Bose

Bose

[bohs]
Bose, Sir Jagadis Chandra, or Sir Jagadis Chunder Bose, 1858-1937, Indian physicist and plant physiologist, educated in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and at Christ's College, Cambridge. He was professor of physical science (1885-1915) at Presidency College, Calcutta, and founded the Bose Research Institute in Calcutta. He is noted for his researches in plant life, especially his comparison of the responses of plant and animal tissue to various stimuli. One of his inventions is the crescograph, a device for measuring plant growth.
Bose, Subhas Chandra, 1897-1945?, Indian nationalist also known as Netaji. He began his political career in Calcutta (now Kolkata) and soon became the leader of the left wing of the Indian National Congress. He was president of the party in 1938-39 but was forced to resign after a dispute with Mohandas Gandhi; he advocated militancy to achieve independence for India and believed in dictatorship to unify the country. Jailed by the British for his Axis sympathies in World War II, he escaped (1941) and fled to Germany. In 1943 he headed in Singapore a Japanese-sponsored "provisional government of India" and organized an "Indian national army." Although sympathetic to totalitarianism, his collaboration was principally directed toward freeing India from British rule and the establishment of an independent regime. He was said to have died in an airplane crash in Taiwan, but in 2005 the Taiwanese government said that an investigation showed that no crash had occurred.

See his collected writings and letters, ed. by J. S. Bright (2d ed. 1947); L. Gordon, Brothers Against the Raj (1990).

(born Jan. 23, 1897, Cuttack, Orissa, India—died Aug. 18, 1945, Taipei, Taiwan [China]?) Indian revolutionary. Preparing in Britain for a career in the Indian civil service, he resigned his candidacy on hearing of nationalist turmoil back home. Sent by Mohandas K. Gandhi to organize in Bengal, he was deported and imprisoned several times. He favoured industrialization, which put him at odds with Gandhi's economic thought, and, though he was elected president of the Indian National Congress in 1938 and 1939, without Gandhi's support he felt bound to resign. He slipped out of India in 1941 and carried on his struggle against the British from Nazi Germany and later from Southeast Asia. In 1944 he invaded India from Burma (Myanmar) with a small army of Indian nationals and Japanese, but his army was soon forced to retreat. He fled Southeast Asia after the Japanese surrender in 1945 and died of burns suffered in a plane crash.

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One of two possible ways (the other is Fermi-Dirac statistics) in which a collection of indistinguishable particles may occupy a set of available discrete energy states. The gathering of particles in the same state, which is characteristic of particles that obey Bose-Einstein statistics, accounts for the cohesive streaming of laser light and the frictionless creeping of superfluid helium (see superfluidity). The theory of this behaviour was developed in 1924–25 by Satyendra Nath Bose (1894–1974) and Albert Einstein. Bose-Einstein statistics apply only to those particles, called bosons, which have integer values of spin and so do not obey the Pauli exclusion principle.

Learn more about Bose-Einstein statistics with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Jan. 23, 1897, Cuttack, Orissa, India—died Aug. 18, 1945, Taipei, Taiwan [China]?) Indian revolutionary. Preparing in Britain for a career in the Indian civil service, he resigned his candidacy on hearing of nationalist turmoil back home. Sent by Mohandas K. Gandhi to organize in Bengal, he was deported and imprisoned several times. He favoured industrialization, which put him at odds with Gandhi's economic thought, and, though he was elected president of the Indian National Congress in 1938 and 1939, without Gandhi's support he felt bound to resign. He slipped out of India in 1941 and carried on his struggle against the British from Nazi Germany and later from Southeast Asia. In 1944 he invaded India from Burma (Myanmar) with a small army of Indian nationals and Japanese, but his army was soon forced to retreat. He fled Southeast Asia after the Japanese surrender in 1945 and died of burns suffered in a plane crash.

Learn more about Bose, Subhas Chandra with a free trial on Britannica.com.

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