This page attempts to list the many extinct states
that have ceased to exist as political entities, grouped geographically and by constitutional nature.
Ancient and medieval states
States and realms that disappeared in ancient history
Europe, North Africa and the Near East
Following the collapse of the Roman Empire
there followed a period where the Romano-British political entity fragmented caused mainly by the Celtic system of dividing a realm between the sons of a king on his death. This situation was made worse after c.449 when Jutes
and later Anglo-Saxons
began colonising the eastern and southern seaboards and driving inland. Eventually the Romano-Britons (now known to the Anglo-Saxons as "Welsh") were assimilated or driven into the highlands of Cambria
(Wales) or Caledonia
(Scotland). Wales and Scotland will be considered separate from what once existed in England.
Sub-Roman Brythonic kingdoms in England
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in England
- Northumbria, formed out of the kingdoms of Bernicia and Deira.
- Mercia, which absorbed the smaller kingdoms of Lindsey and Hwicce.
- East Anglia.
- Sussex, kingdom of the South Saxons.
- Wessex, kingdom of the West Saxons.
- Essex, kingdom of the East Saxons.
- Haestingas, a Saxon tribe in part of Sussex.
- Magonsaete, an Anglian tribe in the hills of Shropshire.
- Hwicce, an Anglian tribe in modern Gloucestershire and Worcestershire.
- Middle Saxons, a Saxon tribe in modern Middlesex and Hertfordshire.
- Suthrege, the Saxons of modern Surrey.
- Hicca, a small Middle Angle tribe in modern Cambridgeshire.
- Wreoconsaete, an Anglian tribe in the hills of Shropshire.
- Gyre, a small Middle Angle tribe in modern Cambridgeshire.
- Witware, the Jutes of the Isle of Wight.
Kingdom of England
Sub-Roman and Medieval Brythonic kingdoms in Wales
experienced a similar history during this time, although the Welsh population successfully resisted the influx of Anglo-Saxon settlers into the British Isles. The country was home to a number of princedoms until England's ultimate conquest of the region in the later medieval period.
Sub-Roman Cumbric kingdoms in Scotland
Pictish kingdoms in Scotland
Gaelic kingdoms in Scotland
- Dál Riata, the proto-state that became Scotland. (this kingdom spanned western Scotland and northeastern Ireland)
Extinct kingdoms in Ireland
during the early medieval period consisted of some two hundred tuathas
or minor kingdoms, which were in turn vassals of the rulers of an over-kingdom, called a cóiced
(usually translated as a portion, a fifth, or a province). The most prominent of these kingdoms were
Between the 8th and 12th centuries, various Ard Rí attempted unsuccessfully to impose their rule over all the kingdoms in Ireland. Among those whose efforts almost made this a reality were Flann Sinna, reigned 877-916); Niall Glúndub mac Áedo (916-919); Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig (1002-1014); Toirdhealbhach Ua Briain (1055-1086; and Toirdhealbhach Ua Conchobhair (1119-1156). The last of these kingdoms ceased to exist in the early 17th century. Further Irish kingdoms included:
For further information see Irish kings.
- in historic and present-day Germany and neighbouring countries/regions
Spain and Portugal
Russia and Ukraine
- In and around present-day European Russia and Ukraine:
- Volga Bulgaria (660-1236)
- Novgorod Republic
- Golden Horde - in 1430s into Kazan Khanate, Crimean Khanate, Astrakhan Khanate, Siberia Khanate, Big Horde; Russia finally became independent
- Khazar Empire (652-1016)
- Kievan Rus (860 - 12th century)
- Trubczewsk - Originally a sub-principality under Novhorod-Siversky, Trubchevsk was independent sporadically throughout the Middle Ages, in 1164–1196, 1202–1211, 1212–1240, 1378–1399, and finally in 1462–1503.
- Grand Duchy of Lithuania (-1795)
The many Chinese states had an influence on surrounding regions; from the Song Dynasty period alone, this includes:
A number of now-extinct states formed under Chinese influence along the Silk Road in the Tarim Basin, including:
The early history of Korea was as complex as that of neighbouring China. A number of Korean states existed on the peninsula and reached up into Manchuria
before the formation of the modern state of Korea. These included:
The country of Vietnam in the past was very different to the modern day. The first Vietnamese kingdom occupied only present-day northern Vietnam. In the 10th century, Vietnam began to push to the south for the next 1000 years which was called Nam Tiến (southward expansion) in Vietnamese
. It conquered other kingdoms and was split by civil war
. All the kingdoms that united to form Vietnam are:
have historically been home to a number of indigenous states, civilizations and societies of great complexity. Those indigenous states which were still in existence by the time of the first permanent European colonizations
from the late fifteenth century onwards were soon substantively destroyed and/or absorbed. The list below includes both those which had ceased to exist before this European arrival, and those which ceased to independently function as a result of this impact.
