Bordeaux mixture

Bordeaux mixture

Bordeaux mixture, fungicide consisting of cupric sulfate and lime in water. Its fungicidal activity is associated with the slow formation of copper compounds, the ultimate toxicant being the cupric ion. It originated in France in 1885 and was widely used for spraying orchards, dusting crops, and treating seeds until c.1930. Since it was found that Bordeaux mixture frequently caused russeting of fruit, injured the leaves, and led to premature defoliation, it has been generally replaced by solutions made with powdered fixed copper. Sal soda Bordeaux, or Burgundy mixture, containing cupric sulfate and sodium carbonate (sal soda), was formerly used to spray small fruits but has been replaced by more convenient preparations. See pesticide.
Bordeaux mixture is a combination of copper sulfate and hydrated lime, invented in the vineyards of the Bordeaux region of France and known locally as Bouillie Bordelaise. It used mainly to control garden, vineyard, nursery and farm infestations of fungus, most notably vine fungus. This fungicide has been used for over a century and is still used, although the copper can leach out and pollute streams.

Preparation of Bordeaux Mixture

Dissolving Copper Sulphate: Iron or galvanised vessels must not be used for the preparation of copper sulphate solutions. Plastic vessels, now freely available, are light and very convenient. To make a strong solution, hang a jute sack of copper sulphate so that the bottom of it dips a few inches only in the water. The copper sulphate will dissolve overnight. Copper sulphate dissolves in cold water to the extent of about 3 kg per 10 litres. If more than this is placed in the sack described above, then a saturated solution will be obtained and it may be used without serious error on the basis that it contains 3 kg copper sulphate per 10 litres.

Bordeaux mixture is prepared in various strengths from copper sulphate, hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) and water. The conventional method of describing its composition is to give the weight of copper sulphate, the weight of hydrated lime and the volume of water in that order. The percentage of the weight of copper sulphate to the weight of water employed determines the concentration of the Bordeaux mixture. Thus a 1% Bordeaux mixture, which is the normal, would have the formula 1 :1:100the first 1 representing 1 kg copper sulphate, the second representing 1 kg hydrated lime, and the 100 representing 100 litres (100 kg) water. As copper sulphate contains 25% copper metal, the copper content of a 1% Bordeaux mixture would be 0-25 % copper. The quantity of lime used can be reduced considerably. Actually 1 kg copper sulphate requires only 0.225 kg of chemically pure hydrated lime to precipitate all the copper. Good proprietary brands of hydrated lime are now freely available but, as even these deteriorate on storage, it is safest not to exceed a ratio of 2:1. i.e. a 1:0.5:100 mixture.

In preparing Bordeaux mixture, the copper sulphate is dissolved in half the required amount of water in a wooden or plastic vessel. The hydrated lime is mixed with the balance of the water in another vessel. The two "solutions" are then poured together through a strainer into a third vessel or spray tank.

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