Enhanced Data rates for Global Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), or IMT Single Carrier (IMT-SC) is a backwards-compatible digital mobile phone technology that allows improved data transmission rates, as an extension on top of standard GSM. EDGE can be considered a 3G radio technology and is part of ITU's 3G definition, but is most frequently referred to as 2.75G. EDGE was deployed on GSM networks beginning in 2003— initially by Cingular (now AT&T) in the United States.
EDGE is standardized by 3GPP as part of the GSM family, EDGE is an upgrade that provides a potential three-fold increase in capacity of GSM/GPRS networks. The specification achieves higher data-rates by switching to more sophisticated methods of coding, within existing GSM timeslots. Introducing 8PSK encoding, EDGE is capable of delivering higher bit-rates per radio channel in good conditions.
EDGE can be used for any packet switched application, such as an Internet connection. High-speed data applications such as video services and other multimedia benefit from EGPRS' increased data capacity. EDGE Circuit Switched is a possible future development.
Evolved EDGE was added in Release 7 of the 3GPP standard. This is a further extension on top of EDGE, providing reduced latency and potential speeds of 1Mbit/s by using even more complex coding functions than the 8PSK originally introduced with EDGE.
EDGE/EGPRS is implemented as a bolt-on enhancement
and 2.5G GSM
networks, making it easier for existing GSM carriers to upgrade to it. EDGE/EGPRS is a superset to GPRS and can function on any network with GPRS deployed on it, provided the carrier implements the necessary upgrade.
Although EDGE requires no hardware or software changes to be made in GSM core networks, base stations must be modified. EDGE compatible transceiver units must be installed and the base station subsystem needs to be upgraded to support EDGE. If the operator already has this in place, which is often the case today, the network can be upgraded to EDGE by activating an optional software feature. Today EDGE is supported by all major chip vendors for GSM. New mobile terminal hardware and software is also required to decode/encode the new modulation and coding schemes and carry the higher user data rates to implement new services.
In addition to Gaussian minimum-shift keying
(GMSK), EDGE uses higher-order PSK/8 phase shift keying
(8PSK) for the upper five of its nine modulation and coding schemes. EDGE produces a 3-bit word for every change in carrier phase. This effectively triples the gross data rate offered by GSM. EDGE, like GPRS
, uses a rate adaptation algorithm that adapts the modulation and coding scheme (MCS) according to the quality of the radio channel, and thus the bit rate and robustness of data transmission. It introduces a new technology not found in GPRS, Incremental Redundancy
, which, instead of retransmitting disturbed packets, sends more redundancy information to be combined in the receiver. This increases the probability of correct decoding.
EDGE can carry data speeds up to 236.8 kbit/s (with end-to-end latency of less than 150 ms) for 4 timeslots (theoretical maximum is 473.6 kbit/s for 8 timeslots) in packet mode. This means it can handle four times as much traffic as standard GPRS. EDGE will therefore meets the International Telecommunications Union's requirement for a 3G network, and has been accepted by the ITU as part of the IMT-2000 family of 3G standards. It also enhances the circuit data mode called HSCSD, increasing the data rate of this service.
EGPRS modulation and coding scheme (MCS)
In good radio conditions, EDGE can be four times as efficient as GSM. GSM use four coding schemes (CS-1 to 4) while EDGE provides nine Modulation and Coding Schemes (MCS-1 to 9).
| Coding and modulation |
| Speed |
| Modulation |
|| GMSK |
|| GMSK |
|| GMSK |
|| GMSK |
|| 8-PSK |
|| 8-PSK |
|| 8-PSK |
|| 8-PSK |
|| 8-PSK |
EDGE is part of ITU's 3G definition and is considered a 3G radio technology.
EDGE Evolution improves on EDGE in a number of ways. Latencies are reduced by lowering the Transmission Time Interval by half (from 20 ms to 10 ms). Bit rates are increased up to 1 MBit/s peak speed and latencies down to 100 ms using dual carriers, higher symbol rate and higher-order modulation (32QAM and 16QAM instead of 8-PSK), and turbo codes to improve error correction. And finally signal quality is improved using dual antennas improving average bit-rates and spectrum efficiency. EDGE Evolution can be gradually introduced as software upgrades, taking advantage of the installed base. With EDGE Evolution, end-users will be able to experience mobile internet connections corresponding to a 500 kbit/s ADSL service.
The Global mobile Suppliers Association (GSA) states that, as of May 2008, there were 313 commercial GSM/EDGE networks in 147 countries, from a total of 363 mobile network operator commitments in 165 countries.
