The California State University (CSU) is one of three public higher education systems in the state of California, the other two being the University of California system and the California Community College system. It is incorporated as The Trustees of the California State University.
The CSU system is composed of 23 campuses and has over 450,000 students supported by 47,000 faculty members and staff. It is the largest university system in the United States.
CSU prepares about 60 percent of the teachers in the state, 40 percent of the engineering graduates, and more graduates in business, agriculture, communications, health, education and public administration than all other California universities and colleges combined. Altogether, about half the bachelor's degrees and a third of the master's degrees awarded annually in California are from the CSU.
Since 1961 nearly 2.5 million alumni have received a bachelor's, master's or doctoral degree from the university system. CSU offers more than 1,800 degree programs in some 240-subject areas.
Today's California State University system is the direct descendant of the California State Normal School (now San José State University), a normal school established by the California Legislature on May 2, 1862. The California State Normal School was itself derived from the City of San Francisco's Minns Evening Normal School (founded in 1857) a normal school that educated San Francisco teachers in association with that city's high school system. The system now considers its founding date to be that of the Minns School. A second California State Normal School campus was created in Los Angeles in 1882.
In 1887, the California legislature dropped the word "California" from the name of the San Jose and Los Angeles schools, renaming them "State Normal Schools." Later Chico (1887), San Diego (1897), and other schools became part of the State Normal School system. In 1919, the State Normal School at Los Angeles became the Southern Branch of the University of California (now the University of California, Los Angeles). In 1921, the State Normal Schools became the State Teachers Colleges. By this time most of the campuses started to become identified by their city names plus the word "state" (e.g, "San Jose State," "San Diego State," "San Francisco State").
In 1935, the State Teachers Colleges became the California State Colleges and were administered by the California State Department of Education in Sacramento. The Donahoe Higher Education Act of 1960 gave the system greater autonomy from the State of California.
The postwar period brought a great expansion in the number of colleges in the system. Campuses in Los Angeles, Sacramento, and Long Beach were added between 1947 and 1949. Then seven more were authorized to be built between 1957 and 1960. Six more campuses joined the system after the establishment of the Donohoe Higher Education Act in 1960 bringing the total number to 23.
In 1972 the system became The California State University and Colleges, and all of the campuses were renamed with the words "California State University" in their names. Former San Diego State University student body president Calvin Robinson wrote the bill, signed into law by Ronald Reagan, that allowed every California State University the option to revert the schools back to their pre-1972 names: San Jose State, San Diego State, San Francisco State, etc. In 1982, the CSU system dropped the word "colleges" from its name.
Responsibility for the California State University is vested in the 25 member Board of Trustees, whose members are appointed by the Governor of the State of California. There are 5 ex officio Trustees; the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Speaker of the Assembly, State Superintendent of Public Instruction, and the CSU Chancellor. There are 4 special Trustees. The CSU Statewide Alumni Council appoints an Alumni Trustee. The Governor appoints a Faculty Trustee from nominees proposed by the Statewide Academic Senate. The Governor appoints two Student Trustees from nominees proposed by the California State Student Association. The Alumni and Faculty Trustees serve for two years. The Student Trustees serve staggered two-year terms. The sixteen remaining Trustees are appointed by the Governor, confirmed by the State Senate, and serve for eight years.. The Trustees appoint the Chancellor, who is the chief executive officer of the system, and the Presidents, who are the chief executive officers of their respective campuses.
The Academic Senate of the California State University, made up of elected representatives of the faculty from each campus, recommends academic policy to the Board of Trustees through the Chancellor.
The California State University's permanent, collective endowment has grown to $874 million U.S. dollars as of the close of the 2006-2007 academic year. In addition, each of the 23 campuses of the CSU raise their own funds through donations and other external funding, and each campus controls its own separate endowment funds not counted in the above endowment amount.
The CSU system requires faculty to sign a loyalty oath dating from the Cold War. Some campuses (most recently CSU Fullerton) have refused to hire academics who have refused to sign one, although others have provided for accommodations such as signing statements. Quakers have been particular victims of this policy.
