Definitions

Calvert

Calvert

[kal-vert]
Vaux, Calvert, 1824-95, American landscape architect, b. London. He emigrated (1850) to the United States, and assisted A. J. Downing with the U.S. Capitol grounds and a number of Hudson River estates. Later he worked with Frederick Law Olmsted and with him developed Central Park in New York City, the state reservation at Niagara Falls, N.Y. (now a state park), Prospect Park in Brooklyn, N.Y., and other parks. He made the plans for the Metropolitan Museum and the American Museum of Natural History. His published work includes Villas and Cottages (1857).

See biographical studies by W. Alex and G. B. Tatum (1994) and F. R. Kowsky (1998).

Calvert, Cecilius, 2d Baron Baltimore, c.1605-75, first proprietor of the colony of Maryland. He received the province in 1632 as a grant from the king, in place of his father, George Calvert, who died as the charter was being issued. Cecilius Calvert never visited the province himself, but governed it by deputies until his death, his last deputy being his only son, Charles Calvert, who succeeded to his title.

See W. H. Browne, George Calvert and Cecilius Calvert (1890); C. C. Hall, The Lords Baltimore and the Maryland Palatinate (1902).

Calvert, Charles, 3d Baron Baltimore, 1637-1715, second proprietor of Maryland. He was sent over as deputy governor of that province in 1661 by his father, Cecilius Calvert, 2d Baron Baltimore, and at his father's death in 1675 succeeded to the proprietorship. A Roman Catholic faced by an overwhelming Protestant population, he ruled arbitrarily, restricting the suffrage, and filling the offices with his partisans. He became involved in a bitter dispute with William Penn over the northern boundary of his grant and in 1684 went to England to defend himself in this dispute and to answer charges of favoring Catholics and obstructing customs collection. He never returned. His charter was overthrown by a Protestant revolt in 1689, and in 1692 a royal government was established.

See C. C. Hall, The Lords Baltimore and the Maryland Palatinate (1902).

Calvert, Edward, 1799-1883, English painter and engraver. A great admirer of William Blake, Calvert, along with several of his contemporaries, formed a group around Blake called the Brotherhood of the Ancients. Calvert's art celebrated the life of primitive society. In his later work he was deeply influenced by a visit in 1844 to Greece.

See L. Binyon, The Followers of William Blake (1925).

Calvert, George, 1st Baron Baltimore, c.1580-1632, colonizer. In 1606 he became private secretary to Sir Robert Cecil, then a secretary of state. His advance was rapid. In 1609 he became a member of Parliament, in 1613 clerk of the privy council, and in 1619 secretary of state and a member of the privy council. He defended the measures of James I in the House until his resignation in 1625, when he declared himself a Roman Catholic. The king then created him Baron Baltimore. Calvert had been a member of the Virginia Company and a member of the council of the New England Company, but, wishing to found his own colony, he was granted in 1623 the peninsula of Avalon in Newfoundland. He spent much money on a colony that was established there, but it did not prosper, and in 1629 Baltimore petitioned for a grant farther south where the weather was less severe. In 1632 the king granted him the territory N of the Potomac River that became the province of Maryland. Baltimore prepared the charter of his proposed colony but died before it could be accepted. The grant passed to his son, Cecilius Calvert.

See C. C. Hall, The Lords Baltimore and the Maryland Palatinate (1902).

(born 1578/79, Kipling, Yorkshire, Eng.—died April 15, 1632) English colonialist. He served in the House of Commons from 1621; charged with communicating the policy of James I, he was distrusted by Parliament. After declaring himself a Roman Catholic (1625), he gave up his office and was created Baron Baltimore, receiving land grants in Ireland. To assure the prosperity of his New World holdings, he took his family to his Newfoundland colony in 1628. Because of conflict over his Catholicism and the severe climate, he petitioned Charles I for a land grant in the Chesapeake Bay area. He died before the charter was granted, and his son Cecil became proprietor of the colony of Maryland.

Learn more about Baltimore (of Baltimore), George Calvert, 1st Baron with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Calvert is a city in Robertson County, Texas, United States. The population was 1,426 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Bryan-College Station metropolitan area.

Geography

Calvert is located at (30.978215, -96.672767).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.9 square miles (10.1 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

The city of Calvert, founded in 1868, was named in honor of Robert Calvert, a descendant of Lord Baltimore. Robert Calvert was a large plantation owner and was instrumental in directing the railroad through Robertson County.

In the same manner that the railroad brought prosperity to Calvert, cotton planters (many of whom arrived in the area following the Civil War) established huge plantations with an ambience of prosperity and Southern hospitality.

