Definitions

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Buddhist terms and concepts

Several Buddhist terms and concepts lack direct translations into English that cover the breadth of the original term. Below are given a number of important Buddhist terms, short definitions, and the languages in which they appear. In this list, an attempt has been made to organize terms by their original form and give translations and synonyms in other languages along with the definition.

Languages and traditions dealt with here:

A

Definition Etymology In other languages
abhidhamma A category of scriptures that attempts to use Buddhist teachings to create a systematic, abstract description of all worldly phenomena

  • abhi is "above" or "about", dhamma is "teaching"
  • Pāli: abhidhamma
  • Sanskrit: abhidharma

  • Tib: chos mngon pa
  • Thai: อภิธรรม a-pi-tam
  • 阿毘達磨
    • Cn: Āpídámó
    • Jp: Abidatsuma
    • Vi: a-tì-đạt-ma

Abhidhamma Pitaka The third basket of the Tripitaka canon, the reorganization of all doctrines in a systematic way

  • Pāli: Abhidhamma-piṭaka
  • Sanskrit: Abhidharma-piṭaka
  • Thai: อภิธรรมปิฎก a-pi-tam-pi-dok
  • 論藏, 論蔵
    • Cn: Lùnzàng
    • Jp: Ronzō
    • Vi: Luận tạng

    acariya, lit. "teacher", One of the two teachers of a novice monk - the other one is called upādhyāya

    • Pāli: ācāriya
    • Sanskrit: ācārya
  • Bur: saya
  • Thai: อาจารย์ ajahn
  • 阿闍梨 or 阿闍梨耶
    • Cn: āshélí or āshélíyē
    • Jp: ajari or ajariya
    • Vi: a-xà-lê or a-xà-lê-da

    adhitthana Determination, to pray, to wish

    • Pāli:
    • Sanskrit:
  • Bur:
  • Thai: อธิษฐาน ah-tid-taan
  • 決心
    • Cn:
    • Jp: kesshin
    • Vi:

    addiction, see tanha
    Agama The divisions of the Sutra Pitaka

    • Sanskrit: Āgama
  • Pāli: Āgama (but usually called Nikāya)
  • 阿含
    • Cn: Āhán
    • Jp: Agon
    • Vi: A-hàm

    ahimsa The devotion to non-violence and respect for all forms of life. Practicers of ahimsa are often vegetarians or vegans

    • Sanskrit: ahiṃsā
    • Pāli: ahiṃsā
  • Thai: อหิงสา 'ah-hing-sa'
  • 不害
    • Cn: bù hài
    • Jp: fugai
    • Vi: bất hại

    alayavijnana, see store consciousness

    • Pāli, Sanskrit: ālayavijñāna
  • Tib: ཀུན་གཞི་རྣམ་པར་ཤེས་པ་
    kun gzhi rnam par shes pa
  • 阿賴耶識, 阿頼耶識
    • Cn: ālàiyēshí
    • Jp: araya-shiki
    • Vi: a-lại-da thức

    Amitabha Lit. "The Buddha of Infinite Light". The main buddha of the Pure Land school, but is popular in other Mahayana sects as well.

    • Sanskrit: amitābha (lit. "limitless light") and amitāyus (lit. "limitless life")
  • 阿彌陀 or 阿彌陀佛, 阿弥陀 or 阿弥陀仏
    • Cn: Ēmítuó or Ēmítuó fó
    • Jp: Amida or Amida-butsu
    • Vi: A-di-đà or Phật A-di-đà

    anagarika A white-robed student in the Theravada tradition who, for a few months, awaits being considered for Samaneras ordination

    • Pāli: anāgarika
  • Thai: อนาคาริก a-na-ka-rik
  • anapanasati Mindfulness of the breath meditation

    • Pāli: ānāpānasati

    anatta The principle denial of the soul in any phenomena. See also negative theology.

    • Pāli: anattā
    • Sanskrit: anātman
  • 無我
    • Cn: wúwǒ
    • Jp: muga
    • Vi: vô ngã

    anicca Impermanence

    • Pāli: anicca
    • Sanskrit: anitya
  • 無常
    • Cn: wúcháng
    • Jp: mujō
    • Vi: vô thường

    anuttara Unsurpassing

    • Pāli: anuttara
    • Sanskrit: anuttara
  • 阿耨多羅/阿耨多罗 (無上/无上)
    • Cn: Ānòuduōluó ("wǔshàng")
    • Jp: ?
    • Vi: ?
    • Fi: Ylittämätön

    arhat, lit. "the Worthy One", A living person who has reached Enlightenment

    • Pāli: arahat or arahant
    • Sanskrit: arhat or arhant
  • Tib: དགྲ་ཅོམ་པ་, dgra com pa
  • 阿羅漢
    • Cn: āluóhàn
    • Jp: arakan
    • Vi: a-la-hán

    arahato samasam buddhasa,

    • Pāli:
    • Sanskrit:
  • Tib: ,
  • Thai: อรหันต์ uh-ra-hann
  • 阿耨多罗三藐三菩提
    • Cn:
    • Jp:
    • Vi:

    atman literally "self", sometimes "soul" or "ego". In Buddhism, the inappropriate belief in atman is the prime consequence of ignorance, the foundation of samsara

    • Sanskrit: ātman
  • Pāli: atta
    • Cn:
    • Jp: ga
    • Vi: ngã

    Avalokitesvara, lit. "One Who Hears the Suffering Cries of the World", The bodhisattva of compassion (see also Guan Yin)

    • Sanskrit: Avalokiteśvara
  • Tib: སྤྱན་རས་གཟིགས་ spyan ras gzigs
  • 觀世音 or 觀音
    • Cn: Guānshì Yīn or Guān Yīn
    • Jp: Kanzeon or Kannon

    avidya "ignorance" or "delusion"

    • Sanskrit: avidyā
  • Pāli: avijjā
  • Thai: อวิชชา aa-wit-sha
  • Tib: མ་རིག་པ་ ma rig-pa
  • 無明
    • Cn: wúmíng
    • Jp: mumyō
    • Vi: vô minh

    B

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    bardo, lit. "intermediate state" or "in-between state", According to Tibetan tradition, the state of existence intermediate between two lives

    • Tib: བར་མ་དོའི་སྲིད་པ་ bar ma do'i srid pa

    • Sanskrit: antarābhava
    • 中有,中陰身
      • Cn: zhongyǒu
      • Jp: chūu
      • Vi: trung hữu

    bhavacakra>/bhavacakka A circular symbolic representation of samsara, also known as Wheel of becoming

    • Pāli: bhavacakka
    • Sanskrit: bhava-cakra
  • 有輪
    • Cn: yǒulún
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: hữu luân

    bhante The polite particle used to refer to Buddhist monks in the Theravada tradition. Bhante literally means "Venerable Sir."

