Camille

Camille

[kuh-mil-uh]
Lemonnier, Camille, 1844-1913, Belgian novelist and art critic. After abandoning law, Lemonnier published his first work, Salon de Bruxelles (1863), a collection of art essays. His novels, including his masterpiece, Le Mâle (1881), vividly describe rural life and reveal a pantheistic outlook. L'Arche (1894) is one of a trio of novels defending female individuality. His other works include the novels Happo-Chair (1886) and Au Coeur frais de la forět (1900).
Pissarro, Camille, 1830-1903, French impressionist painter, b. St. Thomas, Virgin Islands. In Paris from 1855, he came under the influence of Corot and the Barbizon school. Later he allied himself with the impressionists, and was represented in all of the eight impressionist exhibitions (1874-1886). In 1884 he experimented with the theories of color devised by Seurat. Abandoning divisionism in the 1890s, he reverted to a freer, more vital interpretation of nature. It was not until then that his works began to be popular. Pissarro's warmth and generosity made him an endearing figure to many French painters. He was especially beloved as teacher and friend to Gauguin, Cézanne, and Cassatt. His son Lucien was also his pupil. Pissarro's paintings are in many leading American collections, including Le Fond de l'Hermitage (Cleveland Mus. of Art) and Bather in the Woods (Metropolitan Mus.).

See his works ed. by J. Rewald (1963); his Letters to his Son Lucien ed. by J. Rewald (1943); W. S. Meadmore, Lucien Pissarro (1963).

Chamoun, Camille, 1900-1987, Lebanese political leader. Chamoun held a variety of governmental posts before serving as president of Lebanon (1952-58). A Maronite Christian, Chamoun was opposed by Muslim leaders who disliked his pro-Western policies. The Muslim groups openly rebelled against Chamoun's government in 1958, and, in response to Chamoun's request for help, U.S. marines were sent to support the government. After defending the Lebanese against Syria in the 1975 civil war, he held a succession of ministerial appointments.
Desmoulins, Camille, 1760-94, French revolutionary and journalist. His oratory of July 12, 1789, contributed to the storming of the Bastille two days later. His pamphlets and journals, such as Révolutions de France et de Brabant (1789), were received with immense enthusiasm. Elected to the Convention (1792), he attacked the Girondists in the Histoire des Brissotins; but late in 1793, after the execution of Girondist leaders, Desmoulins, along with Georges Danton, counseled moderation, publishing the journal Le Vieux Cordelier. He was arrested with Danton and others and was executed. His beautiful wife, Lucile Duplessis, was guillotined shortly after.
Flammarion, Camille, 1842-1925, French astronomer and author. He served for some years at the Paris Observatory and the Bureau of Longitudes, and in 1883 he set up a private observatory at Juvisy (near Paris) and continued his studies, especially of double and multiple stars and of the moon and Mars. He is noted chiefly as the author of popular books on astronomy, including Popular Astronomy (1880, tr. 1907) and The Atmosphere (1871, tr. 1873). His later studies were on psychical research, on which he wrote many works, among them Death and Its Mystery (3 vol., 1920-21; tr. 1921-23).
Tallard or Tallart, Camille, marquis de la Baume-d'Hostun, baron d'Arlanc, comte de, 1652-1728, French diplomat, marshal of France. He negotiated the partition treaties of 1698 and 1700 that preceded the War of the Spanish Succession (see Spanish Succession, War of the). Although victorious at Speyer (1703), he was defeated and taken prisoner at Blenheim (1704). He served as minister of state in 1726.
Jordan, Camille, 1771-1821, French writer and political figure. A moderate supporter of the French Revolution, he fled France during the Reign of Terror and again after the coup of Sept. 4, 1797. He befriended Johann von Goethe, J. C. F. von Schiller, and Johann von Herder. Returning to France after Napoleon Bonaparte (later Emperor Napoleon I) came to power, he wrote (1802) the widely read pamphlet, Vrai sens du vote national [the true meaning of the national vote], directed against Napoleon. After the Bourbon restoration Jordan was elected (1816) to the chamber of deputies.
Jullian, Camille, 1859-1933, French historian. His monumental Histoire de la Gaule (8 vol., 1908-26) combines scholarly erudition with colorful style and remains the most authoritative work on Gaul from 600 B.C. to the end of Roman rule. A disciple of Fustel de Coulanges, Jullian also prepared the revision of Fustel's study of medieval institutions.
Chautemps, Camille, 1885-1963, French politician. A Radical Socialist leader, he was premier in 1930 and in 1933-34, when the Stavisky Affair (in which he was not directly implicated) caused his resignation. A member of the first Popular Front cabinet of Socialists and Communists (1936-37) under Léon Blum, he headed the second, less radical, Popular Front cabinet (1937-38). Vice premier of the Vichy government, Chautemps came (1940) to the United States on a mission and did not return to France. He was subsequently expelled from the Radical party. In 1947 he was tried and convicted in absentia for collaborating with the Vichy regime. In 1954 his sentence was voided by the statute of limitations.

