Bontebok National Park is a species-specific national park in South Africa. It was established in 1961 to ensure the preservation of the bontebok. It is the smallest of South Africa's national parks, covering an area of 27.86 km² The park is part of the Cape Floristic Region, which is a World Heritage Site.
The park is located 6 km south of Swellendam, in the foothills of the Langeberg Mountains.
It is bordered to the south by the Breede River.
Bonteboks are rare, unusually marked antelopes
. They are listed as vulnerable in Appendix II of the International Trade in Endangered Species Red List. They are endemic
to the Cape Floral area, and once roamed the region in large numbers. European settlement and hunting brought the animal to near extinction by the early 1800s. A relic population was protected on private farmland. In 1931, seventeen members of this population were translocated to the first Bontebok National Park. In the 1960s, half of the population died from worm
deficiency and related syndromes. In 1961, 61 members of the surviving population were translocated to the current Bontebok National Park. The worldwide bontebok population of 2,500-3,000 individuals are all derived from this population.
However, there are only about 200 bonebok in the park, as this is the maximum number a park of its size can support without inflicting serious damage to plantlife. Over the years the park's surplus stock has been translocated to other nature reserves and private owners with suitable habitats.
Other species found in the park
Other conservation at the park includes the protection of the endangered fynbos veld
type and the coastal renosterveld, one of the largest remaining "renosterveld islands", which contains several plant species that are found nowhere else in the world. In total, the park has nearly 500 grasses and other plant species.
Other indigenous species at the park include the clawless otter, Stanley's bustard and the blue crane (South Africa's national bird). Rheboks, Cape Grysboks, duikers, red hartebeests and mountain zebras can also be found there. There are over 200 bird species.