Buyantu Khan

Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan, Emperor Renzong of Yuan

Emperor Renzong of Yuan (Chinese: 元仁宗, 1286-1320), also known as Ayurbarwada Buyantu Khan or Buyantu Khan, born Borjigin-Khiyad Ayurbarwada, was the 4th Emperor or Khaan of the Yuan Dynasty in China to rule as Emperor of China.

Struggle for Succession

Temur Khan died without an heir 2 February, 1307 because his son Tachu had passed away a year before him. Temür's widow Bulghan of the Bayaud tribe had kept away the Khunggirad -mothered brothers of Khayishan and Ayurbarwada and attempted to set up the pious Muslim Ananda, a cousin of former emperor and the governor of Ningxia. Harghasun, the right chancellor (Chinese: 右丞相) of the government who became aware of Bulghan's plan, called Ayurbarwada and Li Meng back from Huaizhou (Chinese: 懷州) to Dadu. They successfully developed a strategy to imprison Ananda and Bulghan. Afterwards, Ayurbarwada welcomed his older brother Khayishan, who was still far away from Dadu, to succeed to the throne. After the latter's coronation, Ayurbarwada was appointed the Crown Prince. Brothers promised each other that their descendants would rule on relay, though after Khayishan passed away Ayurbarwada lost his promise later in his reign by making his own son Shidibala the new Crown Prince.


Ayurbarwada stood out among other Yuan Emperors as an active adopter of the mainstream Chinese culture. He was mentored by Confucian academic Li Meng.

Ayurbarwada was highlighted for his reform efforts based on Confucianism principle for the Yuan government. Ayurbarwada's reform efforts included the disbanding of the Department of State Affairs (Chinese: 尚書省) set up during Khayishan's reign, which resulted in the execution of 5 high-ranking officials, and the reintroduction of the imperial examination system for public officials similar to the one in previous dynasties of China. The imperial examination system, though had repeated been debated during Kublai's reign, had not put into effect until this time. It was now based entirely on Neo-Confucianism, which was thus established as the state philosophy of China for many centuries ever since. A race-based quotas were set for these examinations, allowing a certain number of both Mongol and Han Chinese to enter the government as civil officials. For example, starting in 1313 examinations were introduced for prospective officials - testing their knowledge on significant historical works - in 1315 300 appointments went to the court, with an extra quarter of the positions being given to non-Han Chinese people. These reforms were made at the displeasure of many Mongol nobility.

During his reign commercial ties with Europe increased. He also made an alliance with Oljeitu against Esen Buqa I of Chagatai Khanate, who attacked the Yuan forces, and defeated the latter in 1316. After Esen Buqa's death, Kebek mitigated the situation with Yuan Dynasty.


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