Roquebrune-Cap-Martin (Roccabruna-Capo Martino in Italian) is a commune in the Alpes-Maritimes department in southeastern France between Monaco and Menton. The name was changed from Roquebrune (Rocabruna in local dialect) due to increasing urbanization in the French Riviera.
In 1355, Roquebrune fell under the control of the Grimaldi family of Monaco for five centuries, during which time the castle was strengthened. The Ligurians were the original population, but they came to speak a dialect similar to that in nearby Monaco (that was somewhat influenced by the original Ligurian language of the area) during those five centuries.
In 1793, Roquebrune became French, but it was returned to Monaco in 1814. In 1848, there was a revolution, with the result that it and Menton became free cities under the protection of the Savoy Prince. They hoped to be part of the Kingdom of Sardinia, but this did not occur, and the towns remained in a state of political limbo until they were finally ceded to France by a plebiscite in 1860.
Giuseppe Garibaldi, who promoted the union of the County of Nice to Italy, complained that the plebiscite was not done with "universal vote" and consequently Roccabruna was requested by the Italian Irredentism. During WWII all the coastal area between Italy and Monte Carlo was occupied and administered by the Kingdom of Italy.
Today Roquebrune-Cap-Martin comprises several villages and towns: St.Roman, practically a suburb of Monaco, the residential areas of Cabbé, Bon Voyage and Serret, Roquebrune with its perched village and château, the posh Cap Martin peninsula and the modern seaside resort of Carnolès with its long pebble beach bordering Menton.