The imperial cities of Morocco
are old capitals of one or more dynasties. Like Fès
, which was the capital of Morocco several times, Marrakech
was the capital of Saadiens
, after having been that of Almohades
and of Almoravides
capital of Alaouites
is the current capital of Alaouites
Fès is the arabo-Andalusian city considered to be the best city of Morocco and the Arab World. Founded by Idriss 1st between 789 and 808, the town of Fès was the capital of three dynasties. It was rested by the first Sultan of Morocco Idriss 1st, by its Arab assistants helped by the Berber tribe of Awraba. As of this time, Fès was the only city in North Africa equipped of infrastructures allowing him to compete with the Eastern cities such as Kairouan, Damas, Baghdad, Cairo or Jerusalem (Al Qods). It accommodated starting from VIIIe century of the thousands of refugees kairouanais and Andalusians. Consequently from its architecture and its civilization, this city became a pearl of of art arabo-Andalusians. The first residences going back to this time are always inhabited and are located in Fès-el-Bali, the old working of the médina. The city saw the construction of l' university " Al-qaraouiyyin", more the oldest university in the world, under the authority of a woman, Fatéma el-Fihriyya who was from the powerful family of Fihri.
- Mérinide Dynasty: politically fallen due to disuse, the town of Fès preserved it's role of the cultural, religious, spiritual and economic center of the country, lasting through the era when Marrakech had become the powerful capital of the country. The Mérinide dynasty gave again all its importance in the city, by building the ramparts, the citadels surrounding the city, several médersas (universities), architectural baths, markets, palates and other jewels. The capital construction of the new Fès-El-Bali district paints in white and new bright burning coal increased to a significant degree the largely cosmopolitan population which oscillated between six hundred and eight hundred and thousand inhabitants during XIVe and XVe centuries, while at the same time of the cities like London or Paris counted less than 50.000 inhabitants (following the epidemics of Black Death). During this period the "Ilm" (science) and the "Aql" (reason) are set up in supreme values and the advanced technical, technological and scientist of the city fûrent edifying. The inventor of sociology, Ibn-Khaldoun lived there during his childhood and his youth and s' identified like resident of Fez. C' is of this time that date also the construction of the Mausoleum of the founder of the city after the discovery into large pumps its tomb during work, in XIVe century. This discovery of the tomb of patron saint of the city, respected and venerated by all the residents of Fez allowed the reinforcement of the religious reference marks and the sherifat (institution sacrilizing the families going down from the prophet). This mausoleum is always present and active thanks to the donations, and particularly to the Alamiyyin family for managing it.