    • Pāli

    bhava Becoming, being, existing; the 10th link of Pratitya-samutpada

    • Pāli, Sanskrit: bhava
  • Thai: ภาวะ pa-wah
  • 有(十二因緣)
    • Cn: yǒu
    • Jp: u
    • Vi: hữu

    bhikkhu/bhikshu, lit. "beggar", A Buddhist monk

    • Pāli: bhikkhu
    • Sanskrit:
  • Tib: དགེ་སློང་ dge slong
  • Thai: ภิกขุ bhikku
  • 比丘
    • Cn: bǐ qiū
    • Jp: biku
    • Vi: tỉ-khâu or tỉ-khưu

    bhikkhuni/bhikshuni A Buddhist nun

    • from bhikkhu
    • Pāli: bhikkhuni
    • Sanskrit:
  • Tib: དགེ་སློང་མ་ sde slong ma
  • Bur: bikuni
  • Thai: ภิกษุณี bhiksuni
  • 比丘尼
    • Cn: bǐqiūní"
    • Jp: bikuni
    • Vi: tỉ-khâu-ni or tỉ-khưu-ni

    bija, lit. "seed", A metaphor for the origin or cause of things, used in the teachings of the Yogacara school

    • Sanskrit: bīja
  • 種子
    • Cn: zhŏngzi
    • Jp: shuuji
    • Vi: chủng tử

    bodhi Awakening or Enlightenment

    • Pāli, Sanskrit: bodhi
  • Thai: โพธิ์ poe
  • 菩提
    • Cn: pútí
    • Jp: bodai
    • Vi: bồ-đề

    Bodhi tree The Sacred Fig (Ficus religiosa) tree under which Gautama reached Enlightenment

  • 菩提樹
    • Cn: Pútíshù
    • Jp: Bodaiju
    • Vi: Bồ-đề thụ

    bodhicitta The motivation of a bodhisattva

    • Pāli, Sanskrit: bodhicitta
  • Tib: བྱང་ཆུབ་ཀྱི་སེམས་ byang chub kyi sems
  • 菩提心
    • Cn: pútíxīn
    • Jp: bodaishin
    • Vi: bồ-đề tâm

    bodhisattva One with the intention to become a Buddha in order to liberate all other sentient beings from suffering

    • Pāli: bodhisatta
    • Sanskrit: bodhisattva
  • Bur: bawditat
  • Thai: โพธิสัตว์ poe-ti-satt
  • 菩薩
    • Cn: púsà
    • Jp: bosatsu
    • Vi: bồ-tát

    Buddha A Buddha; also, the Buddha Siddhārtha Gautama.

    • from √budh: to awaken
    • Pāli, Sanskrit: buddha
  • Bur: boda
  • 佛, 仏
    • Cn:
    • Jp: butsu or hotoke
    • Vi: Phật or bụt

    buddha nature The uncreated and deathless Buddhic element or principle concealed within all sentient beings to achieve Awakening; the innate (latent) Buddha essence (esp. in the Tathagatagarbha sutras, Tendai/Tiantai, Nichiren thought)

    • Sanskrit: buddha-dhatu, buddha-svabhāva, "tathagata-dhatu", or tathagatagarbha.
  • 佛性, 仏性
    • Cn: fóxìng
    • Jp: busshō
    • Vi: phật tính

    D

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    dakini A supernatural female with volatile temperament who serves as a muse for spiritual practice. Dakinis are often depicted naked to represent the truth

    • Sanskrit:

    • Tib: མཁའ་འགྲོ་མ་ mkha` `gro ma
    • 空行女
      • Cn: khong xing mu
      • Jp: ??
      • Vi: không hành nữ

    Dalai Lama, lit. "the lama with wisdom like an ocean", secular and spiritual leader of Tibet as nominated by the Mongols

    • Tibetan: ཏཱ་ལའི་བླ་མ་ taa-la'i bla-ma
  • 達賴喇嘛
    • Cn: Dálài Lǎma
    • Jp: Darai Rama
    • Vi: Đạt Lai Lạt Ma or Đạt-lại Lạt-ma

    dana Generosity or giving; in Buddhism, it also refers to the practice of cultivating generosity

    • Pāli, Sanskrit: dāna
  • Bur: dana
  • Thai: ทาน taan
  • 布施
    • Cn: bùshī
    • Jp: fuse
    • Vi: bố thí

    dependent origination, see Pratitya-Samutpada

    • Pāli:
    • Sanskrit: pratītya-samutpāda
  • 因縁, also 緣起, 縁起
    • Cn: yīnyuan, also yuánqǐ
    • Jp: innen, also engi
    • Vi: duyên khởi

    dhamma/dharma Often refers to the doctrines and teachings of the faith, but it may have broader uses. Also, it is an important technical term meaning something like "phenomenological constituent." This leads to the potential for confusion, puns, and double entendres, as the latter meaning often has negative connotations

    • from : to hold
    • Pāli: dhamma
    • Sanskrit: dharma
  • Bur: dha ma
  • Thai: ธรรมะ tam-ma
    • Cn:
    • Jp:
    • Vi: pháp

    dhammavinaya The dharma and vinaya (roughly "doctrine and discipline") considered together. This term essentially means the whole teachings of Buddhism as taught to monks
    dhammacakka/dharmacakra A symbolic representation of the dharma, also known as the Wheel of Dharma

    • Sanskrit: dharmacakra
    • Pāli: dhammacakka
  • 法輪
    • Cn: Fǎlún
    • Jp: hōrin
    • Vi: pháp luân

    dhammapala/dharmapala A fearsome deity, known as protector of the Dharma

    • Sanskrit: dharmapāla
    • Pāli: dhammapāla
  • 護法
    • Cn: hùfǎ
    • Jp: gohou
    • Vi: Hộ Pháp

    Dhyana, see jhana

    • Pāli: jhāna
    • Sanskrit: dhyāna
  • 禪 or 禪那, 禅 or 禅那
    • Cn: Chán or Chánnà
    • Jp: Zen or Zenna
    • Vi: Thiền or Thiền-na

    doan In Zen, a term for person sounding the bell that marks the beginning and end of Zazen

    • Japanese: 堂行

    dokusan A private interview between a Zen student and the master. It is an important element in the Zen training, as it provides an opportunity for the student to discuss problems in his or her practice and to demonstrate understanding

    • Japanese: 独参 dokusan
  • 獨參
    • Cn: dúcān
    • Vi: độc tham

    dukkha Suffering, dissatisfaction, stress

    • Pāli: dukkha
    • Sanskrit:
  • Bur: doka
  • Thai: ทุกข์ took
    • Cn:
    • Jp: ku
    • Vi: khổ

    dzogchen The natural, intrinsic state of every sentient being

    • Tibetan: རྫོགས་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ rdzogs pa chen po
  • Sanskrit: atiyoga
  • 大究竟
    • Cn: dàjiūjìng
    • Jp: daikukyou
    • Vi: đại cứu cánh

