Bukidnon, province (1990 pop. 843,891), N central Mindanao, the Philippines. Malaybalay is the provincial capital. Much of the area is on a high plateau (alt. c.2,000 ft/610 m). With very fertile soil and a heavy, evenly distributed annual rainfall, Bukidnon is of great importance agriculturally. Intensely cultivated, it is the nation's major pineapple-producing region and a center of coffee production. A great variety of fruits is also grown, primarily for canning and export. The province has a high percentage of owner-operated farms. Central Mindanao Univ. is at Musuan.

Bukidnon (Cebuano: Probinsiya sa Bukidnon; Tagalog: Lalawigan ng Bukidnon) is a landlocked province of the Philippines located in the Northern Mindanao region. Its capital is Malaybalay City. The province borders, clockwise starting from the north, Misamis Oriental, Agusan del Sur, Davao del Norte, Cotabato, Lanao del Sur, and Lanao del Norte.

Bukidnon is considered by Filipinos to be the food basket of Mindanao. It is the major producer of rice and corn in the region. Plantations in the province also produce pineapples, bananas and sugarcane.

There are no seaports in the province, although there is an airport in Malaybalay City. The airport is currently closed. To get to Bukidnon, one must travel by land from Cagayan de Oro City in Misamis Oriental Province.


Political History

Bukidnon became a part of Misamis in the latter part of 1850. The whole area was then called Malaybalay (few houses) and the people were known as Bukidnons (mountain people). The Philippine Commission, then headed by Commissioner Dean C. Worcester, Secretary of Interior, proposed the separation of Bukidnon from Misamis Province. On August 20, 1907, the Philippine Commission Act No. 1693 was enacted the Province of Agusan and sub- province of Bukidnon. Bukidnon became a regular province on March 10, 1917 by virtue of the creation of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu under Act 2711.

In 1942, the Japanese troops entered Bukidnon. In 1945, the province was liberated from Japanese occupation by Filipino and American troops with the aid of Bukidnon-based Filipino guerrillas during the Second World War.

Cultural history

According to oral history of the indigenous people of Bukidnon, there were four main tribes in Central Mindanao: the Maranao who dwell in Lanao del Sur, and the Maguindanao, Manobo and Talaandig who respectively inhabit the eastern, southern, and north-central portions of the original province of Cotabato. When the civil government divided central Mindanao into provinces at the turn of the 20th century, the groups included in the province of Bukidnon are the Talaandig and the Manobo. The Bisayans, Cebuano, Boholanos and Ilonggos migrated into the province followed by various groups from Luzon, namely, the Ilocanos, Batangueños, the Igorots and the Ivatans. All contributed massive acculturation among the indigenous tribes. Most of those who moved to the mountains and forest continued to hold on their ancestors’ cultural heritage. The wide variety of Filipino groups now thrives in the province and contributed immensely in the socio-economic development.



Bukidnon is a landlocked plateau in North Central Mindanao. It is bounded on the north by Misamis Oriental and Cagayan de Oro City; on the south by North Cotabato, Davao del Sur and Davao City; on the east by Agusan del Sur and Davao del Norte; and west by Lanao del Sur. It lies between parallels 7°25' and 8°38' North latitude and meridians 124°03' and 125°16' East longitude. Malaybalay City, the capital town, is about 850 kilometers by air from Manila and 91 kilometers by road from Cagayan de Oro City.

It has two important landmarks, Mt. Kitanglad and Pulangi River. Mt. Kitanglad is 2,955 meters above sea level. Pulangi River, on the other hand, traverses through the northeastern and southern part of the province towards the Rio Grande of Mindanao.

Land Area

The province's total land area is 829,378 hectares (8, 293.78 square kilometers). It accounts for 59 percent (59%) of Northern Mindanao. Thirty-eight percent (38%) is alienable and disposable. The rest is classified timberland.

It also accounts for 80 percent (80%) or 34 million metric tons of the region’s nonmetallic mineral deposits which include high grade white and red clay, gold, chromite, copper, serpentine, manganese, quartz and limestone deposits can also be found in the province.


