Beach

Beach

[beech]
Beach, Mrs. H. H. A., 1867-1944, American composer and pianist, b. Henniker, N.H., as Amy Marcy Cheney. A child prodigy, she received rather meagre training as a pianist in the United States, and toured there and in Europe. In composition she was largely self-taught. Her Gaelic Symphony (1896) was the first symphony by an American woman. She composed more than 150 works, including a piano concerto, chamber music, choral pieces, and well-known songs such as "Ah, Love but a Day" and "The Year's at the Spring." Her music is in the romantic style of the 19th cent.

See Amy Beach by A. F. Block (1999).

Beach, Moses Yale, 1800-1868, American journalist, b. Wallingford, Conn. As a young man he invented a rag-cutting machine and a gunpowder engine. In 1838 he bought the New York Sun from his brother-in-law, Benjamin Henry Day, for whom he had been working as production manager. The Sun's chief competitor in the penny-paper field was the New York Herald, edited by James Gordon Bennett. The two rival papers used ingenious means to get news fast—the Sun even kept carrier pigeons in a special house atop its building. Costs, especially during the Mexican War, mounted so much that at a conference in Beach's office the editors of a number of New York newspapers established the New York Associated Press to cooperate in securing the news. Beach is credited with the first European edition of an American paper, the weekly American Sun (1848), and with starting the newspaper syndicated article. In 1848 he turned the New York Sun over to his sons, Moses Sperry Beach and Alfred E. Beach.

See F. M. O'Brien, The Story of the Sun (1928, repr. 1968).

beach, a gently sloping zone where deposits of unconsolidated sediments are subject to wave action at the shore of an ocean or lake. Most of the sediment making up a beach is supplied by rivers or by the erosion of highlands adjacent to the coast.

Beaches extend from a low waterline landward to a definite change in material or physiographic form, such as the presence of a cliff or dune complex marking a clear demarcation of the edge of a coast. The surf zone is the area between the landward limit of the waves and where the farthest seaward wave breaks. The foreshore, the active portion of the beach, is a seaward-sloping surface extending from the low tide limit of the beach to the crest of a ridge, called the berm, formed by storm waves. Water motion landward and seaward across the foreshore is called swash and backwash, respectively. The foreshore's slope angle is related to the size of the beach material and the vigor of the waves. The backshore extends landward from the berm as a broad terrace or gently landward-sloping surface, often broken by one or more beach ridges. Seaward of the surf zone is the offshore zone, which commonly contains a trough and an offshore bar where the waves begin to break before reforming and dispensing their energy on the beach. Along low sandy coasts, such as the Eastern coast of the United States, a long, narrow beach, called a barrier beach, is commonly separated from the coast by a narrow lagoon. Where a beach extends from land and terminates in open water it is called a spit or a hook.

Beaches undergo a cyclical migration of sand between the beach and the offshore zone caused by seasonal changes in the supply of sedimentary material and by the changes in intensity and direction of the approaching waves. The action of tides causes daily cycles of cut and fill. Waves approaching the shore obliquely move the sediment along the beach in a zigzag pattern called longshore transport. Since beaches are mobile deposits, they owe their existence to a constant replenishment of sand. In many coastal areas a deficiency in the supply of sand from human intervention or the natural changes in the coastal environment results in serious erosion problems. Artificial replenishment by pumping sand onto the beach from offshore or halting the moving sand from longshore drift by building breakwaters are two solutions to erosional problems.

See W. Bascom, Waves and Beaches: The Dynamics of the Ocean Surface, (1980).

or beach flea

Hopping terrestrial crustacean (family Talitridae). The European sand flea (Talitrus saltator) is about 0.6 in. (1.5 cm) long. The long-horned sand flea (T. longicornis), found on the North American Atlantic coast, has antennae the same length as the waxy white body, up to 1 in. (2.5 cm) long. During the day, sand fleas lie buried near the high-tide mark; at night, they forage for organic debris. The common sand flea (Orchestia agilis, or platensis) lives along Atlantic coasts of Europe and the Americas.

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Sediments that accumulate along sea or lake shores. One type of beach occurs as a sediment strip bordering a rocky or cliffy coast. A second type is the outer margin of a marine plain. The third type consists of narrow sediment barriers stretching for dozens or even hundreds of miles parallel to the general direction of the coast. These barriers separate lagoons from the open sea and generally are dissected by tidal inlets. Certain sediment forelands, such as spits, points, and tombolos (which connect an island with a mainland), occasionally are called beaches.

