The road is owned and maintained by three agencies - the Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT), Orlando-Orange County Expressway Authority (OOCEA) and Florida's Turnpike Enterprise (FTE). The eight miles (13 km) from I-4 to State Road 482 near the airport is known as the Beachline West Expressway and is FTE-owned; OOCEA maintenance begins west of the airport and ends near State Road 520 in east Orange County. The road continues, owned by FDOT, across the St. Johns River into Brevard County (which includes the State Road 407 spur) and over the Emory L. Bennett Causeway to its east end. Tolls on the east-pointing ramps at SR 520 are collected by FDOT, and 25 cents of the $1.25 OOCEA barrier toll east of the airport also goes to FDOT. There are no toll roads in Brevard County so technically the 25 cents is only for use of the FDOT road section in Orange County. Nonetheless, most road maps show the Brevard County section from the Orange County line to Interstate 95 to be a toll road because it's not possible to travel over it without incurring a toll elsewhere. The TOLL 528 shield is also used on this stretch of road as well as on exit signs along I-95.
In May 2007, Florida's Turnpike Enterprise began Phase I of a project to widen the Beachline West. It encompasses the reconstruction of the mainline toll plaza located near Milepost 5. When complete, the new mainline toll plaza will feature three electronic (E-pass/SunPass) at-speed express lanes in each direction in the middle of the roadway, and four staffed lanes in each direction to accommodate cash customers. Ultimate roadway improvements will include four travel lanes in each direction, but due to construction costs, the improvements will be stage-constructed, with the interim improvements including three lanes in each direction. In June 2008, a project began to widen the Beachline from the Turnpike to McCoy Road. Improvements include widening the existing bridge structures at US 441, Landstreet Road, CSX Railroad, CSX Railroad Taft Yard, Orange Avenue and McCoy Road. A new bridge will also be constructed for the access ramp over the CSX Railroad.The final phase, between Interstate 4 and the Turnpike, has been pushed out due to rising construction costs and expected traffic projections. That project is not included in the Turnpike's current five-year work program.
An interchange at SR 528 and Kirkman Road (State Road 435) was built ca. 1958 to serve the new Martin Company complex (now Lockheed Martin) just to the south of that junction. At that time, the area was basically empty; Walt Disney World had not been announced yet, the International Drive tourist strip had not been begun, and the land was a part of the extensive Martin-owned Orlando Central Park.
The OOCEA wanted to build a freeway all the way from I-4 to Cape Canaveral, but ran into several problems. It had issues with raising money for the road, with traffic projections falling short of necessary to pay for the large bond issue required. It also did not have the authority to build in Brevard County, and many Brevard residents opposed the roads, as it would draw business from the Cape Canaveral area to Orlando.
The plan chosen was greatly shrunken from the original plans. The freeway would only run from State Road 15 (Narcoosee Road) east of the McCoy Jetport east to State Road 520 in east Orange County. This was known as the Bithlo Cutoff, as it allowed traffic from southern Orlando to reach SR 520 without going north and east to Bithlo. West of SR 15, the existing SR 528 was to carry traffic to I-4. A new alignment would be built between Orange Blossom Trail and Orange Avenue, directly connecting Sand Lake Road to McCoy Road, and McCoy Road east from Daetwyler Drive (the Jetport entrance) to SR 15 would be widened as a divided surface road. Additionally, to handle traffic from downtown Orlando, SR 15 (Hoffner Avenue) between Conway Road and Goldenrod Road would be rebuilt. Concurrently, the SRD was extending Lake Barton Road (now State Road 436 - Semoran Boulevard) south to the Jetport, where it would meet the Bee Line. (This opened in 1969.)
