Bute, John Stuart, 3d earl of, 1713-92, British politician. He was prominent as a friend of Frederick Louis, prince of Wales, as early as 1747 and became the tutor of Frederick's impressionable son, the future George III. When George became king in 1760, Bute was appointed a privy councilor, first gentleman of the bedchamber, and (Mar., 1761) a secretary of state. George III's policies of destroying the Whig monopoly of political power, of making the monarch supreme over Parliament, and of ending the war with France were pursued largely under Bute's influence. After the resignation (Oct., 1761) of William Pitt (later earl of Chatham) from office, Bute became chief minister. Although he concluded the Treaty of Paris (1763), ending the increasingly unpopular war, he lacked parliamentary support and resigned shortly thereafter. George III rapidly outgrew his youthful dependence on his friend.

See biography by J. A. Lovat Fraser (1912); R. Sedgewick, ed., Letters from George III to Lord Bute, 1756-1766 (1936); R. Pares, George III and the Politicians (1953).

Bute or Buteshire, former county, W Scotland, consisting mainly of the islands of Bute and Arran. Under the Local Government Act of 1973, Bute became (1975) part of the new Strathclyde region. In the local government reorganization of 1996, Strathclyde was dissolved; Bute island became part of the council area of Argyll and Bute, and Arran part of North Ayshire.

(French: “hillock” or “rising ground”) Flat-topped hill surrounded by a steep cliff, from the bottom of which a slope descends to the plain. The term is sometimes used for an elevation higher than a hill but not high enough to be a mountain. Buttes topped by horizontal platforms of hard rock are characteristic of the arid plateau region of the western U.S. A butte is similar to a mesa but generally smaller; both are created by erosional processes.

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orig. John Stuart

(born May 25, 1713, Edinburgh, Scot.—died March 10, 1792, London, Eng.) Scottish-born British statesman. He was the tutor and constant companion of the future George III; when the latter ascended to the throne, he named Bute secretary of state (1761). As prime minister (1762–63), Bute negotiated the peace ending the Seven Years' War, but, having failed to create a stable administration, he resigned in 1763.

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