Province (pop., 2006: 729,997), one of the three Maritime Provinces, eastern Canada. Bordered by the U.S. and the Canadian province of Quebec, it lies on the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Northumberland Strait (east) and the Bay of Fundy (south); it is connected with Nova Scotia by the Chignecto Isthmus. Its capital, Fredericton, is home to the University of New Brunswick (founded 1785). New Brunswick was part of the original Acadia; it was colonized by the French in the 18th century, then captured by the British, who expelled the French-speaking Acadians in 1755 and incorporated the area into Nova Scotia. After the American Revolution, some 14,000 loyalists from the U.S. settled there. As a result of this large influx, it was separated from Nova Scotia, and the province of New Brunswick was established in 1784. In 1867 it became an original member of the Dominion of Canada. Forests cover about four-fifths of the province, whose major cities include Saint John and Moncton. Forestry, mining, and commercial fishing are important industries.
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Administrative district, Lower Saxony, Germany. A possession of the Welf family, the duchy of Braunschweig (Brunswick-Lüneberg) was created by Emperor Frederick II in 1235 and included the lands surrounding the town of Braunschweig. The electorate of Hanover was included in 1692; its rulers established the English royal house of Hanover. The duchy became part of the German Empire in 1871 and a German state after 1919. After World War II the region was incorporated into the state of Lower Saxony. The city of Braunschweig (Brunswick; pop., 2003 est.: 245,076) is today an important industrial centre.
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