Self-portrait by Camille Pissarro, oil on canvas, 1903; in the Tate Gallery, London.

(born July 10, 1830, St. Thomas, Danish West Indies—died Nov. 13, 1903, Paris, France) West Indian-born French painter. The son of a prosperous Jewish merchant, he moved to Paris in 1855. His earliest canvases are broadly painted figure paintings and landscapes; these show the careful observation of nature that was to remain a characteristic of his art. In 1871 he took a house in Pontoise, in the countryside outside Paris. These surroundings formed the theme of his art for some 30 years. Pissarro's leading motifs during the 1870s and 1880s were houses, factories, trees, haystacks, fields, labouring peasants, and river scenes. In these works, forms do not dissolve but remain firm, and colours are strong; during the latter part of the 1870s his comma-like brushstrokes frequently recorded the sparkling scintillation of light. These works were admired by the Impressionist artists; Pissarro was the only Impressionist painter who participated in all eight of the group's exhibitions. Despite acute eye trouble, his later years were his most prolific.

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(born March 2, 1760, Guise, France—died April 5, 1794, Paris) French journalist influential in the French Revolution. Though a stammer had impeded him as a lawyer, he suddenly emerged as an inspiring orator when the Revolution began, inciting the storming of the Bastille. In his pamphlets and newspapers he campaigned for the deposition of the king and the establishment of a republic. Elected to the National Convention, he joined other Montagnards in a struggle against the Girondins. Later he and Georges Danton became leaders of a moderate faction, the Indulgents. After attacking the Committee of Public Safety's Reign of Terror, he was guillotined along with other Dantonists.

Learn more about Desmoulins, (Lucie-Simplice-) Camille (-Benoist) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 1, 1885, Paris, France—died July 1, 1963, Washington, D.C., U.S.) French politician. A Radical Socialist, he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1919. He served in several cabinet posts and as premier of France in 1930, 1933–34, and 1937–38. As a cabinet member in 1940, he was among the first to suggest the surrender of France to Nazi Germany. He held a ministry in the Vichy government (see Vichy France) but broke with Philippe Petain's government after arriving in the U.S. on an official mission. He lived in the U.S. for much of the rest of his life. After World War II a French court convicted him in absentia for collaborating with the enemy.

Learn more about Chautemps, Camille with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 1, 1885, Paris, France—died July 1, 1963, Washington, D.C., U.S.) French politician. A Radical Socialist, he was elected to the Chamber of Deputies in 1919. He served in several cabinet posts and as premier of France in 1930, 1933–34, and 1937–38. As a cabinet member in 1940, he was among the first to suggest the surrender of France to Nazi Germany. He held a ministry in the Vichy government (see Vichy France) but broke with Philippe Petain's government after arriving in the U.S. on an official mission. He lived in the U.S. for much of the rest of his life. After World War II a French court convicted him in absentia for collaborating with the enemy.

Learn more about Chautemps, Camille with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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