In addition, there were a wide variety of pre-Inca cultures, few of which developed into organised states.
See List of Indigenous Australian group names
States and territories grouped by geographical location
- For the hundreds of feudal states of various size (mainly Kleinstaaterei) and nature that were part of the non-centralised Holy Roman Empire (mainly in Germany, Austria, Benelux countries and various neighbouring regions), see List of states in the Holy Roman Empire
- In other former Comecon countries
- In and around what is now Spain and Portugal
Note: This list includes only nations which formerly existed within the current United States
; for nations in present-day Mexico
and Central America
, see above at Pre-Columbian America
and below at Mexico and Central America
|| Notes |
| Indigenous peoples of the Americas
|| The whole of North America
|| Native Americans in the United States and the First Nations of Canada had established varying levels of governmental organization before contact with Europeans; in many cases, these were equivalent to contemporary European levels of government organization.
|| All the native peoples were eventually incorporated into the United States and Canada, but many retain various levels of self-government and autonomy within those two nations.
|| Illinois, Missouri
|| The population of the town at Cahokia exploded circa 1050 AD, indicating the establishment of a large "chiefdom"
|| The population of Cahokia dispersed in the 14th Century, indicating the decline of the Cahokia chiefdom
|| Other political bodies existed in the Mississippian culture; the Mississippian culture article has a list of Known Mississippian Chiefdoms |
| Iroquois Confederacy
|| Upstate New York and surrounding areas.
|| Formed before European contact; arguably as early as 31 August 1142, though also likely sometime in the 15th to the 17th Century
|| The Treaty of Canandaigua, signed in 1794, established relations between the United States government and the Iroquois; the treaty is still in force, though the Confederacy is no longer effectively an independent nation.
| Cherokee Nation
|| Originally in the southeastern United States, primarily Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Part of the nation (and its government structures) ended up in present-day Oklahoma.
|| The Cherokee nation was unified from an interrelated society of city-states in the early 18th century under the "Emperor" Moytoy
|| The Cherokee Nation and several smaller nations which broke off are still federally recognized tribal entities, somewhat autonomous within the United States, but having similar powers to states.
| Vermont Republic
|| State of Vermont
|| Organized by Ethan Allen and others in 1777 from territory claimed by New York and New Hampshire.
|| Admitted as a state to the United States of America in 1791
|| Originally known as Republic of New Connecticut, it had the first written national constitution in North America. |
| State of Franklin
|| Easternmost Tennessee
|| Seceded from North Carolina 23 August 1784
|| Voluntarily re-incorporated into North Carolina in 1788
|| Applied for admission to the United States as a separate state. Whether Franklin considered itself independent of the United States is unclear. |
| State of Muskogee
|| Western Florida, near Tallahassee
|| Creek and Seminole Indians under English adventurer William Augustus Bowles declared independence in 1799.
|| Annexed by Spain in 1803.
| West Florida
|| Gulf Coast of the United States, parts of present-day Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.
|| Rebelled and declared independence on 3 September 1810.
|| The Republic lasted only 90 days. Formal reannexation was complete by 10 December 1810.
|| Applied for admission to the United States as a separate state, but the U.S. refused to recognize it as such. |
| Republic of Indian Stream
|| Pittsburg, New Hampshire
|| Formed 9 July 1832 in territory claimed by both the United States and Great Britain, where the treaty description of the border was unclear.
|| Voted to annex to the United States in 1835, Britain relinquished claim in January 1836, and U.S. jurisdiction was acknowledged around May 1836.
| Republic of Texas
|| Texas and some surrounding territory.
|| Seceded from Mexico in 1836.
|| Voluntarily annexed to the United States of America and admitted as a state in 1845.
|| Annexation to the U.S. triggered the Mexican-American War |
| Republic of the Rio Grande
|| Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas withdrew from Mexico on 17 January1840
|| General Canales, commander of the forces of the Republic of the Rio Grande, accepted a command in the Mexican Army on 6 November 1840.