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City (pop., 2000: 425,257), southeastern Virginia. It is situated on the Atlantic Ocean and Chesapeake Bay. Founded in 1887, it developed as a resort after a railroad was built linking it with Norfolk. After World War I it became an important base in the national coastal defense system. In 1963 it and the former Princess Anne county merged to become the City of Virginia Beach. Its economy is based on tourism and military installations. Cape Henry Memorial is in the city and the Cape Henry Lighthouse (1791) is nearby.

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U.S. rock group. The band was formed in California in 1961 by brothers Brian Wilson (b. 1942) on keyboards and bass, Dennis Wilson (1944–83) on drums, and Carl Wilson (1946–98) on guitar; their cousin Mike Love (b. 1941) on drums; and Alan Jardine (b. 1942) on guitar. Within a year they launched a string of surfing-oriented hits marked by close vocal harmony, including “Surfin' Safari” and “California Girls.” By 1966 they had released more than 10 albums, including Pet Sounds (1966), considered their best. Despite Brian Wilson's reclusiveness due to stress- and drug-related breakdowns, the band continued to make recordings into the 1980s and toured into the 1990s.

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City (pop., 2000: 87,933), southeastern Florida, U.S. It is situated on an island across Biscayne Bay from Miami. Until 1912 the site was a mangrove swamp. John S. Collins and Carl F. Fisher pioneered real estate development and built a bridge across the bay; the area was dredged to form an island measuring 7.4 sq mi (19 sq km), with an 8-mi (13-km) beach. The city, incorporated in 1915, is now a luxury resort and convention centre. It is connected with Miami by several causeways and is noted for its Art Deco architecture.

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City (pop., 2000: 461,522), southwestern California, U.S. The site was originally an Indian trading camp, and Spanish ranches were located there in the 18th century. Laid out as Willmore City in 1880 and incorporated in 1888, it was renamed for its 8.5-mi (13.5-km) beach. The discovery of oil nearby in 1921 led to rapid growth. An earthquake in 1933 caused extensive damage. It is connected to the Los Angeles harbour by the Cerritos Channel. The British ocean liner Queen Mary has been moored in the harbour since 1969.

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City (pop., 2000: 189,594), southwestern California, U.S. Located on the Pacific coast, it was first called Shell Beach and after its subdivision (1901) was known as Pacific City. To encourage its promotion as a seaside resort, it was renamed Huntington Beach for the railroad magnate Henry E. Huntington. Its major economic assets are oil wells and refineries.

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Coastal city (pop., 2000: 64,112), northeastern Florida, U.S. Located south of Jacksonville, it was founded by Mathias Day in 1870 and incorporated in 1876. In 1926 the cities of Seabreeze, Daytona, and Daytona Beach were incorporated as Daytona Beach. The Ormond-Daytona beach of hard, white sand has been used for automobile speed trials since 1903. The city is known for the Daytona International Speedway.

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orig. Amy Marcy Cheney known as Mrs. H.H.A. Beach

(born Sept. 5, 1867, Henniker, N.H., U.S.—died Dec. 27, 1944, New York, N.Y.) U.S. composer and pianist. A precociously brilliant musician, she performed as soloist with major orchestras in the U.S. and Europe. As a composer she was devoted to German Romanticism rather than American themes or sources. Her best-loved works were her songs. Her Gaelic Symphony (1894) was the first symphony by an American woman. Other works include a piano concerto (1899), the choral pieces The Chambered Nautilus (1907) and Canticle of the Sun (1928), the opera Cabildo (1932), and a piano quintet (1907).

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orig. Amy Marcy Cheney known as Mrs. H.H.A. Beach

(born Sept. 5, 1867, Henniker, N.H., U.S.—died Dec. 27, 1944, New York, N.Y.) U.S. composer and pianist. A precociously brilliant musician, she performed as soloist with major orchestras in the U.S. and Europe. As a composer she was devoted to German Romanticism rather than American themes or sources. Her best-loved works were her songs. Her Gaelic Symphony (1894) was the first symphony by an American woman. Other works include a piano concerto (1899), the choral pieces The Chambered Nautilus (1907) and Canticle of the Sun (1928), the opera Cabildo (1932), and a piano quintet (1907).

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