Cambrai

Cambrai

[kahn-bre]
Cambrai, city (1990 pop. 34,210), Nord dept., N France, a port on the Escaut (Scheldt) River. It has long been known for its fine textiles and gave its name to cambric, first manufactured there. It is an agricultural center; clay, metal, and wood products are also manufactured in Cambrai. An episcopal see since the 4th cent., and seat of an archdiocese since the 16th cent., Cambrai and the surrounding county of Cambrésis were ruled by the bishops under the Holy Roman Empire until they were seized by Spain (1595) and by France (1677). Fénelon was archbishop from 1695 to 1715. The original cathedral was destroyed in 1793. Cambrai suffered devastation in both world wars; it was occupied by the Germans from 1914 to 1918 and from 1940 to 1944.
Cambrai, League of, 1508-10, alliance formed by Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, King Louis XII of France, Pope Julius II, King Ferdinand V of Aragón, and several Italian city-states against the republic of Venice to check its territorial expansion. The republic was soon on the verge of ruin. Its army was defeated by the French at Agnadello (1509); most of the territories it had occupied were lost; and Maximilian entered Venetia. The republic had to make concessions to the pope and to Ferdinand. In 1510 the pope became reconciled to Venice and began forming the Holy League against France. The republic emerged from the war having suffered serious losses but by no means crushed.
Cambrai, Treaty of, called the Ladies' Peace, treaty negotiated and signed in 1529 by Louise of Savoy, representing her son Francis I of France, and Margaret of Austria, representing her nephew Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. The treaty renewed the Treaty of Madrid (see Francis I), except that it did not exact the surrender of Burgundy to Charles.
or Paix des Dames

(French: “Peace of the Ladies”) (August 3, 1529) Agreement ending one phase of the wars between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V, temporarily confirming Spanish (Habsburg) control in Italy. It was called the Paix des Dames because it was negotiated by Louise of Savoy (1476–1531), mother of King Francis and regent in his absence, and Margaret of Austria, aunt of Charles and regent of the Netherlands. See also Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis.

Learn more about Cambrai, Treaty of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(1508–10) Alliance of Pope Julius II, Emperor Maximilian I, King Louis XII, and King Ferdinand V, formed in 1508. Ostensibly directed against the Turks, its actual aim was to attack the Republic of Venice and divide its possessions among the allies. The allies were unable to act together because of their individual ambitions, and the league collapsed in 1510, when the pope joined with Venice, while Ferdinand became neutral.

Learn more about Cambrai, League of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

or Paix des Dames

(French: “Peace of the Ladies”) (August 3, 1529) Agreement ending one phase of the wars between Francis I of France and Emperor Charles V, temporarily confirming Spanish (Habsburg) control in Italy. It was called the Paix des Dames because it was negotiated by Louise of Savoy (1476–1531), mother of King Francis and regent in his absence, and Margaret of Austria, aunt of Charles and regent of the Netherlands. See also Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis.

Learn more about Cambrai, Treaty of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(1508–10) Alliance of Pope Julius II, Emperor Maximilian I, King Louis XII, and King Ferdinand V, formed in 1508. Ostensibly directed against the Turks, its actual aim was to attack the Republic of Venice and divide its possessions among the allies. The allies were unable to act together because of their individual ambitions, and the league collapsed in 1510, when the pope joined with Venice, while Ferdinand became neutral.

Learn more about Cambrai, League of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Cambrai (Dutch: Kamerijk; old spelling Cambray) is a French town and commune, in the Nord département, of which it is a sous-préfecture.

Cambrai is the seat of an archdiocese whose jurisdiction was immense during the Middle Ages. The territory of the Bishopric of Cambrai, roughly coinciding with the shire of Brabant, included the central part of the Low Countries. The bishopric had some limited secular power.

The Battle of Cambrai (20 November 19173 December 1917), a campaign of World War I took place there. It was noted for the first successful use of tanks. A second Battle of Cambrai took place between 8 October 191810 October 1918 as part of the Hundred Days Offensive.