|| The Republic of the Rio Grande claimed territory north to the Nueces River and the upper Medina River, territory also claimed by the Republic of Texas
| California Republic
|| American settlers declared independence from Mexico in June 1846.
|| Claimed by U.S. Navy for the United States of America in July 1846, and admitted as a state in 1850.
| Alta California
|| Southern California
|| After U.S. occupation of Los Angeles in 1846, the Californios revolted and defeated an American force on 30 September 1846, and organized a government and an army.
|| Signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo accepting American sovereignty over California on 2 February 1848.
|| By November 1846, the Californios had gained back control of all the territory south of San Francisco, leaving America in control of just San Diego and Monterey. |
| Confederate States of America
|| Southeastern United States of America, from Texas to Virginia.
|| Seceded from United States of America in 1861.
|| Reintegrated into United States of America in 1865.
|| South Carolina was the first state to secede. |
| Republic of Manitoba
|| Founded in June 1867 by Thomas Spence at the town of Portage la Prairie in Rupert's Land
|| By late spring 1868, the Republic had been informed by the Colonial Office in London that its government had no power. The Province of Manitoba was organized within Canada on 12 May 1870
| Dominion of Newfoundland
|| Newfoundland and Labrador
|| A former Crown Colony which had rejected confederation with Canada in 1869, the Dominion of Newfoundland was established on 26 September 1907.
|| Newfoundland entered into confederation with Canada on 31 March 1949, becoming a province.
|| In 1934, Newfoundland voluntarily gave up self-government and reverted to direct control from London. |
Mexico and Central America
|| Notes |
| Indigenous peoples of the Americas
|| The whole of Mexico and Central America
| Olmec nation
|| In and around Veracruz and Tabasco
|| Arose approximately 1200 BC
|| Decline through approximately 400 BC
|| First people to use zero |
| Toltec kingdom/empire
|| Central Mexico
|| sometime after 750
|| Destroyed by Chichimeca ("barbarian") invasions around 12th Century
| Aztec Empire
|| Central Mexico
|| 1325, founded Tenochtitlan
|| 1521, conquered by Hernán Cortés
| Tlaxcala nation
|| Tlaxcala, Mexico
|| Absorbed by Spanish conquest into New Spain
|| Never conquered by Aztec Empire, assisted Hernán Cortés in his campaign against the Aztecs. |
| Zapotec kingdom
|| Oaxaca and surrounding areas
|| Submitted to Spain in 1551
| Maya civilization
|| Southern Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, and Belize
|| Political structures formed by about 250 AD
|| Last Mayan kingdom conquered on 13 March 1697
|| Mayan political structures tended to center around the person of the king; even when one king conquered another, the result was usually a tributary arrangement, and the identity of the conquered kingdom persisted. |
| Republic of the Rio Grande
|| Mexican states of Coahuila, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas
|| Withdrew from Mexico on 17 January1840
|| General Canales, commander of the forces of the Republic of the Rio Grande, accepted a command in the Mexican Army on 6 November 1840.
|| The Republic of the Rio Grande claimed territory north to the Nueces River and the upper Medina River, territory also claimed by the Republic of Texas |
| Republic of Yucatán
|| Yucatán Peninsula, Mexico (The states of Campeche and Quintana Roo were later separated from the state of Yucatán.
|| Declared independence 1840 and 1845, due to dislike of centralization of Mexican government.
|| Resolved differences with central government and rejoined Mexico in December 1843. Rejoined Mexico to obtain assistance against Mayans in the Caste War of Yucatan, treaty signed 17 August 1848
|| Republic of Yucatán declared neutrality in Mexican-American War |
| United Provinces of Central America
|| Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica
|| Formed in aftermath of independence from Spain in 1823
|| Confederation dissolved civil war in 1840
|| Attempts were made to reunite in 1842-44, 1852, the 1880s, 1896-98 and 1921-22 |
| Chan Santa Cruz
|| Quintana Roo
|| Formed during the Caste War of Yucatan, named about 1850
|| The eponymous capital was conquered by Mexico on 5 May 1901, though low-level fighting persisted for another 10 years.
|| Withdrawal of British recognition and end of trade with Belize in 1893 led to eventual reconquest by Mexico |
|| Notes |
| Republic of Acre
|| present-day state of Acre, Brazil
|| Created 1899 declaring independence from Bolivia
|| Annexed by Brazil in the Treaty of Petrópolis.
