Brunswick

Brunswick

[bruhnz-wik]
Brunswick, Ger. Braunschweig, former state, central Germany, surrounded by the former Prussian provinces of Saxony, Hanover, and Westphalia. The region of Braunschweig is situated on the North German plain and in the northern foothills of the Harz Mts. The land is drained by the Leine and Oker rivers. The duchy of Braunschweig emerged (13th cent.) from the remnants of the domains of Henry the Lion, the duke of Saxony, to whom Emperor Frederick I had left only the territories of Braunschweig and Lüneburg (roughly modern Braunschweig and Hanover). Because the Guelphic house divided frequently, it remained somewhat separated from the German political scene. The duchy was incorporated into the kingdom of Westphalia in 1807 and recovered by Duke Frederick William (1771-1815) in 1813. The line became extinct in 1884, and Braunschweig was ruled by regents until 1913, when Ernest Augustus of Cumberland, grandson of King George V of Hanover, was made duke. A member of the North German Confederation from 1866 and of the German Empire from 1871, Braunschweig became a republic in 1918 and then joined the Weimar Republic. In 1946 it was included (except for several small territories placed in East Germany) in the West German state of Lower Saxony. Braunschweig (the former capital), Goslar, Helmstedt, and Wolfenbüttel were the chief towns.
Brunswick or Braunschweig, city (1994 pop. 256,270), Lower Saxony, central Germany, on the Oker River. It is an industrial and commercial center; its major industry is metalworking. Other manufactures include pianos, electronic equipment, food products, and printed materials. Reputedly founded c.861 and chartered in the 12th cent., Braunschweig became (13th cent.) a prominent member of the Hanseatic League. In 1753 the residence of the dukes of Braunschweig was shifted there from Wolfenbüttel. In 1830 the duke was deposed and the city became a self-governing municipality. The city has a 12th-century Romanesque cathedral, which contains the tombs of Henry the Lion (d. 1195) and Emperor Otto IV (d. 1218); several Gothic churches; and a famous fountain representing Till Eulenspiegel, the legendary prankster. The city is the site of a technical university (the oldest in Germany) and an art museum. The philosopher and dramatist Gotthold Lessing (1729-81) is buried in Brunswick.
Brunswick. 1 City (1990 pop. 16,433), seat of Glynn co., SE Ga., on St. Simon's Sound near the Atlantic coast; laid out 1771-72, inc. 1856. It is a port of entry with numerous container docks. Its sheltered harbor is used by coastal freighters and fishing and shrimping fleets, and there is an ocean terminal for shipping radioactive waste. The gateway to offshore resort islands (see Sea Islands), Brunswick has a large seafood-processing industry and manufactures pulp and paper. 2 Town (1990 pop. 20,906), Cumberland co., S Maine, on the Androscoggin River and Casco Bay, in a resort area; settled as a trading post in 1628, inc. 1738. It is a growing commercial center for S Maine; products include shoes and clothing. Bowdoin College (1794) and a U.S. naval air station are in Brunswick. Nathaniel Hawthorne and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow were students at Bowdoin College during the 1820s. Longfellow later taught there; a house dating from 1808 was once his home. Hawthorne's first novel, Fanshawe (1828) was printed in the town. In 1851, Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote Uncle Tom's Cabin there; her house is a national landmark. After the Civil War, textiles became Brunswick's chief industry, but the mill closed in 1955. 3 City (1990 pop. 28,230), Medina co., N Ohio, a suburb of Cleveland; settled 1815 as part of the Connecticut Western Reserve, inc. 1960. A small farm community for many years, its population burgeoned after World War II. It has light industrial plants.

Province (pop., 2006: 729,997), one of the three Maritime Provinces, eastern Canada. Bordered by the U.S. and the Canadian province of Quebec, it lies on the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Northumberland Strait (east) and the Bay of Fundy (south); it is connected with Nova Scotia by the Chignecto Isthmus. Its capital, Fredericton, is home to the University of New Brunswick (founded 1785). New Brunswick was part of the original Acadia; it was colonized by the French in the 18th century, then captured by the British, who expelled the French-speaking Acadians in 1755 and incorporated the area into Nova Scotia. After the American Revolution, some 14,000 loyalists from the U.S. settled there. As a result of this large influx, it was separated from Nova Scotia, and the province of New Brunswick was established in 1784. In 1867 it became an original member of the Dominion of Canada. Forests cover about four-fifths of the province, whose major cities include Saint John and Moncton. Forestry, mining, and commercial fishing are important industries.

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English Brunswick

Administrative district, Lower Saxony, Germany. A possession of the Welf family, the duchy of Braunschweig (Brunswick-Lüneberg) was created by Emperor Frederick II in 1235 and included the lands surrounding the town of Braunschweig. The electorate of Hanover was included in 1692; its rulers established the English royal house of Hanover. The duchy became part of the German Empire in 1871 and a German state after 1919. After World War II the region was incorporated into the state of Lower Saxony. The city of Braunschweig (Brunswick; pop., 2003 est.: 245,076) is today an important industrial centre.

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