History

Roman times

Little is known with certainty of the beginnings of Cambrai. Camaracum or Camaraco, as it was known to the Romans, is mentioned for the first time on the Peutinger table in the middle of the 4th century. It was a town of the Nervii, whose "capital" was at Bagacum, present-day Bavay.

In the middle of the 4th century Frankish raids from the north led the Romans to build forts along the Cologne to Bavay to Cambrai road, and thence to Boulogne. Cambrai thus occupied an important strategic position. In the early 5th century the town had become the administrative centre of the Nervii in replacement of Bavay which was probably too exposed to the Franks' raids and perhaps too damaged.

Christianity arrived in the region at about the same time. A bishop of the Nervii by the name of Superior is mentioned in the middle of the 4th century, but nothing else is known about him.

In 430 the Salian Franks under the command of Clodio the Long-Haired took the town. In the early 6th century Clovis undertook to unify the Frankish kingdoms by getting rid of his relatives. One of them was Ragnacharius, who ruled over a small kingdom from Cambrai.

In 870 the town was destroyed by the Normans.

Early Middle Ages

Cambrai began to grow from a rural market into a real city during the Merovingian times, a long period of peace when the bishoprics of Arras and Cambrai were first unified (probably owing to the small number of clerics left at the time) and were later transferred to Cambrai, an administrative centre for the region. Successive bishops, including Gaugericus (in French Géry), founded abbeys and churches to host relics, which contributed powerfully to giving Cambrai both the appearance and functions of a city.

When the treaty of Verdun (843) split Charlemagne's empire into three parts the county of Cambrai fell into Lothaire's kingdom. However on the death of Lothair II, who had no heir, king Charles the Bald tried to gain control of his kingdom by having himself sacred at Metz. Cambrai thus reverted, but only briefly, to the Western Frankish Realm. By 925 Henry the Fowler had regained control of Lothair's former domains. Cambrai henceforth belonged to the Holy Roman Empire, in an uncomfortable position on the border with France, until it was annexed by France eight centuries later after being captured by Louis XIV in 1677.

In the Middle-Ages the region around Cambrai, called Cambrésis, was a county. Rivalries between the count, who ruled the city and county, and the bishop, ceased when in 948 Otto I granted the bishop with temporal powers over the city. In 1007 emperor Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor, extended the bishop's temporal power to the territory surrounding Cambrai. The bishops then had both spiritual and temporal powers. This made Cambrai and Cambrésis a church principality, much like Liège, an independent state which was part of the Holy Roman Empire.

In 958 one of the first communes in Europe was established in Cambrai. The inhabitants rebelled against the bishop's power and abuses. They were severely repressed, but the discontent flared up again in the 10th and 11th centuries. In 1226, following another period of unrest, the burghers of Cambrai finally had to give up their charters and accept the bishop's authority, while retaining some freedom in the running of the town.

Prosperity in the Middle Ages

Economic activity

In the Middle-Ages the city grew richer and larger thanks to its weaving industry which produced woollen cloth, linen and cambric. Cambrai then belonged to a commercial hansa of seventeen low country cities whose aim was to develop trade with the fairs in Champagne and Paris. By the 11th century the city walls had reached the circumference they would keep until the 19th century.

Music history

Cambrai has a distinguished musical history, particularly in the 15th century. The cathedral there, a musical center until the 17th century, had one of the most active musical establishments in the Low Countries; many composers of the Burgundian School either grew up and learned their craft there, or returned to teach. In 1428 Philippe de Luxembourg claimed that the cathedral was the finest in all of Christianity, for the fineness of its singing, its light, and the sweetness of its bells. Guillaume Dufay, the most famous European musician of the 15th century, studied at the cathedral from 1409 to 1412, and returned in 1439 after spending many years in Italy. Cambrai cathedral had other famous composers in the later 15th century: Johannes Tinctoris and Ockeghem went to Cambrai to study with Dufay. Other composers included Nicolas Grenon, Alexander Agricola, and Jacob Obrecht. In the 16th century, Philippe de Monte, Johannes Lupi, and Jacobus de Kerle all worked there.