Later, many of these families moved into town from their plantations located in the Brazos River Bottoms. They built a number of large and beautiful Victorian mansions, many of which are standing today.

The Historical District within Calvert encompasses 37 complete and 9 partial blocks.

As of the census of 2000, there were 1,426 people, 574 households, and 374 families residing in the city. The population density was 366.6 people per square mile (141.5/km²). There were 726 housing units at an average density of 186.6/sq mi (72.1/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 36.89% White, 52.38% African American, 0.42% Native American, 0.07% Asian, 8.77% from other races, and 1.47% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 14.87% of the population.

There were 574 households out of which 27.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 34.7% were married couples living together, 25.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 34.7% were non-families. 32.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.07.

In the city the population was spread out with 29.7% under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 21.9% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, and 19.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 85.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $18,105, and the median income for a family was $23,214. Males had a median income of $24,722 versus $17,885 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,165. About 30.3% of families and 36.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 53.4% of those under age 18 and 32.6% of those age 65 or over.

Education

The City of Calvert is served by the Calvert Independent School District.

Media and Events

Calvert is served by the Calvert Tribune Newspaper

Calvert Tour of Homes This is one of the main events held in Calvert, Texas. There are two tours held per year, one in the winter and one in the spring. Although there are two tours held per year, one house is not toured twice in one year. There are so many houses to tour but not many spots in the tour.

History

Calvert is at the intersection of State Highway 6 and Farm roads 1644 and 979, on the Southern Pacific line nine miles north of Hearne in west central Robertson County. The earliest white settler in the area was Joseph Harlan, whose 1837 land grant lay five miles south of what is now the site of Calvert. In 1850 Robert Calvert, for whom the town was named, established a plantation west of the townsite.

Calvert and other area farmers urged the Houston and Texas Central Railway to build through the area; the railroad arrived in 1868. A group of investors purchased land at the townsite and platted the community in January of that year, and by February merchants from nearby communities such as Sterling and Owensville were moving to the new town. A post office also opened at the community in 1868. The first trains arrived there in 1869. Calvert incorporated with an aldermanic form of government in 1870. In 1870, as part of the Reconstructionqv political maneuvering in Robertson County, Calvert replaced Owensville as county seat. Early that year the town was briefly occupied by federal troops; that year also the first school was founded in the community.

The Republican partyqv in the county drew much of its strength from black voters on the plantations in the Calvert area, and for a number of years the party was able to elect blacks from Calvert to county and state office. As a rail center and as county seat, Calvert prospered, and in 1871 the town claimed to have the largest cotton gin in the world. In 1873 a severe yellow fever epidemic killed many in the community. The county jail built in 1875, now known as The Hammond House is still a local landmark.

In 1878 Calvert was a thriving community with some fifty-two businesses. The next year the town of Morgan became county seat, but Calvert continued to prosper as a commercial center. By 1884 Calvert had an estimated 3,000 inhabitants, with Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist, Episcopal, and Catholic churches, public schools, two banks, an opera house, and the weekly Courier. Around 1900 the community was a major cotton center, with a number of gins, cotton compresses, and cottonseed oil mills . In 1899 the town was damaged by floods, and two years later a fire destroyed much of its business district. Calvert's population was reported as 3,322 in 1900, but thereafter it began to decline. The community had 2,579 residents in 1910, 2,099 in the mid-1920s, 2,366 in 1940, 2,561 in 1950, 2,073 in 1960, and 1,950 in the mid-1960s. In 1968 many former residents of the town visited to help its citizens celebrate Calvert's centennial. The population was 1,714 in 1980, 1,536 in 1990, and 1,426 in 2000.

BIBLIOGRAPHY: J. W. Baker, History of Robertson County, Texas (Franklin, Texas: Robertson County Historical Survey Committee, 1970).

Sports

The Calvert I.S.D. Trojans won the 2002 State and National 6-Man football championships

Attractions

Katy Hamman Stricker Library and Museum - Historic library and museum honoring the efforts of the American Woman's League in Calvert, Texas.

Tour of Homes - Biannual tour of beautiful historic homes in the City of Calvert

Famous people

Tom Bradley - Former Mayor of Los Angeles, California

Tex McCrary - Originator of the Talk Show format, Advisor to Presidents

Chalie Boy - Rapper

Beverley McGrew Walker, formerly Beverley McGrew Clark - Former Houston City Council Member

Rube Foster - Negro league pitcher and executive

References

External links

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