Bradford

Bradford

[brad-ferd]
Bradford, Andrew, 1686-1742, colonial printer of Pennsylvania, b. Philadelphia; son of William Bradford (1663-1752). Andrew learned the trade in his father's shop in New York City and in 1712 went to Philadelphia, where he established his own press and became a bookseller. In 1719 he began publication of the American Weekly Mercury, the first newspaper in Pennsylvania and the third in the colonies. He was imprisoned for publishing political criticism but defended his own case for freedom of the press, establishing a precedent for the defense of John Peter Zenger. In 1741 he began publication of the short-lived (three issues) American Magazine, the first colonial magazine.
Bradford, Augustus Williamson, 1806-81, Civil War governor of Maryland (1862-66), b. Bel Air, Md. As a delegate to the 1861 peace conference in Washington, he strongly pleaded for the Union and became the Union party candidate for governor of Maryland. Elected by a large majority, partially as a result of intimidation at the polls by Union soldiers, Bradford served from 1862 to 1866, assuring federal control of the state. In 1862 and 1863 he appealed for volunteers in a state-equipped local militia that helped turn back Confederate invasions of state territory. Denying that the federal government had the power to free the slaves in Maryland, he called a state convention in 1864 that framed a new constitution abolishing slavery.

See W. B. Hesseltine, Lincoln and the War Governors (1948).

Bradford, Gamaliel, 1863-1932, American biographer, b. Boston. After many unsuccessful years as a writer, he achieved literary fame as a biographer with his Lee, the American (1912). He perfected the method of writing "psychographs," or short portraits of historical figures. His works in this area include Confederate Portraits (1914), Union Portraits (1916), and Damaged Souls (1923).

See his autobiographical Life and I (1928) and his journal (1933) and letters (1934), both edited by V. W. Brooks.

Bradford, John, 1749-1830, pioneer printer of Kentucky, b. Virginia. He moved to Kentucky c.1779. Although he had no previous practical experience, he issued at Lexington on Aug. 11, 1787, the first number of the Kentucky Gazette, the first newspaper in the territory, and succeeded, despite many handicaps, in making it a creditable sheet. In 1788 he printed the Kentucke Almanac, the first pamphlet in the W United States. In 1792, Bradford published the acts of the initial session of the Kentucky legislature, the first book to be published in Kentucky. He aided in founding Transylvania Univ. and was the first chairman of the board (1799-1811). In 1826 he began to publish in the Gazette his "Notes of Kentucky," a valuable historical source, which continued until 1829.
Bradford, William, 1590-1657, governor of Plymouth Colony, b. Austerfield, Yorkshire, England. As a young man he joined the separatist congregation at Scrooby and in 1609 emigrated with others to Holland, where, at Leiden, he acquired a wide acquaintance with theological literature. Bradford came to New England on the Mayflower in 1620 and in 1621, on the death of John Carver, was chosen leader of the Pilgrims. He remained governor for most of his life, being reelected 30 times; during the five years in which he chose not to serve, he was elected assistant. Bradford, though firm, used his large powers with discretion, and there were few complaints about his leadership. He maintained friendly relations with the Native Americans and struggled hard to establish fishing, trade, and agriculture. He stressed the obligations of the colonists to their London backers and was one of the eight colonial "undertakers" who in 1627 assumed Plymouth Colony's debt to the merchants adventurers. Given a monopoly of fishing and trading privileges, they finally discharged the debt in 1648. Bradford was more tolerant of other religious beliefs than were the Puritan leaders of Boston (although he was by no means consistent in this respect), and he was largely responsible for keeping Plymouth independent of the Massachusetts Bay colony. His famous History of Plimoth Plantation, not published in full until 1856, forms the basis for all accounts of the Plymouth Colony. The editions of W. T. Davis (1908), W. C. Ford (1912), and Samuel Eliot Morison (1952) are the best.

See also G. F. Willison, Saints and Strangers (1945); biography by B. Smith (1951).