Bukidnon is generally characterized as an extensive plateau but the southern and eastern boundaries are mountainous area. The province's average elevation is 915 meters above sea level. The slope gradient peaks at 2, 938 meters with Mt. Kitanglad, an extinct volcano occupying the central portion. Two other mountain bodies are found in its southern portion, Mt. Kalatungan and Mt. Tangkulan, which rise to 2, 287 meters and 1, 678 meters, respectively. Gently rolling grassland plateau cut deep and wide canyons of the Cagayan, Pulangi, and Tagoloan Rivers and their tributaries which cover a greater part of the province. The whole eastern and southern border adjoining the provinces of Agusan, Davao, and Cotabato are covered by lofty and densely forested mountains of the Pantaron Mountain Range (Central Cordillera).

The Bukidnon plateau is mainly of volcanic zone consisting of pyroclastic, basaltic and andesitic cones.

The Central Cordillera is a mountain range of sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks. About 49% of the land resource of the province is of rugged hills and mountains and 33% of undulating to rolling terrain. The rest of the province is composed of nearly level terraces, alluvial lowland, canyons and gorges. The volcanic terraces and volcanic foot slopes that are ≥500 meters above sea level are estimated to be about 221, 600 hectares.

At Mailag, 23 kilometers south of Malaybalay City, the plateau begins to descend and gradually merges into the lowlands of Cotabato province.


Two types of climate prevail between the northern and southern sections of Bukidnon, The northern part is classified as belonging to Type III, that is, there is no pronounced rain period but relatively dry during the months of November to May. In the southern portion of the province, the climate is classified as Type IV with no dry season. The driest area is Baungon, while the wettest is the Calabugao plain. The climate is relatively cool and humid throughout the year.

The average annual rainfall is 2, 800 millimeters (112.5 inches). Just like in other parts of the country, rainfall is more pronounced from June to October compared to other months of the year. February to April are the drier months.

Temperature ranges vary with elevation. In areas lower than 500 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.), the recorded temperature range is between 20°C to 34°C. Areas with elevations greater than 500 m.a.s.l. would have temperatures ranging from 18°C to 28°C.

Relative humidity also varies with elevation, with those above 500 meters having relative humidity of about 80%, while areas lying below 500 meters, 65-7 percent. Thus, the Malaybalay-Impasug-ong area and those around the volcanic cones approximate semi-temperate conditions and can support the cultivation of highland tropical crops.

Based on the records of climatological stations within and near the province, lithology and land form, three (3) agro-ecological zones are identified. One covers the mountainous eastern side (Central Cordillera) which is generally wet, with rainfall of about 2, 340 mm to 4, 000 mm per annum. Another covers the high altitude volcanic plains, the Malaybalay-Impasug-ong area and the footslopes of Mt. Kitanglad and Mt. Kalatungan. These areas have an annual rainfall in the range of 2, 490 mm to 3, 680 mm. The third zone covers the south-central and the north-western parts of the province, with elevations of less than 500 meters, relatively dry with mean annual rainfall in the range of 1, 700 mm to 2, 600 mm.

Bodies of Water

Bukidnon is known as the watershed of Mindanao. It is endowed with six major river systems namely: Pulangi, Tagoloan, Cagayan, Manupali, Muleta, and Bobonawan Rivers. This rivers carved the landscape of the province creating numerous canyons.

The Pulangi River, considered the longest river in the province, is a tributary of the Rio Grande of Mindanao. Its headwaters is found in the mountains of Kalabugao, Impasug-ong, Bukidnon. It is the largest as well as the longest river found in the province. It covers the following cities and municipalities of the province: Impasug-ong, Malaybalay City, Cabanglasan, San Fernando, Valencia City, Maramag, Quezon, Don Carlos, Kitaotao, Dangcagan, Kibawe and Damulog.

The Tagoloan River has its headwaters in the mountains of Can-ayan, Malaybalay City. It traverses the province northwestward passing through Malaybalay City, Impasug-ong, Sumilao, Manolo Fortich, Malitbog and finally empties into the sea at Tagoloan, Misamis Oriental.

The Cagayan River watershed is found mostly in the municipality of Talakag. Its headwaters is found in the Kitanglad Mountain Range in central Bukidnon. The river flows northward through the municipalities of Talakag and Baungon. Its mouth lies at Cagayan de Oro City in Misamis Oriental, where it is the main source of potable water.