    F

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    Five Five-Hundred-Year Periods Five sub-divisions of the three periods following the Buddha's passing (三時繫念 Cn: sānshí; Jp: sanji; Vi: tam thời), significant for many Mahayana adherents:
    1. Age of enlightenment (解脱堅固 Cn: jiětuō jiāngù; Jp: gedatsu kengo)
    2. Age of meditation (禅定堅固 Cn: chándìng jiāngù; Jp: zenjō kengo)
      These two ages comprise the Former Day of the Law (正法時期 Cn: zhèngfǎ; Jp: shōbō)
    3. Age of reading, reciting, and listening (読誦多聞堅固 Cn: sòngduōwén jiāngù; Jp: dokuju tamon kengo)
    4. Age of building temples and stupas (多造塔寺堅固 Cn: duōzào tǎsì jiāngù; Jp: tazō tōji kengo)
      These two ages comprise the Middle Day of the Law (像法時期 Cn: xiàngfǎ; Jp: zōhō)
    5. Age of conflict (闘諍堅固 Cn: zhēng jiāngù; Jp: tōjō kengo), an age characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other natural and human-made disasters.
      This age corresponds to the beginning of the Latter Day of the Law (末法時期 Cn: mòfǎ; Jp: mappō) when the (historical) Buddha's teachings would lose all power of salvation and perish (白法隠没 Cn: báifǎméi; Jp: byakuhō onmotsu) and a new Buddha would appear to save the people.
    6. The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra of the Great Assembly (大集 Cn: dàjí; Jp: Daishutu-kyō, Daijuku-kyō, Daijikkyō, or Daishukkyō).

    • 五箇五百歲, 五箇五百歳
      • Cn: 五箇五百歲 wǔ ge wǔbǎi suì
      • Jp: 五箇の五百歳 go no gohyaku sai
      • Vi: ??

    Four Noble Truths
    1. Suffering: Dukkha (Sanskrit: ; Bur: doka; Thai: ทุกข์; 苦諦 Cn: kǔdì; Jp: kutai; Vi: khổ đế)
    2. Attachment (desire): Samudaya (Sanskrit: samudayāryasatya; Thai: สมุทัย; 集諦 Cn: jídì; Jp: jittai; Vi: tập khổ đế)
    3. Elimination of attachment (desire): Nirodha (Sanskrit: ; Thai: นิโรธ; 滅諦 Cn: mièdì; Jp: mettai; Vi: diệt khổ đế)
    4. The path that leads out of suffering: Magga (Sanskrit: ; Thai: มรรค; 道諦 Cn: dàodì; Jp: dōtai; Vi: đạo đế)

    • Pāli: cattāri ariya-saccāni
    • Sanskrit: चत्वारि आर्यसत्यानि catvāry āryasatyāni
    • 四聖諦
      • Cn: Sìdì
      • Jp: Shitai
      • Vi: Tứ diệu đế

    fukudo In Zen, term for person who strikes the han

    • Japanese: 副堂

    G

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    gassho A position used for greeting, with the palms together and fingers pointing upwards in prayer position; used in various Buddhist traditions, but also used in numerous cultures throughout Asia. It expresses greeting, request, thankfulness, reverence and prayer. Also considered a mudra or inkei of Japanese Shingon. See also: Namaste

    • Sanskrit: anjali
    • 合掌
      • Cn: hézhǎng (more common to say 合十 héshí)
      • Vi: hiệp chưởng

    geshe A Tibetan Buddhist academic degree in the Gelug tradition, awarded at the conclusion of lengthy studies often lasting nine years or more

    • Tibetan: དགེ་ཤེས་

    • 格西

    gongan, lit. "public case", A meditative method developed in the Chán/Seon/Zen traditions, generally consisting of a problem that defies solution by means of rational thought; see koan

    • Chinese 公案 gōng-àn
  • 公案
    • Jp: kōan
    • Ko: gong'an
    • Vi: công án

    Guan Yin The bodhisattva of compassion in East Asian Buddhism, with full name being Guan Shi Yin. Guan Yin is considered to be the female form of Avalokiteshvara but has been given many more distinctive characteristics.

    • Chinese 觀音 Guān Yīn or 觀世音 Guān Shì Yīn
  • 觀音 or 觀世音
    • Jp: Kannon or Kanzeon
    • Ko: Gwaneum or Gwanse-eum
    • Vi: Quan Âm or Quan Thế Âm

    H

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    han In Zen monasteries, wooden board that is struck announcing sunrise, sunset and the end of the day

    • Japanese: 板

    Hinayana, lit. "inferior vehicle", A coinage by the Mahayana for the Buddhist doctrines concerned with the achievement of Nirvana as a Śrāvakabuddha or a Pratyekabuddha, as opposed to a Samyaksambuddha

    • Sanskrit: hīnayāna
  • 小乘 or 小乗, 二乘
    • Cn: Xiǎoshèng
    • Jp: Shōjō
    • Vi: Tiểu thừa

    I

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    ino, lit. "bringer of joy to the assembly", In Zen, one of the leaders of a sesshin; in Zen temples, the temple official in charge of maintaining the zendo, or meditation hall

    • Japanese: 維那

    J

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    jhana Meditative contemplation; more often associated with śamatha practices than vipaśyana. See also: shamata, samadhi, samapatti

    • from √dhyā: to think of, to contemplate, meditate on
    • Pāli: jhāna
    • Sanskrit: dhyāna

    • Thai: ฌาน chaan
    • 禪 or 禪那, 禅 or 禅那
      • Cn: Chán or Chánnà
      • Jp: Zen or Zenna
      • Vi: Thiền or Thiền-na

    jisha In Zen, a senior priest's attendant

    • Japanese: 侍者 jisya

    jukai Zen public ordination ceremony wherein a lay student receives certain Buddhist precepts.

    • Chinese: 受戒, shou jie

    K

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    karma, lit. "action", The law of cause and effect in Buddhism

    • from √kri: to do
    • Sanskrit: karma
    • Pāli: kamma

    • Thai: กรรม gum
    • 業¹, 因果²
      • Cn: ¹, comm.: ²yīnguǒ
      • Jp: , inga
      • Vi: nghiệp

    kensho In Zen, enlightenment; has the same meaning as satōri, but is customary used for an initial awakening experience

    • Japanese: 見性 kenshō
  • 見性
    • Cn: jiànxìng
    • Vi: kiến tính

    khyenpo, also khenpo, An academic degree similar to a doctorate in theology, philosophy, and psychology

    • Tibetan

    khanti patience

    • Thai: ขันติ kanti
    • Japanese:
  • Thai: ขันติ kanti
  • 耐心
    • Cn:
    • Vi:

    kinhin Zen walking meditation

    • Japanese: 経行 kinhin or kyōgyō
  • 經行
    • Cn: jīngxíng
    • Vi: ??

    koan A story, question, problem or statement generally inaccessible to rational understanding, yet may be accessible to Intuition

    • Japanese: 公案 kōan
  • 公案
    • Cn: gōng-àn
    • Ko: gong'an
    • Vi: công án

    ksanti The practice of exercising patience toward behaviour or situations that might not necessarily deserve it -- it is seen as a conscious choice to actively give patience as a gift, rather than being in a state of oppression in which one feels obligated to act in such a way.

