Definitions

Bayard

Bayard

[bey-erd]
Taylor, Bayard, 1825-78, American journalist and author, b. Kennett Square, Pa. His romantic verse in Ximena … and Other Poems (1844) secured him a long-standing assignment as correspondent for the New York Tribune. His trips to California, Mexico, Europe, Africa, and East Asia provided him with material for lectures, novels, and travel books. His contemporaries found these fascinating, but their popularity did not last. Perhaps the best of his poetry is in Poems of the Orient (1854) and in his verse drama Prince Deukalion (1878). His most ambitious work was his metrical translation into English (1870-71) of Goethe's Faust, which earned him appointment as U.S. minister to Germany in 1878. He died in Berlin.
Bayard, James Asheton, 1767-1815, U.S. Representative (1797-1803) and Senator (1805-13) from Delaware, b. Philadelphia. Admitted to the bar in 1787, he began practice at Wilmington, Del. Bayard, a prominent Federalist, played a leading part in securing Thomas Jefferson's election as President over Aaron Burr in 1801. Of an independent mind, he, unlike other Federalists, supported the Nonimportation Act of 1806 and the War of 1812, although he had used all his influence to prevent hostilities. In 1814 he served on the commission that negotiated the Treaty of Ghent (see Ghent, Treaty of) ending the War of 1812. His papers were edited (1915, repr. 1970) by Elizabeth Donnan.

See M. Borden, The Federalism of James A. Bayard (1954).

Bayard, James Asheton, 1799-1880, U.S. Senator from Delaware (1851-64, 1867-69), b. Wilmington, Del.; son of James Asheton Bayard (1767-1815). His Unionist sentiments led him into the new Republican party, but he bitterly opposed the dominant radical Republicans and in 1864 he resigned. He was elected again, however, and served (1867-69) as a Democrat and supporter of President Andrew Johnson's Reconstruction policy. His son, Thomas Francis Bayard, was elected to succeed him in the U.S. Senate.
Bayard, Pierre Terrail, seigneur de, c.1474-1524, French military hero, called le chevalier sans peur et sans reproche [the knight without fear or reproach]. He exhibited bravery and genius as a commander in all the important battles of the Italian Wars, from Fornovo (1495) to the Sesia, in which he was killed. His defense of Mézières (1521) saved central France from an imperial invasion.

See biography by S. Shellabarger (1928, repr. 1971).

Bayard, Thomas Francis, 1828-98, U.S. statesman, b. Wilmington, Del.; son of James Asheton Bayard (1799-1880). He began his law practice at Wilmington (1851). An active Democrat, Bayard was elected U.S. Senator (1869) to succeed his father and was reelected in 1875 and 1881. He became Secretary of State during Cleveland's first administration. Bayard was much concerned with Anglo-American relations. He became ambassador to Great Britain during Cleveland's second term.

See study by C. C. Tansill (1940, repr. 1969).

Bayard, Ital. Baiardo, in chivalric romance, a bay horse, remarkable for his spirit and for his unique ability to fit his size to his rider. He appears in the 12th-century French epic Renaud de Montauban and in later tales of Roland by Boiardo, Ariosto, and Tasso.
Rustin, Bayard, 1910-87, African-American civil-rights leader, b. West Chester, Pa. He attended three colleges but did not obtain a degree. A Quaker, he was imprisoned as a conscientious objector for more than two years during World War II. Devoting much of his early career to pacifist activities, he was (1941-53) on the staff of the Fellowship of Reconciliation and headed (1953-55) the War Resisters League. In the early 1940s, Rustin also founded the New York branch of the Congress of Racial Equality, and he soon became a key figure in the struggle for African-American civil rights. As special assistant (1955-60) to Martin Luther King, Jr., he helped set up the 1955 Montgomery bus boycott and, more generally, played an influential role in infusing King's movement with the Gandhian philosophy of nonviolence (see Gandhi, Mohandas. Later, working in association with A. Philip Randolph, Rustin was the chief organizer of the massive 1963 March on Washington. From 1964 to 1987 he served as president of the Randolph Institute, a trade-union, educational, and civil-rights group. An openly gay man in a largely homophobic era, Rustin was usually obliged to employ his superb organizational and strategic skills behind the scenes.