The following companies have EDGE networks in operation:
Europe and CISMulti-country operators:
- Orange has EDGE networks in Belgium, Dominica, France, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, UK, Moldova (see Orange Moldova) and Switzerland.
- O2 (launched for UK iPhone release date 2007-11-09)Single country operators:
- Albania, |AMC ALBANIA
- Armenia: VivaCell provides full EDGE network.
- Austria: Mobilkom Austria provides an EDGE network.
- Azerbaijan: Azercell has EDGE network in Baku, the capital. Bakcell has EDGE network in Baku and some other major cities.
- Belarus: Velcom is constructing EDGE network and has partly opened it.
- Belgium: BASE (almost nationwide)
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: M:tel and BH Telecom have EDGE coverage, including all the main cities.
- Bulgaria: Mobiltel and Vivatel has large EDGE coverage, including all the main cities and surrounding areas.
- Croatia: VIPnet and T-Mobile have EDGE coverage.
- Czech Republic: Vodafone has large EDGE coverage, including all the main cities, O2 Czech Republic uses EDGE at new cells. T-Mobile uses EDGE in main cities and surrounding areas.
- Denmark: Telia has EDGE coverage in 98.7% of the country. Operators TDC and Sonofon have announced EDGE coverage in 2008 in areas without 3G coverage.
- Estonia: Elisa has EDGE coverage in 75% of the country
- Finland: TeliaSonera and Elisa Oyj have large EDGE coverage including all the main cities; also Dna Finland is constructing a large EDGE/UMTS network and has partly opened it
- France: Bouygues Télécom has now an EDGE Network that covers 95% of the population; it is the largest EDGE implementation in France.
- Georgia: Beeline (communications) has full EDGE MSC9 network, Geocell has EDGE networks.
- Germany: Vodafone is currently upgrading to EDGE in regions with no UMTS coverage, T-Mobile finished upgrading in spring 2007
- Hungary: Pannon GSM has a wide coverage of EDGE, even in some rural areas in addition to major cities and motorways
- Iceland: Vodafone Iceland has EDGE coverage throughout the country from 2007
- Iceland: Siminn has EDGE coverage
- India: Airtel Vodafone BSNL and IDEA has EDGE coverage at major cities.
- Ireland: Meteor Mobile Communications, has EDGE throughout the country from 2007; also Vodafone Ireland has an EDGE network where GPRS is supported. O2 Ireland has now upgraded to EDGE
- Italy: TIM supports EDGE wherever GPRS is already supported; also Wind is upgrading the existing network to EDGE, while it is already available in several cities
- Jersey: Jersey Telecom has EDGE coverage
- Kosova: IPKO Mobile has EDGE coverage
- Latvia: LMT has an EDGE network since 2005
- Malta: GO has an EDGE network as of 2006.
- Macedonia: T-Mobile Macedonia has EDGE coverage in the major cities
- Lithuania: Bite Lietuva has a nationwide EDGE network in the country, and was one of the first to launch it in Europe (December 2003)
- Luxembourg: LUXGSM and voxmobile both have a nationwide EDGE network in the country
- Moldova: Moldcell has EDGE networks in large cities and Orange has full country EDGE coverage
- Montenegro: all 3 operators (ProMonte, m:tel and T-Mobile) have almost full EDGE coverage
- Netherlands: Telfort had full EDGE coverage, however this was phased out as of July 2007. All the major networks now offer UMTS/HSDPA
- Norway: Telenor and Netcom both operate separate, nation-wide networks. Both have complete EDGE coverage.
- Poland: Era and Plus have EDGE coverage.
- Romania: Orange Romania,Vodafone Romania, Zapp Mobile , Cosmote and RCS&RDS DIGIMobil.
- Russia: MegaFon, Mobile TeleSystems, Beeline have partial EDGE coverage. Regional GSM operators, such as BWC in Irkutsk Oblast, MOTIV in Sverdlovsk Oblast, U-tel in Uralskiy Region, VNTC in Primorsky Krai and ETK also have partial EDGE coverage.
- Serbia: MTS, Telenor Serbia has partial EDGE coverage
- Slovakia: T-Mobile, Orange, O2 has major coverage
- Slovenia: Si.mobil has 90% EDGE coverage, all major settlements are covered
- Spain: None of the main operators that own their networks has implemented it. All operators run 3G (UMTS) networks. Orange, movistar, Vodafone and Yoigo.