    • Sanskrit

    kyosaku In Zen, a flattened stick used to strike the shoulders during zazen, to help overcome fatigue or reach satori

    • Japanese: 警策 kyōsaku, called keisaku in Rinzai
  • 警策
    • Cn: jǐngcè
    • Vi: ??

    L

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    lama A Tibetan teacher or master; equivalent to Sanskrit "guru"

    • Tibetan: བླ་མ་ lama

    • Sanskrit: guru
    • 喇嘛
      • Cn: lǎma
      • Jp: rama
      • Vi: lạt-ma

    lineage The official record of the historical descent of dharma teachings from one teacher to another; by extension, may refer to a tradition

    • 傳承

    M

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    Madhyamaka Buddhist philosophical school, founded by Nagarjuna. Members of this school are called Madhyamikas

    • Sanskrit: mādhyamika

    • Tib: དབུ་མ་པ་ dbu ma pa
    • 中觀宗
      • Cn: Zhōngguānzōng
      • Jp: ??
      • Vi: Trung quán tông

    mahamudra A method of direct introduction the understanding of sunyata, of samsara and that the two are inseparable

    • Sanskrit: mahāmudrā
  • Tib: ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ཆེན་པོ་ chag-je chen-po
  • 大手印
    • Cn: dàshŏuyìn
    • Jp: daisyuin
    • Vi: đại thủ ấn

    mahasiddha litt. great spiritual accomplishment. A yogi in Tantric Buddhism, often associated with the highest levels of enlightenment

    • Sanskrit: mahāsiddha
  • Thai: มหายาน
  • 大成就
    • Cn: dàchéngjiù
    • Jp: daijōjyu
    • Vi: đại thành tựu

    Mahayana, lit. "great vehicle", A major branch of Buddhism practiced in China, Tibet, Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and Taiwan. Main goal is to achieve buddhahood or samyaksambuddha

    • Sanskrit: mahāyāna
  • 大乘 or 大乗
    • Cn: Dàshèng
    • Jp: Daijō
    • Vi: Đại thừa

    Maitreya The Buddha of the future epoch

    • Pāli: Metteyya
    • Sanskrit: Maitreya
  • 彌勒 or 彌勒佛, 弥勒 or 弥勒仏
    • Cn: Mílè or Mílè Fó
    • Jp: Miroku or Miroku-butsu
    • Vi: Di-lặc or Phật Di-lặc

    makyo In Zen, unpleasant or distracting thoughts or illusions that occur during zazen

    • Japanese: 魔境 makyō

    mantra Chant used primarily to aid concentration, to reach enlightenment. The best-known Buddhist mantra is possibly Om mani padme hum

    • Sanskrit: mantra
  • Thai: มนตร์ moan
    • Cn: zou
    • Jp: shingon
    • Vi: chân âm

    Mappo The "degenerate" Latter Day of the Law. A time period supposed to begin 2,000 years after Sakyamuni Buddha's passing and last for "10,000 years"; follows the two 1,000-year periods of Former Day of the Law (正法 Cn: zhèngfǎ; Jp: shōbō) and of Middle Day of the Law (像法 Cn: xiàngfǎ; Jp: zōhō). During this degenerate age, chaos will prevail and the people will be unable to attain enlightenment through the word of Sakyamuni Buddha. See the Three periods

    • Japanese: 末法 mappō
  • 末法
    • Cn: mòfǎ
    • Vi: ??

    metta loving kindness

    • Pāli:
    • Sanskrit:
    • Thai: เมตตา metta
      • Ch: tse
      • Jp: ji
      • Vi:

    Middle way The practice of avoidance of extreme views and lifestyle choices

    • Pāli:
    • Sanskrit: madhyamāpratipad
    • 中道
      • Ch: zhōngdào
      • Jp: chūdō
      • Vi: trung đạo

    mindfulness The practice whereby a person is intentionally aware of his or her thoughts and actions in the present moment, non-judgmentally. The 7th step of the Noble Eightfold Path

    • Pāli: sammā-sati
    • Sanskrit:
    • Thai: สัมมาสติ samma-sati
    • 正念
      • Cn: zhèngniàn
      • Jp: syōnen
      • Vi: chính niệm

    moksha Liberation

    • Sanskrit:
  • Pāli: vimutti
  • 解脱
    • Cn: jiětuō
    • Jp: gedatsu
    • Vi: giải thoát

    mokugyo A wooden drum carved from one piece, usually in the form of a fish

    • Japanese: 木魚 mokugyo
  • 木魚
    • Cn: mùyú
    • Vi:

    mondo In Zen, a short dialogue between teacher and student

    • Japanese: 問答 mondō
  • 問答
    • Cn: wèndǎ
    • Vi: ??

    mudra lit. "seal", A gesture made with hands and fingers in meditation

    • Sanskrit: mudrā
  • Tib: ཕྱག་རྒྱ་ phyag rgya
  • 手印
    • Cn: sohyìn (commonly only yìn)
    • Jp: syuin
    • Vi: ấn

    N

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    namo An exclamation showing reverence; devotion. Often placed in front of the name of an object of veneration, e.g., a Buddha's name or a sutra (Nam(u) Myōhō Renge Kyō), to express devotion to it. Defined in Sino-Japanese as 帰命 kimyō: to base one's life upon, to devote (or submit) one's life to Derivatives:

    • Namo Amitabha

    • Pāli: namo
    • Sanskrit: or namas

    Derivatives:

    • Sanskrit: namas amitābha

    • 南無
      • Cn: nánmó
      • Jp: namu or nam
      • Vi: nam-mô

    Derivatives:

    • 南無阿弥陀佛
      • Cn: Nánmó Ēmítuó fó
      • Jp: Namu Amida butsu
      • Vi: Nam-mô A-di-đà Phật
    • 南無觀世音菩薩
      • Cn: Nánmó Guán Syr Yín Pū Sá
      • Jp: Namu Kanzeon Butsu
      • Vi: Nam-mô Quan Thế Âm Bồ Tát

    nekkhamma renunciation

    • Pāli:
  • Sanskrit:
  • Thai: เนกขัมมะ nekkamma
  • 出世
    • Cn:
    • Jp: syusse
    • Vi:

    Nibbana/Nirvana Extinction or extinguishing; ultimate enlightenment in the Buddhist tradition