See his collected writings in Down the Line (1971) and Time on Two Crosses (2003), ed. by D. W. Carbado and D. Weise; biographies by J. Anderson (1997) and J. D'Emilio (2003); studies by N. Dobrosky (1988), J. Haskins (1997), and D. Levine (1999); N. D. Kates and B. Singer, dir., Brother Outsider (documentary film, 2003).

(born Oct. 29, 1828, Wilmington, Del., U.S.—died Sept. 28, 1898, Dedham, Mass.) U.S. statesman, diplomat, and lawyer. Born into a prominent political family, he succeeded his father as U.S. senator from Delaware (1869–85). He served as secretary of state (1885–89) and as ambassador to Britain (1893–97), the first U.S. representative to Great Britain to hold that rank. A champion of arbitration, he was critical of the aggressive position of Pres. Grover Cleveland in the dispute with Britain over the Venezuelan boundary (1895).

Learn more about Bayard, Thomas Francis with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 17, 1910, West Chester, Pa., U.S.—died Aug. 24, 1987, New York, N.Y.) U.S. civil rights leader. He organized the New York branch of the Congress of Racial Equality in 1941 and worked for the Fellowship of Reconciliation from 1941 to 1953. In the 1950s he was an adviser to Martin Luther King, Jr., and helped organize the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He was the chief organizer of the 1963 March on Washington to rally support for pending civil rights legislation. He later served as president (1966–79) of the A. Philip Randolph Institute, a civil rights organization.

Learn more about Rustin, Bayard with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 29, 1828, Wilmington, Del., U.S.—died Sept. 28, 1898, Dedham, Mass.) U.S. statesman, diplomat, and lawyer. Born into a prominent political family, he succeeded his father as U.S. senator from Delaware (1869–85). He served as secretary of state (1885–89) and as ambassador to Britain (1893–97), the first U.S. representative to Great Britain to hold that rank. A champion of arbitration, he was critical of the aggressive position of Pres. Grover Cleveland in the dispute with Britain over the Venezuelan boundary (1895).

Learn more about Bayard, Thomas Francis with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born March 17, 1910, West Chester, Pa., U.S.—died Aug. 24, 1987, New York, N.Y.) U.S. civil rights leader. He organized the New York branch of the Congress of Racial Equality in 1941 and worked for the Fellowship of Reconciliation from 1941 to 1953. In the 1950s he was an adviser to Martin Luther King, Jr., and helped organize the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. He was the chief organizer of the 1963 March on Washington to rally support for pending civil rights legislation. He later served as president (1966–79) of the A. Philip Randolph Institute, a civil rights organization.

Learn more about Rustin, Bayard with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Bayard is a city in Guthrie County, Iowa, United States. The population was 536 at the 2000 census. It is part of the Des MoinesWest Des Moines Metropolitan Statistical Area.

Geography

Bayard is located at (41.852198, -94.557261).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.5 square miles (1.2 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 536 people, 221 households, and 135 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,124.9 people per square mile (431.1/km²). There were 244 housing units at an average density of 512.1/sq mi (196.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 99.07% White, 0.19% Native American, 0.19% Asian, and 0.56% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.12% of the population.

There were 221 households out of which 26.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.5% were non-families. 35.7% of all households were made up of individuals and 23.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.29 and the average family size was 2.97.

In the city the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 19.6% from 25 to 44, 19.4% from 45 to 64, and 29.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.7 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $24,444, and the median income for a family was $32,344. Males had a median income of $27,143 versus $16,477 for females. The per capita income for the city was $13,073. About 16.8% of families and 23.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 34.3% of those under age 18 and 20.6% of those age 65 or over.

References

External links

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