The Manupali River, a major tributary of the Pulangi River, start in the mountains of Lantapan, Bukidnon, picking up tributaries along the way from the Kalatungan and Kitanglad Mountain Ranges. It forms part of the natural boundary of the Valencia City and Lantapan. It flows eastward towards Malaybalay City, eventually joining the Pulangi River in Valencia City.

The Muleta River is found in the southern portion of the province covering the municipalities of Pangantucan, Don Carlos, Kitaotao, Dangcagan, Kibawe, Kadingilan and Damulog. It is another important tributary of the Pulangi River and flows southward. It will join the Pulangi River in the boundary of Bukidnon and Cotabato province.

The Bobonawan River, found in the municipality of Cabanglasan, is another tributary of the Pulangi River. It covers most of the parts of the municipality, flowing southward towards Pulangi River.

Aside from the relatively important river systems, various lakes also dot the landscape of the province. Pinamaloy Lake, in Don Carlos, Bukidnon, is the biggest in the province covering about 50 hectares . It was named after Barangay Pinamaloy, the place where the lake is located. Another lake is found in Pigtauranan, Pangantucan called the Napalit Lake. The lake covers an area of 36 hectares and is one of the tourist spots in Pangantucan, Bukidnon. There are 24 floating islets in the lake. The third significant inland body of water in the province is Apo Lake at Guinoyoran, Valencia City. It occupies an approximate area of 25 hectares. A man-made lake called Maramag Basin is found in Maramag, Bukidnon, which was the result of the construction of the Pulangi IV Hydroelectric Dam of the National Power Corporation (NPC) in the course of the Pulangi River.


Based on the National Statistics Office (NSO) Census last 2000, Bukidnon has a total population of 1,060,415. Males slightly edge the females with 546,234, accounting about 52% of the province’s total population while females, with 514,181, account about 48%. It is expected that by 2010, the province of Bukidnon will have a total population of 1,344,301.

Based on age distribution, Bukidnon has a fairly young population, with ages 14 and below accounting 42.15% or 446, 952. The 15-34 age bracket account for 33.68% of the province’s population or 357,112. Ages 55 and above barely accounts 6.5% of the total.

The average population growth rate of the province is 2.41% from 1995–2000. Male-to-female ratio in the province stood at 1.06.

Population Density

The average population density for the province is 128 persons per square kilometer. The cities/municipalities with the highest population densities are the following: Don Carlos (353/km²), Kitaotao (250/km²), Valencia City (244/km²), Maramag (213/km²) and Quezon (202/km²). The cities/municipalities with the lowest densities, on the other hand are: Impasug-ong (29/km²), Talakag (58/km²), San Fernando (63/km²), Malitbog (75/km²) and Damulog (83/km²).

Population By Congressional Districts

By Congressional Districts, District II has the highest population among the three capturing almost 40% of the total population of the province. District II includes the cities of Malaybalay and Valencia. It is closely followed by District III with almost 33% of the total population. District I, although closer to the regional urban center of Cagayan de Oro City, has the least population with 28%.

Valencia City has the highest population among the cities/municipalities of the province with 147, 924 inhabitants, accounting 13.96% of the province’s total. It is closely followed by Malaybalay City with 123, 672 inhabitants or 11.67% of the total. Quezon is at third with 82, 567 inhabitants or 7.79% of the total. Maramag and Manolo Fortich is 4th and 5th with 74, 757 and 74, 252 inhabitants, respectively.


According to ethnicity, majority of the people in Bukidnon are Cebuano accounting approximately 58% of the total population. The Bukidnon lumads (Bukidnon, Higaonon, Manobo, Talaandig, etc.) account about 14% of the total population of the province. The Hiligaynon/Ilonggo and Boholano groups follow with 8.83% and 7.37%, respectively, of the province’s total population.

Languages Spoken

The major language spoken in the province is Cebuano, used by 77.92% of the total households in the province. It is followed by Binukid (Bukidnon) with 8.86%, and Hiligaynon/Ilonggo with 8.17%. Ilocano, Tagalog, Maranao, Waray, Ivatan, Tausug and Pampango are also spoken but at low percentage.

English is the medium of instruction in most schools in the province.


11 Universities and Colleges of Bukidnon

The following Universities and Colleges of Bukidnon are the tertiary schools in Bukidnon.

