The Fatherland and Liberty Nationalist Front (Spanish: Frente Nacionalista Patria y Libertad or simply Patria y Libertad, PyL) was a nationalist and authoritarian political and paramilitary terrorist grouping, denounced by their opponents as being fascist and a front for CIA activities in Chile.
The group was formed by Pablo Rodríguez Grez in 1970, and turned more and more clandestine through the presidency of Salvador Allende, It was officially dissolved on 12 September, 1973, following Pinochet's coup.
In June 1973, the group launched an abortive coup against Allende known as the Tanquetazo. In July 1973, the group received a plan from the Marines, who opposed the legalist Schneider Doctrine, to sabotage the country's infrastructures. The collaboration between Fatherland and Liberty with the Chilean Armed Forces increased after the failed October 1972 strike which had aimed at overthrowing the Allende administration. In agreement with the anti-Constitutionalist sectors of the military, the group assassinated on 26 July 1973 Allende's naval aide, Arturo Araya . The first sabotage was committed this same day. Others include creating a power outage while Allende was being broadcasted .
Members of PyL were then recruited by Chilean security services and participated in the repression against political opposition enacted by Pinochet's junta. Since the transition to democracy, some small groups have since claimed its inheritance, but are not officially linked to the original PyL.
The June 1973 plan by the Marines included sabotage of bridges, oil pipelines, energy towers and sources of combustibles. The plan was revealed after the transition to democracy by Roberto Theime, the leader of the military operations of Fatherland and Liberty. Thieme had exiled himself to Argentina after the failed Tanquetazo, before returning to Chile in mid-July 1973, two months before the military coup . Roberto Thieme also revealed that he had received pressions from the military, in 1973, to assassinate the Senator Carlos Altamirano, who had been the general secretary of the Chilean Socialist Party since 1971 .
The Swedish journalist Anders Leopold, in his 2008 book Det svenska trädet skall fällas, makes the case that PyL leader Roberto Thieme was the assassin in the still-unsolved 1986 murder of Swedish prime minister Olof Palme. According to Leopold, the Swedish prime minister was killed because he had freely given asylum to so many leftist Chileans following the 1973 coup against Salvador Allende.
Roberto Thieme, leader of the military operations of PyL, signed on 2 December 2004, along with other leaders José Agustín Vásquez and Arturo Hoffmann, a declaration which referred to the Valech Report and begged pardon for their responsibilities in the repression against civilians operated by Pinochet's junta. They indicated that many members of the group had been recruited by the Chilean security services and had thus collaborated to the repression, including acts of torture and of forced disappearances. Thieme also opposed the neoliberal economic policies of Pinochet's regime, and criticized Pinochet's lack of repentance following his 1998 arrest in London and subsequent judicial procedures in Chile.
Juan Patricio Abarzúa Cáceres, a former member of PyL, was arrested in 2005, charged of the "disappearance" of Juan Heredia, a sympathisant of the Popular Unity government "disappeared" on 16 September 1973