|| Three attempts at independence in 1899, 1900, and 1903 |
| Kingdom of Araucania and Patagonia
|| present-day Patagonia and Araucanía Region in Chile and Argentina
|| Created 1860 by the French lawyer Orelie-Antoine de Tounens who was appointed king by indigenous Mapuches.
|| It never controlled its vast territory and was an unrecognized state. Lost the last portion of land under its control in 1862 to Chile.
| Kingdom of Chimor
|| Incorporated into the Inca Empire in the 1470s
| Confederation of the Equator
|| States of Pernambuco and others in the northeast of Brazil
|| Incorporated into the Brazilian Empire in November 1824
| Greater Colombia
|| present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Panama
|| Created 1819 during wars for independence from Spain
|| Broke apart in 1830, formally dissolved in 1831. Successor states were Colombia, which included present-day Panama, Venezuela, and Ecuador
|| Its official name was República de Colombia: there never was a state called "Greater Colombia" or "Gran Colombia"; this is an addition by later historians in order to distinguish it from the present-day Republic of Colombia. Although the literal translation is "Great Colombia", historians have traditionally chosen to translate it as "Greater Colombia". |
| Inca Empire
|| large parts of modern Ecuador, Peru, western and south central Bolivia, northwest Argentina, north and north-central Chile, and southern Colombia.
|| Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire
| Juliana Republic
|| present-day Santa Catarina state of Brazil
|| Created as a separatist state from the Empire of Brazil in July 24 1836
|| Dissolved as a result of the War of the Farrapos in November 15 1839
| Liga Federal
|| present-day Uruguay and the Mesopotamia region of Argentina
| Peru-Bolivian Confederation
|| Approximately present-day Peru and Bolivia, plus some of northern Chile and other territories.
|| Created 1836 through union of Republic of North Peru, Republic of South Peru, and Bolivia
|| Dissolved as a result of the War of the Confederation, 1839
| Riograndense Republic
|| present-day Rio Grande do Sul state of Brazil
|| Created as a separatist state from the Empire of Brazil in 1836
|| Dissolved as a result of the War of the Farrapos in 1845
- See also: List of Great Lakes kingdoms and East African City-States
States and territories grouped by type
Former colonies, possessions, protectorates and territories
These were all colonies
, most of which were renamed after their independence.
- Afars and Issas - French territory between 1967 and 1977, called French Somaliland before that. Became independent as Djibouti.
- Basutoland - Since 1868 a British protectorate, later colony (governed from South Africa). Became independent as Lesotho in 1966.
- Bechuanaland - Since 1884 a British protectorate, later colony (governed from South Africa). Became independent as Botswana in 1966.
- Belgian Congo - Belgian colony from 1908 until 1960, when the it became independent as the Congo Democratic Republic of the Congo.
- British America - British interests in North America (now generally parts of the USA and Canada) until 1783 when Britain accepted the USA as independent
- British East Africa - British territory. Became Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda. Had own currency (British East African Shilling)
- British Guiana - became Guyana in 1966
- British Honduras - became Belize in 1981
- British India - became India and Pakistan in 1948
- British North America - Some British interests in North America after the territory of the 13 former colonies became recognized as a new independent country, the USA, in 1783 (note: the colonies in question were, at the time of independence, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia; the land of the nominally newly independent territory included a number of Native American nations; also, entities that were already no longer colonies before independence included East Jersey, West Jersey, New Netherlands, New Sweden, and Plymouth Colony.)
- Congo Free State - Name of the state owned from 1884 by King Léopold II of Belgium, later mostly annexed by his country in 1908, then known as Belgian Congo.
- Dahomey - This African kingdom was acquired by France. In 1904, it was made part of the French West African federation. It became independent in 1960, changing its name in 1975 to Benin.
- Danish West Indies - Danish colony, sold in 1917 to the United States. Now known as the United States Virgin Islands.
- Dutch Guiana - became Suriname
- French Equatorial Africa - A French federation of colonies, formed in 1910, containing the colonies of Gabon, Middle Congo, Chad and Ubangi-Shari. Each of these states became independent in 1960 (Ubangi-Shari as the Central African Republic).
- French Indochina - French territory until 1949. Became independent as Cambodia, Laos and Việt Nam.
- French Somaliland - became Afars and Issas then independent Djibouti
- French Sudan - A French colony, part of the French West African federation since 1904. In 1959 it formed the independent Mali Federation together with Senegal, which fell apart in 1960, after which the country was renamed Mali.