Hundred Year's War

Even though the bishop tried to preserve the independence of his small state of Cambrésis, the task was not easy, wedged as the county was between its more powerful neighbours the counts of Flanders, of Hainaut and the kings of France, especially during the Hundred Years' War. In 1339, in the early stages of the war, the English king Edward III laid siege to the city but eventually had to withdraw. By the 14th century the county was surrounded on all parts by Burgundy's possessions and John of Burgundy, an illegitimate son of John the Fearless, was made bishop. However what looked like an impending annexation of Cambrésis to the states of Burgundy was made impossible by the sudden death of Charles the Bold in 1477. Louis XI immediately seized the opportunity to take control of Cambrai, but left the city a year later.

The legend of Martin and Martine

Martin and Martine are two legendary characters who have come to represent the city which they are said to have saved. There are different versions of the story. The most commonly accepted version runs as follows: around the year 1370, at the time of Bishop Robert, Count of Geneva, Martin, a blacksmith of Moorish descent established in Cambrai, was among the burghers who left the city to fight the lord of Thun-Lévêque, who was then reputed to ransom the population around the city and generally to afflict the region. Martin, armed only with his heavy iron hammer, soon came face to face with the enemy. He dealt such a heavy blow on his opponent's head that, although the helmet of the lord did not break, because it was made of good steel, it was driven down to his eyes. Dazed and blinded, the lord of Thun quickly surrendered. Today the automatons of Martin and Martine, standing at the top of the town hall, strike the hours with a hammer as a reminder of that mighty blow.

The Renaissance and classical age

As the economic centre of northern Europe moved away from Bruges, the area became poorer, with an associated period of cultural decline. However the city's neutrality and its position between the possessions of the Habsburg Empire and France made it the venue of several international negotiations, including the League of Cambrai, an alliance engineered in 1508 by Pope Julius II against the Republic of Venice. The alliance collapsed in 1510 when the Pope allied with Venice against his former ally France. The conflict is also referred to as the War of the League of Cambrai and lasted from 1508 to 1516. Cambrai was also the site of negotiations in 1529 that led to France's withdrawal from the War of the League of Cognac.

In 1543 Cambrai was conquered by Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and annexed to his already vast possessions. He had the medieval monastery of Saint-Sépulchre demolished and a citadel built in its place.

In 1623, the community of nuns of the English Benedictine Congregation was founded at Cambrai, which was expelled during the French Revolution and its successor community has since 1838 been established at Stanbrook Abbey, near Malvern.

In 1677, Louis XIV, in an effort to "safeguard the tranquility of his borders for ever" ("assurer à jamais le repos de ses frontières"), decided to take Cambrai and supervised the siege in person. The city was taken on April 19 1677. By the Treaty of Nijmegen of 1678 Spain relinquished Cambrai, which has remained to this day a part of France.

The first archbishop appointed by the king of France was François Fénelon. He came to be known as the "swan of Cambrai" ("le cygne de Cambrai"), in opposition to his rival Bossuet, the "eagle of Meaux" ("l'aigle de Meaux"), and he wrote his Maxims of the Saints while residing in the city.

The French Revolution

The city suffered from the Revolution: Joseph Le Bon, sent by the Comité de salut public, arrived in Cambrai in 1794. He was to set up an era of "terror", sending many to the guillotine, until he was tried and executed in 1795. Most of the religious buildings of the city were demolished in that period: in 1797, the cathedral, which had been dubbed the "wonder of the low countries", was sold to a merchant who exploited it as a stone quarry. Only the main tower was left standing by 1809, when it collapsed in a storm. However the cathedral's archives have been preserved (they are now at the Archives Départmentales du Nord in Lille).