In November 1964, the OOCEA and SRD signed an agreement where the OOCEA would build the road, and then turn it over to the SRD, which would operate and maintain it, giving toll revenue to the OOCEA. Walt Disney announced plans for his new park on November 11, 1965, increasing the importance of the road. Construction began in early 1966, with groundbreaking at the location of the present Dallas Boulevard interchange (exit 24). The projects cost $6.8 million. The 17.4-mile (28.0 km) road was dedicated on July 14, 1967 at the 35-cent toll plaza, just east of SR 15 and the remaining section (Orange Blossom Trail to Orange Avenue) opened 9 days later. The OOCEA board had voted to name it after Martin Andersen in December 1966, and in 1967 the Florida Legislature passed this designation into law.
The FTA planned to build from the Turnpike east past the Jetport to SR 15, upgrading the existing SR 528 (McCoy Road) with frontage roads from west of the Jetport to SR 15. An interchange would be provided with the new State Road 436, planned to open in 1969. However, Governor Claude Kirk insisted that the new road continue west past the Turnpike to Interstate 4, and so the FTA did not have enough money to upgrade the road past the Jetport. (The FTA merged into the new Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) in 1969.) The piece from west of the Jetport to the Turnpike opened in late July 1973, and the rest of the road to I-4 opened in December. The road had one 15-cent toll booth lying between the Turnpike and Jetport. The rest of the road to I-4 was free; initially there were no interchanges except at International Drive, just east of I-4, but overpasses were built at roughly one-mile intervals which would eventually provide exits for Orangewood Blvd. and John Young Parkway.
At the same time, construction had begun on the eastern section, originally known as the Central Florida Expressway, by December 1971. The road ran east from SR 520 past a 20-cent toll booth to the St. Johns River, where it crossed into Brevard County. Shortly after crossing, it split, with a two-lane spur (State Road 407) heading northeast, interchanging with Interstate 95, and ending at State Road 405 west of the Orsino Causeway for access to the central part of the Kennedy Space Center. The main line headed southeast from the split and then east across I-95 to join the Bennett Causeway approach just west of U.S. Highway 1. The Causeway was widened, with a new eastbound side added, ca. 1970-71, and the extension of the Bee Line to connect with the two causeways opened February 16, 1974. The former Bennett Causeway approach west of the new road became State Road 524.
To help pay for the upgrade, the OOCEA raised tolls at the Bee Line toll plaza (east of SR 15) from 35 cents to 50 cents effective May 1, 1980. Bonds were sold in January 1981, and the finished SR 436/Airport interchange was dedicated on January 21, 1983. The 25-cent toll plaza just west of the Airport interchange opened July 2, 1983.
SR 528 east of State Road 436 was designated the Kennedy Space Center Highway in 1998 by the Florida Legislature. The name of the entire road, except between U.S. Highway 1 and State Road 3 (where it is the Emory L. Bennett Causeway), was officially designated as the Martin Andersen Beachline Expressway by the 2005 Florida Legislature. This was done after lobbying by Brevard County, which wanted the shortest route to the Atlantic Ocean from the Orlando area designated as such. An organization representing businesses on the Space Coast has put up billboards calling it "Orlando's closest beach".
The 20-cent FDOT toll booth east of SR 520 was rounded up to 25 cents in July 1996 to improve efficiency. After an agreement signed May 8, 1998 by the OOCEA and FDOT, it was removed May 11, and replaced with an additional 25 cents at the $1 (originally 35-cent) OOCEA toll east of SR 417. The extra 25 cents goes to FDOT, as traffic that exits at State Road 520 now has to pay an extra quarter--the 25-cent ramp tolls pointing eastward at the SR 520 interchange were added August 19, 1999.
The last at-grade interchange on the original Bee Line alignment, a connection on the westbound side to a derelict portion of the McCoy Road frontage, was finally eliminated in 2002 as part of the Goldenrod Road extension project. The break in the frontage allowing eastbound traffic to cross over to McCoy Road at that point had been closed about a decade before during a resurfacing project. At that point, the Bee Line became completely limited-access from Interstate 4 to State Road 401.