- French West Africa - dissolved into Mali, Senegal, Côte d'Ivoire, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), Niger, Guinea, Dahomey, Mauritania.
- German East Africa - became Tanganyika, now part of Tanzania
- German New Guinea - protectorate from 1884 until conquered by Australia in 1914, now part of Papua New Guinea.
- German South-West Africa - A German colony from 1884 to 1915, after which it became South African held territory until 1990, when the country became independent as Namibia.
- Gold Coast - A British colony since 1874, it became independent as Ghana in 1957.
- Hong Kong - colony of the United Kingdom, sovereignty transferred to the People's Republic of China on July 1, 1997, as a "Special Administrative Region".
- Indian princely states: over 550 principalities which were protectorates of the British crown were merged with the successor states of the British Raj in the years after independence in 1947.
- Italian East Africa - Italian colonies of Eritrea and Italian Somaliland together with occupied Ethiopia.
- Italian North Africa - became Libya
- Macao - colony of Portugal, sovereignty transferred to the People's Republic of China on December 20, 1999, as a "Special Administrative Region".
- Middle Congo - A French colony, previously named French Congo, became independent as the Republic of the Congo in 1960.
- Minorca - British colony returned to Spain
- Netherlands East Indies - A collection of Dutch colonies, officially since the end of the Napoleonic Wars, up to 1799 controlled by the Dutch East India Company but occupied and administered by the British in an interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars under the authority of the Kew Letters. Became independent as Indonesia in 1949.
- Netherlands Guiana - became Suriname
- Netherlands New Guinea - adjacent to the Netherlands East Indies until 1949, became part of Indonesia in 1963 as Irian Jaya.
- New France was conquered by the United Kingdom; various parts of it later became part of Canada and the United States.
- New Granada - A Spanish colony made up by present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela (which then included Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago). It was established in 1717 and dissolved in 1810 when Venezuela declared its independence.
- New Hebrides - An Anglo-French condominium until 1980. Became independent as Vanuatu.
- New Netherlands - A Dutch colony in the present-day United States, mainly in and around the state of New York. It was conquered by England in 1664.
- New Spain
- Northern Rhodesia - became Zambia in 1964.
- Nyasaland - British protectorate, previously called British Central Africa, it was renamed Nyasaland in 1907. It became part of a federation with Rhodesia in 1953, and became independent as Malawi in 1964.
- Orange River Sovereignty - became the Orange Free State in 1854.
- Oubangui-Chari, also spelled Ubangi-Shari - part of French Equatorial Africa (above), became Central African Republic
- Panama Canal Zone - US administered until 1979. Became part of Panama.
- Commonwealth of the Philippines - a territory of the USA, which became independent in 1946 as the Republic of the Philippines.
- Portuguese East Africa - became Mozambique
- Portuguese Guinea - became Guinea-Bissau
- Portuguese India - became part of India
- Portuguese Timor - The eastern side of the island of Timor was a Portuguese colony until 1975, when independence was declared as East Timor. Indonesian troops seized the country, but the country was finally declared independent in 2002.
- Portuguese West Africa - became Angola
- Rhodesia - name for Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) while unilaterally claiming independence, 1965-1979.
- Rio Muni - Former Spanish colony, then part of territory of Spanish Guinea until 1968. Became independent as Equatorial Guinea.
- Ruanda-Urundi - UN Trusteeship (Belgian) until 1962. Became independent as Burundi and Rwanda.
- Kingdom of Sarawak - Independent 1842, became a British protectorate 1888-1946.
- Protectorate of South Arabia - Federation until 1967, consisting of British colony of Aden and numerous protectorates. Became independent as People's Republic of Yemen (from 1970 People's Democratic Republic of Yemen) known as 'South Yemen'.
- South-West Africa - In 1915, South Africa occupied the German colony of South-West Africa, which it held under mandate until 1922, after which they remained ruling the territory until its independence in 1990 as Namibia (since 1994 also including Walvisbaai).
- Southern Rhodesia - British colony, unilaterally declared itself independent as Rhodesia in 1965, renamed Zimbabwe Rhodesia 1979, then gained international recognition as Zimbabwe 1980.
- Spanish East Indies - Spanish colony in the Philippines and in Micronesia until 1898. After the Spanish-American War, portions were ceded to the United States while the rest were sold to Germany.
