, also called Meduna's Mixture
after its inventor Ladislas Meduna
, is a mixture of carbon dioxide
gas. Meduna's original formula was 30% CO2
and 70% oxygen, but carbogen can refer to any mixture of these two gases, from 1.5% to 50% CO2
When carbogen is inhaled, the increased level of carbon dioxide causes a perception, both psychological and physiological, of suffocation
because the brain interprets an increase in blood carbon dioxide as a decrease in oxygen level, which would generally be the case under natural circumstances. Therefore, inhalation of carbogen causes the body to react as if it were not receiving sufficient oxygen, when, in fact, there is plenty of oxygen and the body is in no real danger. Breathing quickens and deepens, heart rate
increases, and cells release alkaline buffering agents
to remove carbonic acid
from the bloodstream. Not surprisingly, the sensation of inhaling carbogen is highly unpleasant and is likely to cause panic
, near-death experiences
, and other discomfort.
Carbogen was once used in psychology and psychedelic psychotherapy
to determine how a patient would react to an altered state of consciousness
or to a sensation of loss of control. Individuals who reacted especially negatively to carbogen were generally not administered other psychotheraputic
drugs for fear of similar reactions. Meduna administered carbogen to his patients to induce abreaction
, which, with proper preparation and administration, he found could help clients become free of their neuroses. Carbogen users are said to have discovered unconscious contents of their mind, with the experience clearing away repressed material and freeing the subject for a smoother, more profound psychedelic experience.
One subject reported:
"After the second breath came an onrush of color, first a predominant sheet of beautiful rosy-red, following which came successive sheets of brilliant color and design, some geometric, some fanciful and graceful …. Then the colors separated; my soul drawing apart from the physical being, was drawn upward seemingly to leave the earth and to go upward where it reached a greater Spirit with Whom there was a communion, producing a remarkable, new relaxation and deep security."
Carbogen is rarely used in therapy anymore, largely due to the decline in psychotherapeutics.
A carbogen mixture of 95% oxygen and 5% carbon dioxide can be used as part of the early treatment of central retinal artery occlusion.
Carbogen is used in biology research to study in vivo oxygen and carbon dioxide flows.