The album, Incubus' second, contains some of the band's heavier work, and is considered by many fans to be the original definition of their sound but shows the bands search for an ambient sound and higher sound quality which is found in many their later albums. It is a fusion of their various influences and is characteristic of their experimental tendencies. On songs like "Deep Inside" and "Summer Romance (Anti-Gravity Love Song)" show Jazz influences. Much more mainstream-sounding than their first album, Fungus Amongus, it was not indicative of their slower-tempoed follow-up, Make Yourself, which is referred to in many reviews as having been the band's peak in terms of performance.
Jeremy Wasser, formerly of Hoobastank, is featured on saxophone on "Summer Romance (Anti-Gravity Love Song)".
S.C.I.E.N.C.E. was titled as such because the band felt like they were working on a science project whilst creating the album, as such the acronym has no real meaning. Instead the band has chosen to let people interpret the title as they see fit. The acronym S.C.I.E.N.C.E. is as enigmatic as the moustachioed man on the cover. The band has given several contradictory meanings for both the album title and the face of "Chuck", whose image also appears on the cover of the Enjoy Incubus EP, and inside the jacket of Make Yourself. It is also speculated that the face on the cover is their 8th grade middle school science teacher who inspired them.
The first song on the album, "Redefine", can be heard during the trailer for the movie "The Way of the Gun". The second song on the album, "Vitamin", was featured on Test Drive Off Road 3, a truck racing videogame for the Sony PSX, and in Final Destination 2. "New Skin", track 3 on the album, featured as the theme song for PC game Motocross Madness 2. The Enhanced CD of S.C.I.E.N.C.E. features the video for the song "A Certain Shade of Green". This song could also be interpreted much more simply, as a critique of people unwilling to evolve intellectually, philosophically, emotionally, et cetera; 2012 being a reference to the belief that the world will end according to the Maya calendar, and the shade of green is an insinuation to the color for "go" on most street lights.
The enhanced CD features a short maze game in which a character named Soshell must find her way through "Caverns of Phentropa". The ending screen prompts the user to enter the words "I am the vitamin for the hibernating human animal" to get to special European live concert footage.
The sample used in the hidden track after "Calgone" was the demo song on the Casio SK-1, released in the mid 80s.