- Spanish Guinea - became Equatorial Guinea. Consisted of two former colonies of Rio Muni and Fernando Po.
- Spanish Sahara - now generally known as Western Sahara, but claimed by and divided between Morocco and Mauritania in 1976, later entirely by Morocco. The issues of sovereignty and international recognition have yet to be resolved.
- The Straits Settlements - British colony until 1946. Singapore became independent, the rest united with the Federated Malay States and the five Unfederated Malay States to form Malayan Union.
- Tanganyika - British territory until 1961. From then independent until 1964, when it became part of Tanzania.
- The colonies of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Upper Canada and Lower Canada (later, the Province of Canada), Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland, plus the territory of Rupert's Land, spent much time reorganizing themselves into various patterns; they all eventually became part of Canada.
- Various concessions.
These states are now dissolved into a number of states, none of which retain the old name.
- Austria-Hungary - This double monarchy was formed in 1867 from the Habsburg empire, having an Austrian and a Hungarian part. In 1918, the empire was split into Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia (itself later dismembered), Poland and Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes (renamed to Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929; itself later dismembered). Also the Lemko-Rusyn Republic, ceded to Poland.
- British India was partitioned into the dominions of India and Pakistan in 1947. The secession of Bangladesh from Pakistan in 1971 brought a third country into existence.
- Federal Republic of Central America also incorrectly known in English as United States of Central America-- independent 1823; fell apart into separate states in civil war 1838-1840.
- Czechoslovakia - State created from parts of Austria-Hungary, which dissolved after World War I. During 1939 - 1945 was dismembered into Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and Slovak State. In 1993 the country voluntarily split into two parts, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
- Greater Colombia - Simón Bolívar forged this state from parts of the Spanish Empire. It split into Venezuela, New Granada and Ecuador. In 1863 New Granada changed its name to Colombia and Panama split from it in 1903.
- Mali Federation - In 1959 formed by Senegal and French Sudan, both parts of French West Africa, as an independent nation. It fell apart in 1960 into Senegal and Mali.
- Peru-Bolivian Confederacy - A union formed in 1836 by Peru and Bolivia and which lasted until 1839.
- Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (or The Commonwealth of the Two Nations) partitioned in 1772, 1793 and 1795 in three rounds among Russia, Prussia and Austria. These lands are further distributed today among Poland, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia.
- Senegambia - Loose confederation between African countries of Senegal and Gambia that existed from 1982 to 1989
- Serbia and Montenegro - Loose state union of the two remaining republics of the former Yugoslavia that was founded in 2003. Both countries are destined to go their own independent way following the May 2006 referendum which decided in favor of the secession of Montenegro. Parliament proclaimed independence in June 2006, but negotiations on the actual execution are still pending.
- Soviet Union, more formally known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (or USSR). Formed in 1922. Dissolved 1991-1992 into its constituent republics: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan.
- United Arab Republic - A union formed by Egypt and Syria in 1958 was dissolved in 1961, though Egypt used the name until 1971.
- United Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815 - 1830) (Verenigd Koninkrijk der Nederlanden/Royaume-Uni des Pays-Bas) created during the Congress of Vienna in 1815, dissolved to Belgium (revolted 1830), Luxembourg (left 1835, but the personal union with the King as Grand Duke ceased to exist since 1890) and Netherlands.
- West Indies Federation - Federal state created by the United Kingdom in 1958 which encompassed most of its possessions in the Caribbean. The federation collapsed after Jamaica voted to separate.
- Tu'i Tonga-Lost states such as Samoa, Fiji, etc to foreign European powers.
- Yugoslavia - State created from parts of Austria-Hungary and Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro in 1918. Re-created after World War II dissolved in 1991. (Slovenia and Croatia have declared independence in June 1991, Macedonia in September 1991, Bosnia and Herzegovina in April 1992. In 1992 Serbia and Montenegro have founded a new country, FR Yugoslavia, that was later, in 2003, renamed into Serbia and Montenegro. Serbia and Montenegro itself was dismembered into its constituent republics of Serbia and Montenegro in June, 2006.
These country names have been replaced. Only major and/or famous cases are listed, there are thousands of relatively obscure former names.
Nominally independent homelands of South Africa
Four of the homelands
, or bantustans
, for black
South Africans, were granted nominal independence from South Africa
. Not recognised by other nations, these puppet states
- Bophuthatswana - Declared independent in 1977, reincorporated in 1994.