Bradford, William, 1663-1752, British pioneer printer in the American colonies. Born in Leicestershire, England, he served an apprenticeship under a London printer before emigrating in 1685 to Philadelphia, where he set up the first press. He added a bookstore in 1688 and was in 1690 one of the founders of the first paper mill in the colonies. He was arrested for printing a pamphlet critical of the Quaker government; his trial, at which no verdict was reached, was probably the first in the United States involving freedom of the press. Bradford moved (c.1693) to New York City where he became royal printer and issued some 400 items in the next 50 years, including the first American Book of Common Prayer (1710), some of the earliest of American almanacs and many pamphlets and political writings. In 1725 he began publication of the royalist New York Gazette, the first New York newspaper. Many of his descendants, including Andrew Bradford and William Bradford, became printers.
Bradford, William, 1722-91, American Revolutionary printer and patriot; grandson of William Bradford (1663-1752). He learned printing from his uncle, Andrew Bradford, in Philadelphia, and in 1742 he set up his own shop. He established the successful anti-British Weekly Advertiser, which competed for many years with Benjamin Franklin's newspaper, the Pennsylvania Gazette. He also printed a number of books and published (1757-58) the American Magazine and Monthly Chronicle. In 1754 he established the London Coffee House in Philadelphia; this became the seat of the merchants' exchange. Bradford opposed the Stamp Act and took an active part in opposition to British measures, becoming a leader of the Sons of Liberty. He advocated and became official printer to the First Continental Congress. Sacrificing his business, he became a major in the Continental Army and took part in the campaign in New Jersey. At Princeton he was badly wounded and his health shattered. His son, Thomas Bradford (1745-1838), carried on the business and published the Merchants' Daily Advertiser.

See J. W. Wallace, An Old Philadelphian (1884).

Bradford, city (1991 pop. 293,336) and metropolitan district, N central England, on a small tributary of the Aire River. It is a center of the worsted industry, which dates from the Middle Ages. Bradford has an important wool exchange, along with the making of other fabrics (including synthetics). Electroplating, electrical engineering, and the manufacture of machinery and automobiles are also important. Stone quarries are nearby. The city of Bradford is home to a large number of Britain's Pakistani population. District landmarks include the memorial hall, dedicated to Edmund Cartwright, inventor of the power loom; St. Peter's Church (1458), now the cathedral of the diocese of Bradford; and the Conditioning House, a unique textile-testing establishment. The Univ. of Bradford, Bradford Technical College, Bradford Regional College of Art, and Margaret McMillan Memorial College of Education are there.
Bradford, city (1990 pop. 9,625), McKean co., NW Pa., in the Alleghenies, near the N.Y. line; settled c.1823, inc. as a city 1879. The growth of the city was initiated by the discovery of oil (c.1871), but oil-related industries have been eclipsed by diverse manufacturing, including cigarette lighters, machinery, and lumber products. A campus of the Univ. of Pittsburgh is in the city. Nearby are Allegheny National Forest (with its dam and reservoir) and Allegany State Park (N.Y.); the area is popular for hunting and fishing.

(born Feb. 13, 1910, London, Eng.—died Aug. 12, 1989, Palo Alto, Calif., U.S.) U.S. engineer and teacher. He received a Ph.D. from Harvard University. He joined Bell Labs in 1936, where he began experiments that led to the development of the transistor. During World War II he was director of research for the U.S. Navy's Antisubmarine Warfare Operations Research Group; later (1954–55) he was deputy director of the Defense Department's Weapons Systems Evaluation Group. He established the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory at Beckman Instruments in 1955. In 1956 he shared a Nobel Prize with John Bardeen and Walter H. Brattain for their work at Bell Labs on the transistor. He taught at Stanford University (1958–74). From the late 1960s he earned notoriety for his outspoken and critical views on the intellectual capacity of blacks.

Learn more about Shockley, William B(radford) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 1590, Austerfield, Yorkshire, Eng.—died May 9, 1657, Plymouth, Mass.) Governor of the Plymouth Colony in America for 30 years. A member of the Separatist movement within Puritanism, in 1609 he left England and went to Holland seeking religious freedom. Finding a lack of economic opportunity there, in 1620 he helped organize an expedition of about 100 Pilgrims to the New World. He helped draft the Mayflower Compact aboard the group's ship, and he served as governor of the Plymouth Colony for all but five years from 1621 to 1656. He helped establish and foster the principles of self-government and religious freedom that characterized later American colonial government. His descriptive journal provides a unique source of information on both the voyage of the Mayflower and the challenges faced by the settlers.