    • from : to extinguish
    • Pāli: nibbāna
    • Sanskrit: nirvana
  • Bur: neiban/Burmese Pali: nibbana
  • Thai: นิพพาน nípphaan
  • 涅槃
    • Cn: Nièpán
    • Jp: Nehan
    • Vi: Niết-bàn

    Nikaya, lit. "volume", The Buddhist texts in Pāli

    • Pāli: nikāya
  • Sanskrit: Āgama
  • 部經
    • Cn: Bùjīng
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: Bộ kinh

    Noble Eightfold Path
    1. Right View (Pāli: ; Sanskrit: ; 正見 Cn: zhèngjiàn; Vi: chính kiến)
    2. Right Thought (Pāli: ; Sanskrit: ; 正思唯 Cn: zhèngsīwéi; Vi: chính tư duy)
      These 2 constitute the path of Wisdom (Pāli: paññā; Sanskrit: prajñā)
    3. Right Speech (Pāli: sammā-vācā; Sanskrit: samyag-vāk; 正語 Cn: zhèngyǔ; Vi: chính ngữ)
    4. Right Action (Pāli: sammā-kammanta; Sanskrit: samyak-karmānta; 正業 Cn: zhèngyè; Vi: chính nghiệp)
    5. Right Living (Pāli: sammā-ājīva; Sanskrit: samyag-ājīva; 正命 Cn: zhèngmìng; Vi: chính mệnh)
      These 3 constitute the path of Virtue (Pāli: sīla; Sanskrit: śīla)
    6. Right Effort (Pāli: sammā-vāyāma; Sanskrit: samyag-vyāyāma; 正精進 Cn: zhèngjīngjìn; Vi: chính tinh tiến)
    7. Right Mindfulness (Pāli: sammā-sati; Sanskrit: ; 正念 Cn: zhèngniàn; Vi: chính niệm)
    8. Right Concentration (Pāli: sammā-samādhi; Sanskrit: samyak-samādhi; 正定 Cn: zhèngdìng; Vi: chính định)
      The last 3 constitute the path of Concentration (Pāli, Sanskrit: samādhi)

    • Pāli:
    • Sanskrit:
    • Thai: อริยมรรค ariya-mak
    • 八正道
      • Cn: Bāzhèngdào
      • Jp: Hasshōdō
      • Vi: Bát chính đạo

    O

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    oryoki A set of bowls used in a Zen eating ceremony

    • Japanese: 応量器 ōryōki

    osho A term used to address a monk of the Zen Buddhist tradition. Originally reserved for high ranking monks, it has since been appropriated for everyday use when addressing any male member of the Zen clergy

    • Japanese: 和尚 oshō

    P

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    panca skandha The five constituent elements into which an individual is analyzed. They are:
    1. "form": Pāli, Sanskrit: rūpa; 色 Cn: ; Jp: shiki
    2. "sensation": Pāli, Sanskrit: vedanā; 受 Cn: shòu; Jp: ju
    3. "cognition": Pāli: saññā; Sanskrit: ; 想 Cn: xiàng; Jp:
    4. "mental formations": Pāli: ; Sanskrit: ; 行 Cn: xíng; Jp: gyō
    5. "consciousness": Pāli: ; Sanskrit: vijñāna; 識 Cn: shí; Jp: shiki

    • Sanskrit: pañca skandha
    • Pāli: pañca khandha

    • 五蘊, 五陰, 五薀
      • Cn: wǔyùn
      • Jp: go-on, sometimes go-un
      • Vi: ngũ uẩn

    Panchen Lama The second highest ranking lama in the Gelugpa sect of Tibetan Buddhism. after the Dalai Lama

    • Tibetan: པན་ཆེན་བླ་མ་ panchen blama
  • Sanskrit:
  • 班禪喇嘛
    • Cn: Bānchán Lǎma
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: Ban-thiền Lạt-ma

    panna, see prajna

    • Tibetan:
  • Sanskrit:
  • 智慧 or 知恵 or 般若
    • Cn:
    • Jp: chie,hannya
    • Vi:

    paramartha Absolute, as opposed to merely conventional, truth or reality; see also samvrti

    • Sanskrit: paramārtha
  • Thai: ปรมัตถ์ paramutt
  • paramita, lit. "reaching the other shore," usually rendered in English as "perfection." The Mahayana practices for obtaining enlightenment; giving, ethics, patience, effort, concentration and wisdom

    • Pāli: parami
    • Sanskrit: pāramitā
  • Thai: บารมี baramee
  • 波羅蜜 or 波羅蜜多
    • Cn: bōluómì or bōluómìduō
    • Jp: haramitsu or haramita
    • Vi: ba-la-mật or ba-la-mật-đa

    parinibbana/parinirvana The final nibbana/nirvana

  • Thai: ปรินิพพาน pari-nippaan
  • 般涅槃
    • Cn: bōnièpán
    • Jp: hatsunehan
    • Vi: bát-niết-bàn

    Perfection of Wisdom

  • Sanskrit: prajñāpāramitā
  • Pāli: paññāparami
  • 般若波羅蜜 or 般若波羅蜜多
    • Cn: bōrě-bōluómì or bōrě-bōluómìduō
    • Jp: hannya-haramitsu or hannya-haramita
    • Vi: bát-nhã-ba-la-mật or bát-nhã-ba-la-mật-đa

    Pointing-out instruction The direct introduction to the nature of mind in the lineages of Essence Mahamudra and Dzogchen. A root guru is the master who gives the 'pointing-out instruction' so that the disciple recognizes the nature of mind

    • Tibetan: ངོ་སྤྲོད་ ngo sprod

    prajna/panna "wisdom", "insight"

    • Pāli: paññā
    • Sanskrit: prajñā
  • Bur: pin nya
  • Thai: ปัญญา pun-ya
  • 般若
    • Cn: bōrě or bānruò
    • Jp: hannya
    • Vi: bát-nhã

    pratitya-samutpada "Dependent origination," the view that no phenomenon exists (or comes about) without depending on other phenomena or conditions around it. In English also called "conditioned genesis," "dependent co-arising," "interdependent arising," etc. A famous application of dependent origination is the Twelve Nidana, or 12 inter-dependences (Sanskrit: ; 十二因緣, 十二因縁 Cn: shíàr yīnyuán; Jp: jūni innen; Vi: thập nhị nhân duyên), which are:

