Bhavani is a ferocious aspect of theHindu goddess Parvati . Bhavani means "giver of life", the power of nature or the source of creative energy. In addition to her ferocious aspect, she is also known as Karunaswaroopini, "filled with mercy".
Bhavani was the tutelary deity of the Maratha leader Shivaji, to whom she presented a sword. A temple to Bhavani at Tuljapur in Maharashtra, dates back to the 12th century. The temple contains a meter-high granite icon of the goddess, with eight arms holding weapons. She also holds the head of the demon Mahishasura, whom she slew in Mysore.
Chaughada (holy drumming ritual at morning): - At 5 AM, the morning before the Puja starts, the large drums in the Drum house (Nagarkhana) of Tuljabhavani temple are drummed loudly. The meaning of this drumming is that, the devotees should prepared and come before the puja. The drums are drummed (Chaughada) three times during the day.
Charantirtha (sacred water ritual of goddess feet and mouth):- The puja performed at 5:30 morning is called Charantirtha. This puja is performed by the hands of Mahant Vakoji Bua. At the time of Charantirtha puja, the representative of Karvir (Kolhapur) princely state is present. The Mahanta washes goddess mouth and feet with hot water, odoriferous oil, Dudhkhir (milk), Pan (food). Devotees sing the Arti (Holy songs). After this Bhaji-Bhakri the Nevaidya (holy meal) is offered to the goddess. The descendant representative of the devotee Uparkar offers this Nevaidya. Later the Nevaidya of Kheer by the representative of Karvir (Kolhapur) princely state is offered.
Abhishek (holy bath ritual to goddess) Puja (prayer):- At 9 o'clock in the morning the goddess has a bath of Panchamrut and curd. Honey, banana and sugar is rubbed to goddess' mouth. The Gomukh (holy pond of the goddess) water is used for goddess' bath. During this puja some people bathe the holy throne of goddess by curd, mango liquid, shreekhand. After the bath, Mahanevaidya (big holy meal) by the Karvir (Kolhapur) princely state is offered to goddess.
Abhishek (holy bath ritual to goddess):- at 6 o'clock that evening, the goddess is bathed by Panchamruta and water from Gomukha, and puja is performed. The arrangement of these materials is done by the Karvir (Kolhapur) princely state.
Shejarti (nightly sleep songs ritual) and Prakkshal: - At night the Prakkshal ritual is done by the holy water from the Gomukha. And the Nevaidya of Tup (Indian liquid butter) and Bhat (cooked rice) is offered.
At each arti ritual, instruments such as Tal, Dimdi and Zanj are played . Gondhali plays the Sambal instrument as Chaughada (Drums) are drummed.
Estimating Economic Value of Irrigation Water through Contingent Valuation Method: Results from Bhavani River Basin, Tamil Nadu
Jul 01, 2012; 1INTRODUCTIONWater used for irrigation purpose is mainly 'non-market' in nature (Freeman III, 2003). Even if the irrigation water...