Learn more about Bradford, William with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 19, 1871, Prairie du Chien, Wis., U.S.—died Oct. 1, 1945, Franklin, N.H.) U.S. neurologist and physiologist. He was the first to use X rays in physiological studies. He also investigated hemorrhagic and traumatic shock during World War I and worked on methods of blood storage. He researched the emergency functions of the sympathetic nervous system and homeostasis and sympathin, an epinephrine-like substance released by certain neurons. With Philip Bard he developed the Cannon-Bard theory, which proposed that emotional and physiological responses to external situations arise simultaneously and that both prepare the body to deal with the situation.

Learn more about Cannon, Walter B(radford) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 11, 1867, Chichester, Sussex, Eng.—died Aug. 3, 1927, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.) British-U.S. psychologist. Trained in Leipzig under Wilhelm Wundt, he later taught at Cornell University (1892–1927). He helped establish experimental psychology in the U.S., and he also became the foremost proponent of structural psychology, a field concerned with the components and arrangement of mental states and processes. His principal work is Experimental Psychology (1901–05).

Learn more about Titchener, Edward Bradford with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Feb. 13, 1910, London, Eng.—died Aug. 12, 1989, Palo Alto, Calif., U.S.) U.S. engineer and teacher. He received a Ph.D. from Harvard University. He joined Bell Labs in 1936, where he began experiments that led to the development of the transistor. During World War II he was director of research for the U.S. Navy's Antisubmarine Warfare Operations Research Group; later (1954–55) he was deputy director of the Defense Department's Weapons Systems Evaluation Group. He established the Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory at Beckman Instruments in 1955. In 1956 he shared a Nobel Prize with John Bardeen and Walter H. Brattain for their work at Bell Labs on the transistor. He taught at Stanford University (1958–74). From the late 1960s he earned notoriety for his outspoken and critical views on the intellectual capacity of blacks.

Learn more about Shockley, William B(radford) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 11, 1867, Chichester, Sussex, Eng.—died Aug. 3, 1927, Ithaca, N.Y., U.S.) British-U.S. psychologist. Trained in Leipzig under Wilhelm Wundt, he later taught at Cornell University (1892–1927). He helped establish experimental psychology in the U.S., and he also became the foremost proponent of structural psychology, a field concerned with the components and arrangement of mental states and processes. His principal work is Experimental Psychology (1901–05).

Learn more about Titchener, Edward Bradford with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 19, 1871, Prairie du Chien, Wis., U.S.—died Oct. 1, 1945, Franklin, N.H.) U.S. neurologist and physiologist. He was the first to use X rays in physiological studies. He also investigated hemorrhagic and traumatic shock during World War I and worked on methods of blood storage. He researched the emergency functions of the sympathetic nervous system and homeostasis and sympathin, an epinephrine-like substance released by certain neurons. With Philip Bard he developed the Cannon-Bard theory, which proposed that emotional and physiological responses to external situations arise simultaneously and that both prepare the body to deal with the situation.

Learn more about Cannon, Walter B(radford) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 1590, Austerfield, Yorkshire, Eng.—died May 9, 1657, Plymouth, Mass.) Governor of the Plymouth Colony in America for 30 years. A member of the Separatist movement within Puritanism, in 1609 he left England and went to Holland seeking religious freedom. Finding a lack of economic opportunity there, in 1620 he helped organize an expedition of about 100 Pilgrims to the New World. He helped draft the Mayflower Compact aboard the group's ship, and he served as governor of the Plymouth Colony for all but five years from 1621 to 1656. He helped establish and foster the principles of self-government and religious freedom that characterized later American colonial government. His descriptive journal provides a unique source of information on both the voyage of the Mayflower and the challenges faced by the settlers.

Learn more about Bradford, William with a free trial on Britannica.com.

City and metropolitan borough (pop., 2001: 467,668), West Yorkshire, northern England. The manufacture of wool products was important to its economy as early as 1311; the fine worsted trade began in the late 17th century. By 1900 it emerged as the main wool-buying centre for Yorkshire. The city remains a centre of the textile industry and is the site of the University of Bradford.

Learn more about Bradford with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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