School Location
Bukidnon State University Malaybalay City
Central Mindanao University Musuan, Maramag, Bukidnon
San Isidro College Impalambong, Malaybalay City
Mountain View College MVC Complex, Mt. Nebo, Valencia City
Valencia Colleges Inc. Valencia City
San Agustin Institute of Technology Valencia City
Mindanao Arts and Technological Institute Barangay 9, Malaybalay City
Philippine Computer College Maramag, Bukidnon
STI Learning Center Malaybalay City and Valencia City
AMA Computer Learning Center Hagkol, Valencia City

People and Culture

The traditional culture of Bukidnon is a pride to all. The cultures and traditions are embodied in oral folk literature of the province which are classified into; “Antoka” (riddles), “Basahan” (proverbs or wise sayings), “Kaliga” (ceremonial songs), “Limbay” (lyric poem), “Sala” (love song), “Idangdang” (ballad), “Ulaging” (epic) and “Nanangon” (folktales). Religion is monotheistic. They believe in one God. “Magbabaya” (the ruler of all) has minor gods and goddesses under his command (Example: “Bulalakaw” watches rivers and lakes, “Tumpas Nanapiyaw” or “Itumbangol” watches the bases of the earth night and day lost in crumbles).

The Bukidnons have different degrees of acculturation. The first-degree Bukidnons are those leading the most traditional life style. This includes those who lived remote from any center of lowland habitation, deep in the forest and along the watershed of the main rivers. The second-degree Bukidnons lived near the fringes and directly within the bounds of the lowlanders. The third-degree Bukidnons are highly assimilated and are generally able to send their children off to school. The fourth degree Bukidnons have fully assimilated the ways of urban living and hardly acknowledge the old ways of their background. The fifth degree Bukidnons are largely recent immigrants from their other parts of the Philippine archipelago and have made Bukidnon as their permanent home.


The province celebrated the Kaamulan Festival, an ethnic cultural festival held annually in Malaybalay City, Bukidnon from the mid-February up to March 10, the founding date of the Bukidnon as a province in 1917. It is held to celebrate the culture and tradition of the seven ethnic tribal groups—Bukidnon, Higaonon, Talaandig, Manobo, Matigsalug, Tigwahanon and Umayamnon—that originally inhabit the province. Kaamulan comes from the Binukid word “amul” meaning to gather. Kaamulan is gathering for a purpose—a datuship ritual, a wedding ceremony, a thanksgiving festival during harvest time, a peace pact, or all of these together. The festival started in 1974 and is celebrated until now.


Bukidnon is an agricultural economy. it is a major producer of rice, maize, sugar, coffee, rubber, pineapple, tomato, flowers, cassava, and other fruits and vegetables. It is also a major producer of chickens, hogs and cattle. Almost all large firms operating in the province are into production or processing of these agricultural products.

Del Monte Philippines, Inc. (DMPI), Lapanday Diversified Products Corp. and Mt. Kitanglad Agri-Development Corporation are engaged in pineapple production. Dole Philippines (Skyland) and Mt. Kitanglad Agri-Ventures, Inc. are into banana production. DMPI is also engaged in cattle fattening. Bukidnon Sugar Milling Corporation (BUSCO) and Crystal Sugar Milling are into sugar milling and refining.

Phil-Agro Industrial Corporation is in starch production. Menzi Agricultural Development is in cacao production. Agaropyta Phils. Inc., Bukidnon Greens Inc., FP Obrero Farms and ARDEM, Inc. is in cutflower production.

Food manufacturing giants, San Miguel Foods Corp. (SMFI_PFC), Monterey Farms Corp., Swift Foods, Inc. have intensified their contract breeding and growing operations in the province. Valencia Rubbertex, Inc., an 80-20 Japanese-Filipino joint venture produces rubber boots and rubber shoes for Japan.

As one of the major anchors in crop production, Bukidnon is moving forward towards establishing its position as a principal trader of rice, corn, sugar, potato, tomato and many other commercial and industrial crops. As the second largest producer of corn in the country, it reached a total production of 481,370 Mt. In year 2000, vast tracks of cornfields, rice paddles and sugar plantations are distributed all over the province.