The average faculty salary was roughly $74,000 as of Spring 2007. As of April 2007, the faculty union and CSU have reached an agreement increasing faculty base salaries by 20.7%, boosting the average faculty salary from $74,000 to $91,000 by 2011. Salaries for full-professors will increase from $86,000 to $105,000. While this pay increase will provide a plurality of faculty members with six figure salaries, current CSU faculty salaries remain roughly 15% below the average for "comparable schools." Meanwhile salaries for all presidents have been raised above $300,000 in order to remain competitive with similar schools. As of Fall 2004 average salaries were as follows:
|Data||Lecturer||Instructor||Assistant Professor||Associate Professor||Full Professor|
|Percent of faculty||13.28%||0.10%||24.45%||18.62%||43.55%|
|Campus||a.k.a.||Location||Founded||Campus Area in Acres||Enrollment (Fall 2007)||Budget 2006-2007||Athletics Affiliation||Athletics Nickname|
|San José State University||SJSU or San Jose State||San Jose||1857||154||31,906||247,292,042||NCAA Division I||Spartans (WAC) (see San Jose State Spartans)|
|California State University, Chico||Chico State||Chico||1887||119||17,034||163,699,267||NCAA Division II||Wildcats (CCAA)|
|San Diego State University||SDSU or San Diego State||San Diego||1897||270||36,559||313,860,901||NCAA Division I||Aztecs (MWC) (see San Diego State Aztecs)|
|San Francisco State University||San Francisco State, SF State, SFSU||San Francisco||1899||134||30,125||248,490,280||NCAA Division II||Gators (CCAA)|
|California Polytechnic State University||Cal Poly||San Luis Obispo||1901||9,678||19,777||198,041,319||NCAA Division I||Mustangs (Big West)|
|California State University, Fresno||Fresno State||Fresno||1911||327||22,383||199,868,440||NCAA Division I||Bulldogs (WAC) (see Fresno State Bulldogs)|
|Humboldt State University||Humboldt or HSU||Arcata||1913||144||7,773||95,417,349||NCAA Division II||Lumberjacks (CCAA)|
|California Maritime Academy||Cal Maritime||Vallejo||1929||87||858||18,928,425||NAIA||Keelhaulers|
|California State Polytechnic University, Pomona||Cal Poly Pomona||Pomona||1938||1,438||21,477||198,917,543||NCAA Division II||Broncos (CCAA) (see Cal Poly Pomona Broncos)|
|California State University, Los Angeles||Cal State LA||Los Angeles||1947||175||21,051||185,469,589||NCAA Division II||Golden Eagles (CCAA)|
|California State University, Sacramento||Sacramento State, Sac State||Sacramento||1947||580||28,829||230,802,377||NCAA Division I||Hornets (Big Sky)|
|California State University, Long Beach||Long Beach State or 'The Beach', CSULB||Long Beach||1949||323||36,868||300,837,800||NCAA Division I||"49ers", "Dirtbags" in baseball only (Big West)|
|California State University, East Bay||Formerly CSU Hayward||Hayward||1957||341||13,124||131,724,259||NCAA Division III||Pioneers|
|California State University, Fullerton||Cal State Fullerton||Fullerton||1957||236||37,130||261,349,127||NCAA Division I||Titans (Big West)|
|California State University, Northridge||CSUN ("see-sun") or Cal State Northridge||Northridge||1957||353||35,446||275,687,073||NCAA Division I||Matadors (Big West)|
|California State University, Stanislaus||Cal State Stanislaus, Stan State||Turlock||1957||220||8,836||81,052,209||NCAA Division II||Warriors (CCAA)|
|California State University, Dominguez Hills||Cal State Dominguez Hills, Dominguez Hills, CSUDH||Carson||1960||346||12,082||105,947,348||NCAA Division II||Toros (CCAA)|
|Sonoma State University||Sonoma State or Sonoma||Rohnert Park||1960||269||8,770||81,076,854||NCAA Division II||Seawolves (CCAA)|
|California State University, San Bernardino||Cal State San Bernardino||San Bernardino||1965||441||17,066||147,737,249||NCAA Division II||Coyotes (CCAA)|
|California State University, Bakersfield||CSUB||Bakersfield||1965||375||7,700||77,360,795||NCAA Division I||Roadrunners|
|California State University, San Marcos||Cal State San Marcos||San Marcos||1988||304||9,159||79,882,615||NAIA||Cougars|
|California State University, Monterey Bay||CSUMB||Seaside (formerly Fort Ord)||1994||1,387||4,080||60,577,008||NCAA Division II||Otters (CCAA)|
|California State University, Channel Islands||CSUCI||Camarillo||2002||670||3,599||41,477,343||None||Dolphins|
A handful of universities have off campus branches that make education accessible in a vast state. Unlike the typical university extension courses, they are degree-granting and students have the same status as other California State University students. The newest campus, the California State University, Channel Islands, was formerly an off campus branch of CSUN. Riverside and Contra Costa counties, which have 3 million residents between them, have lobbied for their off campus branches to be freestanding California State University campuses. Total enrollment for all branches in Fall 2005 is 9,163 students, the equivalent of 2.2% of systemwide enrollment. The following are schools and their respective off campus branches:
There are 23 CSU campuses and 10 UC campuses representing 414,000 and 191,000 students respectively. The cost of CSU tuition is approximately half that of UC. Thus, the CSU system has been referred to by former California State University authorities as "The People's University.
CSU and UC use the terms "president" and "chancellor" internally in exactly opposite ways: At CSU, the campuses are headed by "presidents" who report to a systemwide "chancellor"; but at UC, they are headed by "chancellors" who report to a systemwide "president".
CSU has traditionally been more accommodating to the older student than UC, by offering more degree programs in the evenings and, more recently, online. In addition, CSU schools, especially in more urban areas, have traditionally catered to the commuter, enrolling most of its students from the surrounding area. This has changed as CSU schools increase enrollment and some of the more prestigious urban campuses attract a wider demographic.
However, as of 2008 the following CSU campuses use higher standards than the basic admission standards because of the number of qualified students who apply to those campuses as first-time freshmen during the initial application filing period:
The UC system follows a consistent style in the naming of campuses, using the words University of California followed by a comma and the name of its declared home city. Most CSU campuses follow a similar pattern, though several are named only for their home city, such as San José State University. A few schools follow neither pattern, in particular the California Maritime Academy (Cal Maritime) and California Polytechnic State University (Cal Poly), the only campuses whose official names do not reference their location in California. Some critics, including former California State University, Sacramento president Donald Gerth, have claimed that the weak California State University identity has contributed to the CSU's perceived lack of prestige when compared to the University of California.