In 2003, a new interchange was completed at George J. King Blvd at Port Canaveral, extending the freeway beyond SR 401. While SR 528 officially ends at SR 401, signage continues it along State Road A1A to the new interchange at the city limits of Cape Canaveral.
During 2006 construction began on a redesigned interchange with State Road 436 at the entrance to Orlando International Airport. It was completed in early 2008. A new flyover ramp was built from the Beachline westbound into the airport, eliminating the weaving of cars entering and leaving the airport from/to the Beachline. The mainline toll plazas east and west of the airport remain subject to traffic congestion because of the high percentage of tourists at those plazas who must pay with cash since they don't have access to Sunpass, E-Pass or other acceptable electronic toll collection transponders.
The section of the Beachline Expressway from Exit 0 (Interstate 4) to Exit 4 (Florida's Turnpike / Orange Blossom Trail) remains a "free movement". While designated to be a toll road and shown on maps and signs as such, this section actually has no tolls and traveling the entire distance or within it is free. Additional free movements exist between Exits 11-13 and Exits 8-9.
Plans to widen the Beachline from the US 441/Turnpike interchange to I-4 have been delayed to at least FY 2013.
For the Expressway Authority section, the current five-year work plan calls for the demolition of the Airport Toll Plaza, shifting some of the mainline toll to the Bee Line West Toll Plaza and building new ramp toll plazas at McCoy Road and Tradeport Drive, as part of a widening project to be completed in 2010. Also, a new Beachline East toll plaza would be constructed between Dallas Blvd. and SR 520, to be completed in 2009. It would end free movement for a large section of the Beachline. However, the current interchange reconstruction project at Exit 13 (Florida State Road 15) will not eliminate free movement that exists between that exit and Exit 11 (Florida State Road 436).
|Mile||County||#||Destinations||Cash tolls (automobile)||Notes|
|0.00||Orange||Interstate 4 - Downtown Orlando; Tampa (State Road 400)|
|2||Orangewood Boulevard; Universal Boulevard|
|3||County Road 423 - John Young Parkway||split into 3A and 3B eastbound|
|4||U.S. Highway 17/92/441; Florida's Turnpike - Orange Blossom Trail; Consulate Drive (State Road 91; State Road 500; State Road 600)|
|Bee Line West barrier toll||$0.75|
|8.42||8||State Road 482; McCoy Road to Sand Lake Road; to State Road 527; Orange Avenue|
|9||Tradeport Drive; Conway Road|
|Airport barrier toll||$0.75|
|11||State Road 436 north - Semoran Boulevard; International Airport||split into 11A (SR 436) and 11B (Airport) westbound|
|12||Goldenrod Road; Heintzelman Boulevard|
|13||State Road 15 - Narcoossee Road|
|16||State Road 417 - Tampa; Disney World; Orlando; Sanford|
|Bee Line Main barrier toll||$1.25|
|20||International Corporate Park Boulevard||$1.00 westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|24||Dallas Boulevard||eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|30.82||31||State Road 520||$0.25 westbound exit and eastbound entrance|
|Brevard||State Road 407 to Interstate 95 north - Kennedy Space Center; Titusville||eastbound exit and westbound entrance|
|42||Interstate 95 - Miami; Daytona Beach (State Road 9)||split into 42A and 42B|
|45.73||45||State Road 524; Industry Road; Clearlake Road (State Road 501)||split into 45A and 45B westbound|
|46||U.S. Highway 1 - Cocoa; Titusville (State Road 5)||SR A1A begins eastbound and ends westbound/Emory L. Bennett Causeway begins|
|49||State Road 3 - Merritt Island; Kennedy Space Center|
|52||Banana River Drive|
|53.50||State Road 401 north - Cape Canaveral Air Force Station; Port Canaveral A cruise terminals; north cargo piers||SR 528 begins westbound and ends eastbound|
|George J. King Boulevard|