Bukidnon has already assumed its role as producer and supplier of fresh fruits and vegetables. These produce are either sold in domestic markets or exported to Japan and other neighboring countries. Fresh pineapples, banana, sugarcane and cutflower grown over the years are among its exports. New agri-business industries are still growing. Even export of rubber boots and shoes, an infant industry in the province is increasing tremendously.

Wide variety of resource-based handicrafts are extensively produced from rattan, bamboo and wood. San Fernando is known for its rattan furniture. Bamboo baskets, wood wares and carvings, mats and other handmade products are ideal souvenir items.

Bukidnon Investment Grid (BIG)

During the mid-90's, the provincial government of Bukidnon, after careful studies and consultation, has adopted a strategic program called the Bukidnon Investment Grid or BIG. This program is aimed to confine all its investment promotion activities and projects to the strip of land three kilometers from both sides of the Sayre Highway from Damulog to Manolo Fortich, and along the national/provincial road from Kibawe to Kadingilan; Don Carlos to Kadingilan; Maramag to Quezon; Maramag to Kadingilan; Kadingilan to Pangantucan; Valencia City to San Fernando; Malaybalay City to Cabanglasan; Malaybalay to Lantapan; Manolo Fortich to Libona; Libona to Cagayan de Oro; Talakag to Pangantucan; and Malitbog to Tagoloan in Misamis Oriental.

Politics and Administration

The province of Bukidnon is subdivided into 20 municipalities and 2 cities.

City/Municipality Date of Creation Area(km²) Population(2007) Pop. Density(per km²) Income Classification(DOF)
Baungon July 1, 1956 175.86 29,757 152 4th Class Municipality
Cabanglasan August 13, 1979 209.00 32,817 154 4th Class Municipality
Damulog August 16, 1971 245.66 21,183 83 4th Class Municipality
Dangcagan August 29, 1961] 115.15 21,254 164 5th Class Municipality
Don Carlos June 18, 1966 157.02 60,870 353 2nd Class Municipality
Impasug-ong Sept. 1, 1914 1,071.67 39,315 29 2nd Class Municipality
Kadingilan August 16, 1971 172.06 30,135 150 4th Class Municipality
Kalilangan June 18, 1966 153.59 36,557 199 4th Class Municipality
Kibawe July 1, 1956 214.35 35,213 154 4th Class Municipality
Kitaotao June 18, 1966 150.74 42,212 250 2nd Class Municipality
Lantapan June 18, 1966 240.76 51,406 176 3rd Class Municipality
Libona July 1, 1956 244.95 35,670 136 3rd Class Municipality
Malaybalay City March 23, 1998 984.38 144,065 126 3rd Class Component City
Malitbog June 25,1963 260.53 21,948 74 4th Class Municipality
Manolo Fortich June 21, 1957 506.64 82,051 146 1st Class Municipality
Maramag July 1, 1956 351.72 85,647 214 1st Class Municipality
Pangantucan June 25, 1963 343.34 46,689 126 3rd Class Municipality
Quezon June 18, 1966 409.41 91,119 202 1st Class Municipality
San Fernando June 18, 1966 638.63 44,595 63 2nd Class Municipality
Sumilao July 1, 1956 207.49 21,720 86 4th Class Municipality
Talakag 1917 833.70 53,316 58 2nd Class Municipality
Valencia City January 12, 2001 607.13 162,745 244 4th Class Component City
Source: Provincial Planning & Development Office, Province of Bukidnon, National Statistics Office, 2000 Census of Population, Department of Finance (DOF)

Bukidnon My Home, The Provincial Hymm

English Version Binukid Version
Wherever I may roam
The distant land to see
I long to go back soon
To sweet Bukidnon home
Where lovely mountains high
With forest old and grand
Bring memories to me
The home I long to see.

There my heart
Yearns to be
In far away Bukidnon land
Under its blue starry skies
Where love and joy never die
(repeat Chorus)

Isan pa hindon ah
Lalag ko'g uli ah,
Deni ta Bukidnon
Kanak ha banuwa
Buntod ha matangkaw
Kalasan, makupal
Patag ha maluag
Hatungkay madagway

Buntoron, balalayan, basakan, kapatagan
Pastohan, kapinyahan, ba alan-alan kauyagan
Langit din pig-aldawan
Piglambungan, uranan, ba alan-alan

References and Footnotes

External links

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