- Ciskei - Declared independent in 1981, reincorporated in 1994.
- Transkei - Declared independent in 1976, reincorporated in 1994.
- Venda - Declared independent in 1979, reincorporated in 1994.
These nations declared themselves independent, but failed to achieve it in fact or did not seek permanent independence and were either re-incorporated into the mother country or incorporated into another country.
- Republic of Acre - Declared independence from Bolivia in 1899. Annexed by Brazil in 1903.
- Biafra - Declared its independence from Nigeria in 1967. Defeated and reincorporated in 1970.
- California - declared independence from Mexico in June 1846, claimed by U.S. Navy for United States in July 1846.
- California - Mexico's commander in California, Pío Pico, abandoned the Californios, Mexicans living in California, who organized an army to defend themselves from the United States. The Californios defeated an American force in Los Angeles on September 30, 1846, and signed the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo accepting American sovereignty over California on February 2, 1848.
- Carpatho-Ukraine - declared independence from Czechoslovakia in 1939, but was annexed by Hungary within a few days.
- Cartagena Canton - the haven city of Cartagena, Spain seceded from the First Spanish Republic in 1873.
- Chechnya - Virtually independent from Russia from 1996 as Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, however the country was recognized only by Taliban. After terrorist attacks in 1999 the republic was returned to Russia's control in the Second Chechen War.
- Confederate States of America - Declared its independence from the United States in 1861, reincorporated, 1861-1865.
- Corsican Republic - Seceded from Genoa in 1755, annexed by France in 1769.
- Anglo-Corsican Kingdom (1794-1796)
- Independent State of Croatia (1941–1945)
- Crimea, declared independence from Ukraine in 1992 but soon settled for being an autonomous republic within Ukraine.
- Cruzob, achieved independence from Mexico in 1856, but was reannexed in 1901.
- Ezo - declared independence from Japan in 1868 after the defeat of the forces of the Tokugawa shogunate during the Boshin War until it was reincorporated into Japan in 1869
- Republic of Formosa - Lasted from May to October 1895 after the island was ceded by China to Japan and the local gentry and officials declared a tributary republic in a failed attempt to avert Japanese annexation.
- Italian Social Republic (1943–1945)
- Katagalugan - Declared independence in 1902 after the failure of the First Philippine Republic
- Katanga - Declared its independence of the newly formed Republic of the Congo in 1960, was incorporated again in 1963.
- Manitoba - short-lived republic led by Thomas Spence, declared after the Hudson's Bay Company gave up Rupert's Land and before the government of Canada took control (1867).
- República Filipina - Declared its independence in 1898 but was occupied by the United States in 1902. Succeeded by the Republic of the Philippines in 1946.
- Red River Rebellion - provisional government in Rupert's Land, led by Louis Riel in (1869–1870).
- Republic of the Rio Grande ('Republic of Texas') declared independence in 1840, brought back into Mexico by force less than a year later, encompassed the land of the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Nuevo Leon, and parts of the USA state of Texas.
- Republic of Texas - Gained its independence from Mexico in 1836. Annexed by the United States in 1845.
- Principality of Trinidad - Declared independence in 1893, claimed by United Kingdom in 1895, but incorporated by Brazil.
- Ukrainian People's Republic - declared independence after the Russian Revolution of 1917, but fell to the Soviet Union in 1920.
These nations, once separate, are now part of another country.
(At present cases of voluntary accession are included)
- Republic of Alsace-Lorraine - Formed after the collapse of the German Empire at the end of World War I, 11 days later it was occupied by and incorporated in France.
- British Somaliland - became part of Somalia, but has since asserted its independence as the Somaliland republic.
- Regency of Carnaro in 1919 and Free State of Fiume 1920-1924, two short-lived states in the port city of Fiume/Rijeka proclaimed by Gabriele D'Annunzio. Following World War I, the city was disputed between Italy and Yugoslavia, and eventually captured by Italy in 1921. The city passed to Yugoslavia after World War II and is now in Croatia.
- Chan Santa Cruz Maya state in eastern Yucatan peninsula, recognized as independent nation by British Empire in 1850s; now part of Mexico.
- Cospaia - A tiny republic which lasted for centuries before being divided between Tuscany and the Papal States in 1826.
- Couto Mixto - A tiny border territory that finally became part of Spain.
- Crete - autonomous under Ottoman suzerainty in 1898, unilaterally declared union with Greece in 1908, which was recognized in 1913.
