César Milstein

César Milstein

Milstein, César, 1927-2002, Anglo-Argentine immunologist, Ph.D. Cambridge, 1960. He worked (1961-63) at the National Institute of Microbiology, Buenos Aires, but following a military coup he resigned and returned to Cambridge, where he joined the staff of the Medical Research Council Laboratory of Molecular Biology, serving as its deputy director from 1988 to 1995, when he retired. In 1975, with Georges Köhler, he developed the hybridoma technique for producing monoclonal antibodies, pure, mass-produced antibodies that recognize only one antigen (see immunity). Their method for monoclonal antibody production has since been adopted universally, and such antibodies are used in laboratory research, in medical diagnostics, and in medical treatments to neutralize bacterial toxins. In 1984, Milstein (with Köhler and Niels K. Jerne) shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine.
César-François Cassini de Thury, called Cassini III or Cassini de Thury, was a French astronomer and cartographer. He was born in Thury-sous-Clermont, (Oise), on June 17, 1714 and died of smallpox in Paris on September 4, 1784,


Cassini de Thury was the second son of Jacques Cassini and Suzanne Françoise Charpentier de Charmois. He was grandson of Giovanni Domenico Cassini, and would become the father of Jean-Dominique Cassini, Conte de Cassini.

In 1735, he became a member of the French Academy of Sciences as a supernumerary adjunct astronomer, in 1741 as an adjunct astronomer and in 1745 as a full member astronomer.

He succeeded to his father’s official employments in 1756 and continued the hereditary surveying operations. In 1744, he began the construction of a great topographical map of France, one of the landmarks in the history of cartography.

The post of director of the Paris observatory was created for his benefit in 1771 when the establishment ceased to be a dependency of the French Academy of Sciences.

His chief works are: La méridienne de l’Observatoire Royal de Paris (1744), Description géometrique de la terre (1775), and Description géometrique de la France (1784), which was completed by his son.


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