Demographics

Evolution of the population of Cambrai from 1794 to 2005
(2005 : estimate) (Sources : INSEE - CassiniEHESS)
ImageSize = width:710 height:190 PlotArea = left:40 right:10 top:10 bottom:20 TimeAxis = orientation:horizontal AlignBars = justify Colors = id:gray1 value:gray(0.7) DateFormat = yyyy Period = from:1790 till:2010 ScaleMajor = unit:year increment:20 start:1790 gridcolor:gray1 start:1790

PlotData =
 bar:40000 color:gray1 width:1
 from:start till:end
 bar:30000 color:gray1 width:1
 from:start till:end
 bar:20000 color:gray1
 from:start till:end
 bar:10000 color:gray1
 from:start till:end
 bar:0 color:gray1


TextData =
  pos: (270,60)    textcolor:black fontsize:S
  tabs: (12-right, 143-right, 222-right, 320-right)
  text: ^Franco-Prussian^1st World^2d World^1st oil
  text: ^war^war^war^crisis

LineData =

 layer:front
 at:1870      color:red  width:0.5
 at:1871      color:red  width:0.5
 at:1914      color:red  width:0.5
 at:1918      color:red  width:0.5
 at:1940      color:red  width:0.5
 at:1945      color:red  width:0.5
 at:1973      color:red  width:0.5
 points:(52,82)(70,75)      color:blue    width:1 #1794: 15427
 points:(70,75)(88,82)     color:blue    width:1 #1800: 13799
 points:(88,82)(130,83)    color:blue    width:1 #1806: 15608
 points:(130,83)(163,91)   color:blue    width:1 #1820: 15851
 points:(163,91)(178,91)  color:blue    width:1 #1831: 17646
 points:(178,91)(193,101)  color:blue    width:1 #1836: 17846
 points:(193,101)(208,103)  color:blue    width:1 #1841: 20141
 points:(208,103)(223,105)  color:blue    width:1 #1846: 20648
 points:(223,105)(238,106)  color:blue    width:1 #1851: 21344
 points:(238,106)(253,110)  color:blue    width:1 #1856: 21405
 points:(253,110)(268,109)  color:blue    width:1 #1861: 22557
 points:(268,109)(286,112)  color:blue    width:1 #1866: 22207
 points:(286,112)(298,108)  color:blue    width:1 #1872: 22897
 points:(298,108)(313,114)  color:blue    width:1 #1876: 22079
 points:(313,114)(328,116)  color:blue    width:1 #1881: 23448
 points:(328,116)(343,116)  color:blue    width:1 #1886: 23881
 points:(343,116)(358,121)  color:blue    width:1 #1891: 24122
 points:(358,121)(373,126)  color:blue    width:1 #1896: 25250
 points:(373,126)(388,131)  color:blue    width:1 #1901: 26586
 points:(388,131)(403,132)  color:blue    width:1 #1906: 27832
 points:(403,132)(433,124)  color:blue    width:1 #1911: 28077
 points:(433,124)(448,137)  color:blue    width:1 #1921: 26023
 points:(448,137)(463,134)  color:blue    width:1 #1926: 29193
 points:(463,134)(478,139)  color:blue    width:1 #1931: 28542
 points:(478,139)(508,125)  color:blue    width:1 #1936: 29655
 points:(508,125)(532,138)  color:blue    width:1 #1946: 26129
 points:(532,138)(556,152)  color:blue    width:1 #1954: 29567
 points:(556,152)(574,170)  color:blue    width:1 #1962: 32973
 points:(574,170)(595,176)  color:blue    width:1 #1968: 37584
 points:(595,176)(616,161)  color:blue    width:1 #1975: 39049
 points:(616,161)(640,152)  color:blue    width:1 #1982: 35272
 points:(640,152)(667,155)  color:blue    width:1 #1990: 33092
 points:(667,155)(685,152)  color:green    width:1 #2005: 33100

Births

Cambrai was the birthplace of:

Twin towns

Cambrai is twinned with:

See also

Sources

  • David Fallows, Barbara H. Haggh: "Cambrai", Grove Music Online ed. L. Macy (Accessed December 18, 2005), (subscription access) (source for the music history section)
  • "Cambrai." Encyclopedia Britannica, 11th ed. New York, Encyclopedia Britannica Co., 1910.
  • "Histoire de Cambrai", sous la direction de Louis Trénard, Presses Universitaires de Lille, 1982.

Notes

External links

Search another word or see Cambraion Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature
FAVORITES
RECENT

;