- Sweden: Telia/TeliaSonera has EDGE coverage
- Switzerland: Sunrise, a subsidiary of TDC, has EDGE that cover 99% of the population and the first to implement EDGE in the country; also Swisscom through Swisscom Mobile's EDGE (Enhanced Data for Global Evolution) network has EDGE networks that cover 99% of the population.
- Turkey: Turkcell and Avea have EDGE coverage.
- Ukraine: UMC was the first mobile operator in the country and today provides for more than 16 million subscribers an opportunity to communicate using EDGE; also Kyivstar, Ukraine's largest mobile operator with more than 20 million subscribers, offers EDGE in selected cities and plans to extend coverage nationwide in 2007; Life:) third largest mobile operator in Ukraine with more than 6 million subscribers having 80% coverage of inhabited territories with EDGE enabled network.
- United Kingdom: Telefónica O2 is in the process of upgrading their network to support EDGE, in order to support the iPhone. Orange UK already have EDGE deployed across parts of their network. Vodafone also has EDGE support in the UK.
- Nigeria: Zain has EDGE coverage in most part of Lagos.
- Botswana: Mascom has rolled out EDGE countrywide.
- Egypt: Mobinil
- Kenya: Safaricom has introduced this service to enhance the Mobile Internet speeds that subscribers currently experience on their GPRS network; also Celtel has launched EDGE in Nairobi and GPRS countrywide
- Liberia: Libercell has introduced the EGPRS technology
- Djibouti: Djibouti telecom has Edge coverage called evatis-edge
- South Africa: Cell C, MTN and Vodacom have EDGE coverage for large areas
- Mozambique: Vodacom has EDGE coverage for large areas
| Namibia |
- Tunisia: Tunisiana
- Uganda:Celtel UG has EDGE over GPRS coverage in most parts of the country
- Zambia: Celtel has launched EDGE in Lusaka and GPRS countrywide
- Tanzania: Vodacom Tanzania has introduced 3G and EDGE technology
- Mauritius: Cellplus(Mauritius Telecom) and Emtel have introduced 3G and EDGE technology countrywide
Asia and Far East
- Bangladesh: Grameenphone is the largest mobile operator in the country and today provides for more than 20 million subscribers an opportunity to communicate using EDGE.
- China: China Mobile launched EDGE services in Guangdong province in 2005. Shanghai has good EDGE coverage through China Mobile (2007). China Unicom also launched EDGE service in Shanghai.
- * Hong Kong: Peoples; also CSL, under the brands 1O1O and One2Free
- India: MTNL, Bharti Airtel, !deaVodafone and Reliance-Smart-GSM have launched EDGE services. As of July 2007, BSNL's plans for introducing the service are pending since year 2003.district headquarters are currently under the reach of EDGE of BSNL
- Indonesia: Telkomsel, Excelcom, and Indosat provide EDGE network
- Malaysia: DiGi has reasonable EDGE coverage, particularly in West Malaysia. Coverage in East Malaysia is currently limited to Kuching, Kota Kinabalu and several main town centres. DiGi streams its MobileTV service over its EDGE network; also Maxis Mobile provides an EDGE network
- Nepal: Spice Nepal "Mero Mobile" has EDGE coverage in major cities
- Pakistan: Mobilink, Warid and Ufone are proividing EDGE services in major cities. Telenor (Pakistan) provides EDGE coverage throughout Pakistan.
- Philippines: SMART has a wide EDGE coverage over the Philippine archipelago. PLDT, the parent company of SMART, also offers the PLDT WeRoam GPRS/EDGE wireless internet service
- Sri Lanka: Dialog GSM offers EDGE Coverage in Colombo. Tigo has islandwide EDGE coverage.
- Thailand: DTAC provides nationwide EDGE coverage. Advanced Info Service (AIS) also has a nationwide EDGE coverage. The third largest mobile operator, True Move, has deployed EDGE in the Bangkok Metropolitan Area.
- Vietnam: two GSM operators MobiFone and Viettel, who have nation-wide GPRS coverage, have both initiated EDGE field trials on their network since Q4 2007.
- Australia: Telstra has nationwide EDGE coverage (approximately 96% of population).
- New Zealand: Nationwide EDGE coverage across main metropolitan areas on Vodafone NZ's mobilize network, for corporate and industrial use only. New Zealand's public use only available via Australia's Telstra network.
- Samoa: Digicel Pacific (previously Telecom NZ) is still under initiation.
- Fiji : Digicel Fiji brought EDGE network to Fiji
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