- Eastern Rumelia - province of the Ottoman Empire unified with Bulgaria in 1885
- German Democratic Republic - Joined the Federal Republic of Germany (formerly known as 'West Germany') in 1990, but not as a whole, divided in newly created Bundesländer.
- Far Eastern Republic - puppet of the RSFSR.
- Franceville - Independent in 1889, later governed by France and Britain as part of the New Hebrides; now part of Vanuatu.
- Republic of Hatay
- The Kingdom of Hawaii was unified in 1810 under Kamehameha I, and was recognized by the United States as an independent nation from 1826 until January 17, 1893. Following the overthrow of the monarchy it existed as the independent Republic of Hawaii until annexation by the United States in 1898. Became the Territory, and then the State, of Hawaii.
- Indian Princely States
- Republic of Indian Stream - 1832-1835, now part of U.S.
- Italian Somaliland - Became part of Somalia.
- Kalat - Became part of Pakistan.
- Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic - annexed by Russia, upon the collapse of the Soviet Union became the autonomous Republic of Karelia.
- Manchukuo - Japanese puppet state in Manchuria from 1931 until 1945. Reincorporated into China in 1945.
- Free States of Menton and Roquebrune - Seceded from Monaco in 1848, under nominal protection of the Kingdom of Sardinia, then annexed by France in 1861.
- Moldavia - Now divided among Romania, Moldova and Ukraine.
- Moresnet - A tiny European territory that endured for a hundred years before definitively becoming part of Belgium.
- Natalia Republic was quickly made into a British colony
- Newfoundland- Existed as an autonomous colony of the United Kingdom from 1855 to 1907, then a sovereign dominion until 1934 when it reverted to a crown colony. It joined in Confederation with Canada in 1949.
- Orange Free State - This country was independent from 1854 to 1900, when it was incorporated into South Africa. It was one of two Boer republics, along with the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic).
- Islands of Refreshment - The islands of Tristan da Cunha were settled in 1810 and declared independence in 1811. Annexed by the United Kingdom in 1815.
- Ryukyu Kingdom - conquered by Japan's Satsuma Domain in 1609; formally annexed in 1879, following the Meiji Restoration.
- Kingdom of Sikkim merged with India in 1975.
- State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs - created in 1918 and joined Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes after existing for just one month.
- South Yemen (People's Democratic Republic of Yemen) and North Yemen (Yemen Arab Republic) in 1990 united to form Yemen
- Islamic Republic of Tatarstan - Annexed by the Russian Federation in 1994.
- Tavolara - Never formally annexed, but occupied by an Italian military base ca. 1962.
- Republic of Texas - Annexed by United States in 1846.
- Tibet - A unified Tibetan empire was created in the 8th century, and fell apart a century later. Mongol conquests in the 13th century made Tibet part of a Mongol-ruled Chinese empire, and four centuries later the Manchu-ruled Qing Dynasty further incorporated Tibet into China. In 1914, the 13th Dalai Lama signed a treaty granting Chinese suzerainty over both "Inner Tibet" and "Outer Tibet" establishing direct rule over the former and leaving the latter autonomous. Subordination to China was reaffirmed in 1934. Chinese sovereignty was confirmed by both Beijing and the Tibetans in 1951. The region is still claimed by the Republic of China.
- Transvaal Republic (South African Republic) - Independent country before becoming part of the British Empire during the Second Boer War in 1902 and is currently part of South Africa. It was one of two Boer republics, the other was the Orange Free State.
- Transylvania - Semi-independent before becoming part of Austria-Hungary. Became part of Romania after World War I.
- Tuva (also known as Tannu Tuva) - now part of Russia after the dissolution of the USSR
- Vermont Republic - Republic of Vermont existed from 1777 until 1791, when Vermont became the 14th state of the United States.
- Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) - conquered by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) with assistance from the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (popularly known as the Viet Cong) resistance in 1975, briefly became the Republic of South Vietnam, before being united with North Vietnam to form the Socialist Republic of Vietnam in 1976.
- Wallachia - United with Moldavia to form Romania in 1859.
- Republic of Yucatán became part of Mexico
- Zanzibar - Zanzibar merged in 1964 with Tanganyika to become Tanzania. Zanzibar was not annexed, but joined through a free referendum.
Harding, Les. Dead Countries of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: Aden to Zululand. Scarecrow Press, 1998. ISBN 0-8108-3445-6