    1. Ignorance (Pāli: avijjā; Sanskrit: avidyā; 無明 Cn: wúmíng; Jp: mumyō; Vi: vô minh)
    2. Ignorance creates Mental Formation (Pāli: ; Sanskrit: ; 行 Cn: xíng; Jp: gyō; Vi: hành)
    3. Mental Formation creates Consciousness (Pāli: ; Sanskrit: vijñāna; 識 Cn: shí; Jp: shiki; Vi: thức)
    4. Consciousness creates Name & Form (Pāli, Sanskrit: nāmarūpa; 名色 Cn: míngsè; Jp: myōshiki; Vi: danh sắc)
    5. Name & Form create Sense Gates (Pāli: ; Sanskrit: ; 六入 or 六処 Cn: liùrù; Jp: rokunyū or rokusho; Vi: lục căn)
    6. Sense Gates create Contact (Pāli: phassa; Sanskrit: sparśa; 觸, 触 Cn: chù; Jp: soku; Vi: xúc)
    7. Contact creates Feeling (Pāli, Sanskrit: vedanā; 受 Cn: shòu; Jp: ju; Vi: thụ)
    8. Feeling creates Craving (Pāli: ; Sanskrit: ; 愛 Cn: ài; Jp: ai; Vi: ái)
    9. Craving creates Clinging (Pāli, Sanskrit: upādāna; 取 Cn: ; Jp: shu; Vi: thủ)
    10. Clinging creates Becoming (Pāli, Sanskrit: bhava; 有 Cn: yǒu; Jp: u; Vi: hữu)
    11. Becoming creates Birth (Pāli, Sanskrit: jāti; 生 Cn: shēng; Jp: shō; Vi: sinh)
    12. Birth leads to Aging & Death (Pāli, Sanskrit: ; 老死 Cn: láosǐ; Jp: rōshi; Vi: lão tử)
  • Pāli:
  • Sanskrit: pratitya-samutpāda
  • Tib: རྟེན་ཅིང་འབྲེལ་བར་འབྱུང་བ་ rten cing `brel bar `byung ba
  • 緣起 (thought to be an abbreviation for 因), 縁起
    • Cn: yuánqǐ
    • Jp: engi
    • Vi: duyên khởi
  • Also called 因緣, 因縁
    • Cn: yīnyuán
    • Jp: innen
    • Vi: nhân duyên

    Pratyekabuddha/Paccekabuddha, lit. "a buddha by his own", A buddha who reaches enlightenment on his own

    • Pāli: paccekabuddha
    • Sanskrit: pratyekabuddha
  • 辟支佛
    • Cn: Bìzhī Fó
    • Jp: Hyakushibutsu
    • Vi: Bích-chi Phật

    Pure Land Buddhism A large branch of Mahayana, dominantly in East Asia. The goal of Pure Land is to be reborn in the Western sukhavati of Amitabha

    • 净土宗
      • Cn: Jìngtǔ-zōng
      • Jp: Jōdo-shū
      • Ko: Jeongtojong
      • Vi: Tịnh độ tông

    purisa The practicing Buddhist community as a whole; sangha and laity

    R

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    rebirth The process of continuity of life after death

    • Pāli: punabbhava
    • Sanskrit: punarbhava

    refuge Usually in the form of "take refuge in the Three Jewels"

    • Pāli:
    • Sanskrit:
    • Tib: skyabs
    • Thai: สรณะ sorana
    • 歸依
      • Cn: guīyī
      • Jp: kie
      • Vi: quy y

    rinpoche, lit. "precious one", An honorific title for a respected Tibetan lama, such as a tulku

    • Tibetan: རིན་པོ་ཆེ་
  • 仁波切
    • Cn: rénbōqiē
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: ??

    Rinzai Zen sect emphasizing sudden enlightenment and koan study; named for master Linji

    • Japanese: 臨済宗 Rinzai-shū
  • 臨濟宗
    • Cn: Línjì-zōng
    • Vi: Lâm Tế tông

    Rohatsu A day traditionally honored as the day of the Buddha's enlightenment. While deep in meditation under a bodhi tree, he attained enlightenment upon seeing the morning star just at dawn; celebrated on the 8th day either of December or of the 12th month of the lunar calendar

    • Japanese: 臘八 Rōhatsu or Rohachi

    roshi, lit. "Master", An honorific given to Zen teachers that mastered koan.

    • Japanese 老師 rōshi
  • 老師
    • Cn: lǎo shī (lit., old master)
    • Vi: lão sư

    S

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    sacca truthfulness

    • Sanskrit:

    • Thai: สัจจะ sadja
      • Cn:
      • Jp: shin
      • Vi:

    samanera/shramanera A male novice monk, who, after a year or until the ripe age of 20, will be considered for the higher Bhikkhu ordination

    • Sanskrit:

    • Thai: สามเณร sama-naen
    • 沙彌
      • Cn: shāmí
      • Jp: shami
      • Vi: ??

    samatha Mental stabilization; tranquility meditation. Distinguished from vipassana meditation

    • Pāli: samatha
    • Sanskrit: śamatha
  • Thai: สมถะ samatha
  • 舍摩他
    • Cn: shěmótā
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: ??

    samsara The cycle of birth and rebirth; the world as commonly experienced

    • Pāli, Sanskrit:
  • Thai: สังสารวัฏ sung-sara-wat
  • 輪迴, 輪廻
    • Cn: lúnhúi
    • Jp: rinne
    • Vi: luân hồi

    samu Work, conceived as a part of Zen training.

    • Japanese: 作務 samu
  • 作務
    • Cn: zuòwù
    • Vi: ??

    samvrti Conventional, as opposed to absolute, truth or reality; see also paramartha

    • Sanskrit:
  • Thai: สมมุติ sommoot
  • sangha The community of Buddhist monks and nuns. Teachers and practitioners.

    • Sanskrit:
  • Bur: than ga
  • Thai: สงฆ์ song
  • 僧團
    • Cn: sēng tuan
    • Jp: , sōryō
    • Vi: tăng già

    Sanlun Buddhist philosophical school based on the Madhyamaka school

    • Chinese: 三論 sānlùn
  • 三論宗
    • Cn: Sānlùnzōng
    • Jp: Sanron-shū
    • Vi: Tam luận tông

    sanzen A formal interview with a teacher in many traditions of Zen. Similar to dokusan

    • Japanese

    satori Awakening; understanding. A Japanese term for enlightenment

    • Japanese: 悟り satori
    • Cn:
    • Vi: ngộ

    sayadaw Burmese meditation master
    seichu In the Zen Buddhist calendar, a period of intensive, formal monastic training. It is typically characterized by week-long Daisesshins and periodic sanzen

    • Japanese: 制中 seichu

    sensei Teacher; Zen teacher

    • Japanese: 先生 sensei

    sesshin A Zen retreat where practitioners meditate, eat and work together for several days

    • Japanese: 接心, 摂心
  • 接心
    • Cn: jiēxīn
    • Vi: tiếp tâm

    shikantaza Soto Zen. "Only concentrated on doing sitting" is the main meditation-method of Soto school of Japanese Zen Buddhism

