Termerium) is Termera (Telmera, Termerea), and on the other side Ceramicus Sinus (Gökova Körfezi). It "was formerly crowded with numerous towns. Halicarnassus, a Dorian Greek city, was planted there among six Carian towns: Theangela, Sibde, Medmasa, Euranium, Pedasa or Pedasum, and Telmissus. These with Myndus and Synagela, Syagela or Souagela, where the tomb of Car is located, constitute the eight Lelege towns. Also on the north coast of the Ceramicus Sinus is Ceramus and Bargasus.
On the south of the Ceramicus Sinus is the Carian Chersonnese, or Triopium Promontory (Cape Krio), also called Doris after the Dorian colony of Cnidus. At the base of the peninsula (Datça Peninsula) is Bybassus or Bybastus from which an earlier names, the Bybassia Chersonnese, had been derived. It was now Acanthus and Doulopolis ("slave city").
South of the Carian Chersonnese is Doridis Sinus, the "Gulf of Doris" (Gulf of Symi), the locale of the Dorian Confederacy. There are three bays in it: Bubassius, Thymnias and Schoenus, the last enclosing the town of Hyda. In the gulf somewhere are Euthene or Eutane, Pitaeum, and an island: Elaeus or Elaeussa near Loryma. On the south shore is the Cynossema, or Onugnathos Promontory, opposite Symi.
South of there is Peraea, a section of the coast under Rhodes. It includes Loryma or Larymna in Oedimus Bay, Gelos, Tisanusa, the headland of Paridion, Panydon or Pandion (Cape Marmorice) with Physicus, Physca or Physcus, also acalled Cressa (Marmaris). Beyond Cressa is the Calbis River (Dalyan River). On the other side is Caunus (near Dalyan), with Pisilis or Pilisis and Pyrnos between.
Then follow some cities that some assign to Lydia and some to Caria: Calynda on the Indus River, Crya, Carya, Carysis or Cari and Alina in the Gulf of Glaucus (Katranci Bay or the Gulf of Makri), the Glaucus River being the border. Other Carian towns in the gulf are Clydae or Lydae and Aenus.
Further inland towards Aydin is Alabanda, noted for its marble and its scorpions, Orthosia, Coscinia or Coscinus on the upper Maeander and Halydienses, Alinda or Alina. At the confluence of the Maeander and the Harpasus is Harpasa (Arpaz). At the confluence of the Maeander and the Orsinus, Corsymus or Corsynus is Antioch on the Maeander and on the Orsinus in the mountains a border town with Phrygia, Gordiutichos ("Gordius' Fort") near Geyre. Founded by the Pelasgi Leleges and called Ninoe it became Megalopolis ("Big City") and Aphrodisias, sometime capital of Caria.
Other towns on the Orsinus are Timeles and Plarasa. Tabae was at various times attributed to Phrygia, Lydia and Caria and seems to have been occupied by mixed nationals. Caria also comprises the headwaters of the Indus and Eriya or Eriyus and Thabusion on the border with the small state of Cibyra.
Lemprière notes that "As Caria probably abounded in figs, a particular sort has been called Carica, and the words In Care periculum facere, having been proverbially used to signify the encountering of danger in the pursuit of a thing of trifling value."
Halicarnassus was the location of the famed Mausoleum dedicated to Mausolus, a satrap of Caria between 377–353 BC by his wife, Artemisia. The monument became one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and from which the Romans named any grand tomb a mausoleum.
Subsequently the three pashas were removed from power, court-martialed and sentenced to death in absentia but meanwhile the Ottoman Empire had been on the losing side in World War I and lost sovereignty to the Entente Powers. They were not long under the Entente, conducted a Turkish War of Independence resulting in a new Turkish Republic under the presidency of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk starting in 1923.
Atatürk set about resolving the ethnic difficulties he inherited, making the decision to westernize Turkey and seeking the assistance of westerners, notably of president Woodrow Wilson. Together they hammered out a border between Turkey and the new state of Armenia. Part of the difficulty was to make the border ethnically tidy; that is, with Turks on one side and Armenians on the other, and the same difficulties applied to the border between Turkey and Greece. As a result of the Treaty of Lausanne a decision was made to tidy the border by moving populations to either side of it. In the resulting Population exchange between Greece and Turkey the population of Greeks in western Anatolia greatly diminished, as did the population of Turks on the Aegean Islands and mainland Greece.
The exchange ended a 3000-year Greek presence in Anatolia; however, modern Turkey cherishes the ruins and culture of ancient times, having turned much of the coast into national parks and granting licenses to western archaeologists. Modern Turkish scholarship also is significant. Many of the names remain intact or they have been converted to local tongue; for example, Caria:Geyre; Myndos: Menteşe.