    • Japanese: 只管打座

    shunyata Emptiness; see also Nagarjuna

    • Pāli: suññatā
    • Sanskrit: śūnyatā
    • Cn: kōng
    • Jp:
    • Vi: tính Không

    sila "morals", "morality", "ethics": precepts

    • Pāli: sīla
    • Sanskrit: śīla
  • Bur: thi la
  • Thai: ศีล seen
  • 尸羅,戒
    • Cn: jiè
    • Jp: kai
    • Vi: giới

    Soto Sect of Zen emphasizing shikantaza as the primary mode of practice; see also Dogen

    • Japanese: 曹洞宗 Sōtō-shū
  • 曹洞宗
    • Cn: Cáodòng-zōng
    • Vi: Tào Ðộng tông

    store consciousness The base consciousness (alayavijnana) taught in Yogacara Buddhism

    • Pāli, Sanskrit: ālayavijñāna
  • 阿頼耶識
    • Cn: āyēshí
    • Jp: arayashiki
    • Vi: a-lại-da thức

    sutra Scripture; originally referred to short aphoristic sayings and collections thereof

    • from √siv: to sew
    • Sanskrit: sutra
    • Pāli: sutta
  • Thai: สูตร soothe
  • 經, 経
    • Cn: jīng
    • Jp: kyō
    • Vi: kinh

    Sutra Pitaka The second basket of the Tripitaka canon, the collection of all Buddha's teachings

    • Pāli:
    • Sanskrit:
  • 經藏, 経蔵
    • Cn: jīngcáng
    • Jp: kyōzō
    • Vi: Kinh tạng

    T

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    tangaryō A period of waiting for admission into a Zen monastery at the gate, lasting anywhere from one day to several weeks—depending on the quality of one's sitting. Refers to the room traveling monks stay in when visiting, or await admittance into the sōdō.

    • Japanese: 旦過寮 

    *
    tanha Craving or desire

    • Pāli:
    • Sanskrit:

    • Thai: ตัณหา tunha
      • Cn: ài
      • Jp: ai
      • Vi: ái

    tanto In Zen, one of the main leaders of a sesshin. In a Zen temple, the Tanto is the officer in charge of practice standards, i.e. teaching monks and lay practitioners how to sit, walk, bow, and chant in formal situations

    • Japanese:単頭

    tantra Esoteric religious practices, including yoga, mantra...

    • Sanskrit: tantra
  • 續部,怛特羅
    • Cn: dátèluó
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: đát-đặc-la

    Tathagata The "Thus-Come One" or "Thus-Gone One"; one of the Buddha's ten epithets

    • Sanskrit: tathāgata
  • Thai: ตถาคต tatha-kohd
  • 如来
    • Cn: rúlái
    • Jp: nyorai
    • Vi: như lai

    tathagatagarbha Buddha-nature or the seed of enlightenment

    • Sanskrit: tathāgatagarbha
  • 佛性, 仏性
    • Cn: fóxìng
    • Jp: busshō
  • Also 覚性
    • Cn: juéxìng
    • Jp: kakushō
    • Vi: giác tính
  • Also 如来藏, 如来蔵
    • Cn: rúláizàng
    • Jp: nyuoraizō
    • Vi: như lai tạng

    teisho A presentation by a Zen master during a sesshin. Rather than an explanation or exposition in the traditional sense, it is intended as a demonstration of Zen realisation

    • Japanese: 提唱 teishō

    tenzo In Zen, the head cook for a sesshin. In Zen temples, the officer in charge of the kitchen

    • Japanese: 典座 tenzo
  • 典座
    • Cn: diǎnzuò
    • Vi: điển toạ

    Theravada, lit. "words of the elders", The most orthodox branch of Buddhism

    • Pāli: theravāda
    • Sanskrit: sthaviravāda
  • Thai: เถรวาท tera-waad
  • 上座部
    • Cn: shàngzuòbù
    • Jp: jōzabu
    • Vi: Thượng toạ bộ

    Three Jewels Three things that Buddhists take refuge in: the Buddha, his teachings (Dharma) and the community of realized practitioners (Sangha), and in return look toward for guidance (see also Refuge (Buddhism))

    • Pāli: tiratana
    • Sanskrit: triratna
    • Thai: ไตรรัตน์ trai-rut
    • 三寶
      • Cn: sānbăo
      • Jp: sanbō
      • Vi: tam bảo

    Three periods
    • Three divisions of the time following the historical Buddha's passing: the Former (or Early) Day of the Law (正法 Cn: zhèngfǎ; Jp: shōbō), the first thousand years; the Middle Day of the Law (像法 Cn: xiàngfǎ; Jp: zōhō), the second thousand years; and the Latter Day of the Law (末法 Cn: mòfǎ; Jp: mappō), which is to last for 10,000 years.
    • The three periods are significant to Mahayana adherents, particularly those who hold the Lotus Sutra in high regard; e.g., Tiantai (Tendai) and Nichiren Buddhists, who believe that different Buddhist teachings are valid (i.e., able to lead practitioners to enlightenment) in each period due to the different capacity to accept a teaching (機根 Cn: jīgēn; Jp: kikon) of the people born in each respective period.
    • The three periods are further divided into five five-hundred year periods (五五百歳 Cn: wǔ wǔbǎi suì; Jp: go no gohyaku sai), the fifth and last of which was prophecized to be when the Buddhism of Sakyamuni would lose all power of salvation and a new Buddha would appear to save the people. This time period would be characterized by unrest, strife, famine, and other, natural disasters.
    • The three periods and the five five-hundred year periods are described in the Sutra of the Great Assembly (大集経 Cn: dàjí jīng; Jp: Daishutu-kyō, Daijuku-kyō, Daijikkyō, or Daishukkyō). Descriptions of the three periods also appear in other sutras, some of which ascribe different lengths of time to them (although all agree that Mappō will last for 10,000 years).

    • 三時
      • Cn: Sānshí
      • Jp: Sanji
      • Vi: Tam thời

    Three Poisons or Three Fires The three primary causes of unskillful action or creation of "negative" karma:
    1. Greed or selfish desire (Pāli: ; Sanskrit: ; Tib.: འདོད་ཆགས་ 'dod chags; 貪 Cn: tān; Jp: ton; Vi: ái)
    2. Hatred or anger (Sanskrit: ; Tib.: ཞེ་སྡང་ zhe sdang; 瞋 Cn: chēn; Jp: jin; Vi: sân)
    3. Ignorance or delusion (Pāli: avijjā; Sanskrit: avidyā; Tib.: གཏི་མུག་ gti mug; 癡 Cn: chī; Jp: chi; Vi: vô minh)
  • Pāli: Kilesa (Defilements)
  • Sanskrit: kleśa
  • Tib: düsum ()
  • 三毒
    • Cn: Sāndú
    • Jp: Sandoku
    • Vi: Tam độc

    Tiantai/Tendai A Mahayana school of China that teaches the supremacy of the Lotus Sutra

    • Chinese: 天台 tiāntái
  • 天台宗
    • Cn: tiāntái zōng
    • Jp: tendai-shū
    • Vi: Thiên Thai tông

    trailõkya The 3 "regions" of the world:
    1. Kamaloka or Kamadhatu: world of desires (Sanskrit, Pāli: kāmaloka, kāmadhātu; Tibetan: འདོད་ཁམས་ `dod khams; 欲界 Cn: yùjiè, Vi: dục giới)
    2. Rupaloka or Rupadhatu: world of form (Sanskrit: rūpaloka, rūpadhātu; Tibetan: གཟུགས་ཁམས་ gzugs khams; 色界 Cn: sèjiè; Vi: sắc giới)
    3. Arupaloka or Arupadhatu: world without form or desire (Sanskrit: arūpaloka, arūpadhātu; Tibetan: གཟུགས་མེད་ཁམས་ gzugs med khams; 無色界 Cn: wú sèjiè, Vi: vô sắc giới)
  • Sanskrit: triloka
  • Pāli: tisso dhātuyo
  • Tibetan: ཁམས་གསུམ་ khams gsum
  • 三界
    • Cn: sānjiè
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: tam giới

    trikaya The 3 "bodies" of Buddha:
    • Dharma-kaya (Sanskrit: dharmakāya; 法身 Cn: fǎshēn; Jp: hosshin; Vi: pháp thân)
    • Sambhoga-kaya (Sanskrit: ; 報身 Cn: bàoshēn; Jp: hōshin; Vi: báo thân)
    • Nirmana-kaya (Sanskrit: ; 應身,化身,応身 Cn: yìngshēn; Jp: ōjin; Vi: ứng thân)
  • Sanskrit: trikāya
  • 三身
    • Cn: sānshēn
    • Jp: sanjin
    • Vi: tam thân

    Tripitaka The "Three Baskets"; canon containing the sacred texts for Buddhism (Pāli)
    • Vinaya Pitaka (Pāli, Sanskrit: ; Tib: འདུལ་བའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ `dul ba`i sde snod; 律藏, 律蔵 Cn: lǜzàng; Jp: Ritsuzō; Vi: Luật tạng)
    • Sutra Pitaka (Pāli: ; Sanskrit: ; Tib: མདོ་སྡེའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ mdo sde`i sde snod; 經藏, 経蔵 Cn: jīngzàng; Jp: Kyōzō; Vi: Kinh tạng)
    • Abhidhamma Pitaka (Pāli: ; Sanskrit: ; Tib: མངོན་པའི་སྡེ་སྣོད་ mngon pa`i sde snod; 論藏, 論蔵 Cn: lùnzàng; Jp: Ronzō; Vi: Luận tạng)
  • Pāli:
  • Sanskrit:
  • Burmese: Tipitaka (IPA: tḭpḭtəka̰)
  • Thai: ไตรปิฎก Traipidok
  • 三藏, 三蔵
    • Cn: Sānzàng
    • Jp: Sanzō
    • Ko: Samjang
    • Vi: Tam tạng

    Triratna/Tiratana, see Three Jewels above

    • Pāli: tiratana
    • Sanskrit: triratna

    trsna, see tanha above
    tulku A re-incarnated Tibetan teacher

    • Tibetan: སྤྲུལ་སྐུ་ tulku
  • 再來人 (轉世再來的藏系師長)
    • Jp: keshin
    • Vi: hoá thân

    U

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    upadana Clinging; the 9th link of Pratitya-Samutpada; the Ninth Twelve Nidanas

    • Pāli, Sanskrit: upādāna

    • Thai: อุปาทาน u-pa-taan
    • 取(十二因緣第九支)
      • Cn:
      • Jp: shu
      • Vi: thủ

    upasaka A lay follower of Buddhism

    • Sanskrit: upāsaka
  • Thai: อุบาสก u-ba-sok
  • 近事男,優婆塞
    • Cn: jìnshìnán
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: cận sự nam

    upasika A female lay follower

    • from upasaka above
    • Sanskrit: upāsika
  • Thai: อุบาสิกา u-ba-sika
  • 近事女,優婆夷
    • Cn: jìnshìnǚ
    • Jp: ??
    • Vi: cận sự nữ

    upaya Expedient though not necessarily ultimately true. Originally used as a polemical device against other schools - calling them "merely" expedient, lacking in ultimate truth, later used against ones own school to prevent students form forming attachments to doctrines In Mahayana, exemplified by the Lotus Sutra, upaya are the useful means that Buddhas (and Buddhist teachers) use to free beings into enlightenment

    • Sanskrit: upāya
  • 方便
    • Cn: fāngbiàn
    • Jp: hōben
    • Vi: phương tiện

    upekkha equanimity

    • Sanskrit:
  • Thai: อุเบกขา u-bek-kha
  • 镇定,沉着
  • urna A concave circular dot on the forehead between the eyebrows

    • Sanskrit: urna

    V

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    Vajrayana, lit. "diamond vehicle", The third major branch, alongside Hinayana and Mahayana

    • Sanskrit: vajrayāna

    • Thai: วชิรญาณ wachira-yaan
    • 金剛乘
      • Cn: Jīngāng shèng
      • Jp: ??
      • Vi: Kim cương thừa

    Vinaya Pitaka, lit. "discipline basket", The first basket of the Tripitaka canon, which deals with the rules of monastic life

    • Pāli, Sanskrit:
  • Thai: วินัย wi-nai
  • 律藏
    • Cn: Lǜzàng
    • Jp: Ritsuzō
    • Vi: Luật tạng

    vipassana Usually translated as "Insight" meditation, most associated with the Theravada tradition, but present throughout Buddhism as an evolved tradition. Distinguished from samatha meditation

    • from : to see apart
    • Pāli: vipassanā
    • Sanskrit: vipaśyanā, vidarśanā
  • Thai: วิปัสสนา wipadsana
  • 觀,観
    • Cn: guān
    • Jp: kan
    • Vi: quán

    viriya energy

    • from
    • Pāli:
    • Sanskrit: ,
  • 能量
  • Thai: วิริยะ wiriya
    • Cn: néngliàng
    • Jp:
    • Vi:

    Z

    Definition Etymology In other languages
    zazen Sitting meditation as practiced in the Zen School of Buddhism

    • Japanese: 坐禅

    • 坐禪
      • Cn: zuòchán
      • Vi: toạ thiền

    Zen School A Japanese branch of Mahayana that emphasizes meditation in the pursuing of enlightenment

    • Japanese: 禅宗 Zen-shu
  • 禪宗
    • Cn: Chánzōng
    • Vi: Thiền tông

    zendo In Zen, a hall where Zen (usually meaning zazen) is practiced (see Dojo)

    • Japanese: 禅堂
  • 禪堂
    • Cn: chántáng
    • Vi: thiền đường

    See also

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